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BELMA, APRIL 18-31, 1893. 




•*" •— - > t 




♦ ♦ 

In presenting to the members of the Association the 
present volume of "Transactions," we wish to say that 
we have endeavored to make it as nearly correct as possible. 
Some of the reports from the county societies will very 
likely be found to contain many errors ; for this we cannot 
be responsible, as we were compelled to rely upon the data 

Though we were ready to go to print on May 15th, we 
were delayed until June 1st, by the inability of the pub- 
lishers to obtain the proper grade of paper, owing to an 
accident at the mill at which the paper is manufactured. 
All of this was unavoidable and no one is culpable for the 

The labor incident to the preparation of a volume the 
size of the present one, is appreciable only by those who 
have had the experience, and while we hope the present 
volume is not inferior to its predecessors, we beg that the 
few errors that it may contain will be looked upon with 

Very respectfully, 

James Reid Jordan, M. D., Montgomery, 

Wooten Moore Wilkebson, M. D., Montgomery, 

George Platt Waller, M. D., Montgomery, 

Publishing Committee. 









Selma, Tuesday, April 18. 


The Association convened in the Hall of the Young Men's 
Christian Association at 12 M., Tuesday, April 18th. 

The following Counsellors, Delegates, Health Officers, 
members of County Societies and visitors appeared and reg- 
istered : 


Cochban, Jerome, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Jackson, Robert Dandridgb, Summerfield, Dallas county. 
Jackbon, Walter Clark, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Kbtchum, Geobob Augustus, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Miohel, Richard Fbazeb, Montgomery, Montgomery county. • 
Total 5. 


Baldbidgb, Milton Columbus, HuntBville, Madison county. 
Cross, Benjamin Franklin, Decatur, Morgan county. 
DuBosb, Wilds Scott, Columbiana, Shelby county. 
Fletcher, Richard Matthew, Madison, Madison county. 
Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs, Bullock county. 
Furniss, John Perkins, Selma, Dallas county. 
Goodwin, Jobbph Anderson, Jasper, Walker county. 
Hogan, Samuel Mardib, Union SpringB, Bullock county. 
Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Jones, Capers Capbhart, East Lake, Jefferson county. 
Luckie, James Buckneb, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
MoKinnon, John Alexander, Selma, Dallas county. 
Moody, Joseph, Franconia, Pickens county. 


Peterson, Francis Marion, Greensboro, Hale county. 
Pritohett, John Albert, Hayneville, Lowndes county. 
Robertson, Thaddeub Lindlay, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Sanders, William Henry, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Sears, John William, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Sholl, Edward Henrt, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden, Wilcox county. 
Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega, Talladega county. 
Thomas, James Grey, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Total 22. 


Bragg, Shirley, Lowndsboro, Lowndes county. 
Goggans, James Adrian, Alexander City, Tallapoosa county. 
Goodwin, Albert, Eufaula, Barbour county. 
Huggins, Jacob, New Berne, Hale county. 
Lowry, Samuel Hickman, HuntBville, Madison county. 
Searcy, Jambs Thomas, TuBcaloosa, Tuscaloosa county. 
Whelan, Charles, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Wilkerson, Wooten Moorb, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Total 8. 


Barnes, Benjamin Shields, Suggsville, Clarke county. 
Blake, Wyatt Heflin, Lineville, Clay county. 
Dbweese/Thomas Peters, Gamble Mines, Walker county. 
Dowling, Oscar, Columbia, Henry county. 
Duggar, Reuben Henry, Gallion, Hale county. 
Goods, Rhbtt, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Harlan, John Jefferson, Hackneyville, Tallapoosa county. 
Hbacook, John William, Alpine, Talladega county. 
Hill, Luther Leonidas, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
LbGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston, Calhoun county. 
Jordan, James Reid, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Purdon, John Edward, Cullman, Cullman county. 
Rand, Edgar, Leighton, Lawrence county. 
Toole, Barclay Wallace, Talladega, Talladega county. 
Wilkinson, John Edward, Prattville, Autauga county. 
Wilkerson, Charles A., Marion, Perry county. 
Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville, Madison county. 
Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, Demopolis, Marengo county. 
Total 18. 


Barbour County Medical Society— Hugh Lee Brannon, Harris. 
Blount County Medical Society— Joseph Franklin Hendricks, Clar« 


Bullock County Medical Society— Benjamin Franklin Darnell, In- 
verness ; and Henry Mitchell Hunter, Union SpringB. 

Calhoun County Medical Society— Thomas Wilbourn Ayres, Jack- 

Chambers County Medical Society— Benjamin Franklin Rea, Jr., 

Cherokee County Medical Society— Thomas Noel White, Spring 

Clarke County Medical Society— James Grey Jeffrey , Whatley. 

Clay County Medical Society — Thomas Nor then, ABhland. 

Cleburne County Medical Society — William H. Bell, Hen* in. 

Coosa County Medical Society — William Henry Moon, Good water, 

Crenshaw County Medical Society— William Ree Belcher, Brantley, 

Dallas County Medical Society — James Asbury Groves, Brown's Sta- 
tion ; and Clement Bitter, Selma. 

Elmore County Medical Society — JameB Thomas Rushin, Tollosssee* 

Etowah County Medical Society — Robert Franklin McConnell, At- 

Franklin County Medical Society — Louis Willoughby Desprez, Rus- 

Greene County Medical Society — Alexander Hamilton Byrd,Eutaw. 

Hale County Medical Society— Ruf us Jackson Griffin, Carthage. 

Jackson County Medical Society — Andrew Boyd, Scottsboro. 

Jefferson County Medical Society — WyattHeflin, Birmingham ; and 
Henry Nollner Rosser, Birmingham. 

Lamar County Medical Society — William Arthur Burns, Vernon. 

Lee County Medical Society— Charles Breckenridge McCoy, Opelika. 

Lowndes County Medical Society — William Barton Crum, Farmers- 

Macon County Medical Society — Clarence Lee Crawford Atkeson, 

Marengo County Medical Society — Robert Bell McCants, Fauns- 

Marion County Medical Society — Simeon Davis Beville, Guin. 

Mobile County Medical Society— Franklin King Kowalowski Beck 
Mobile ; and Joshua D. Terrell, Mobile. 

Monroe County Medical Society— James Monroe Wiggins, Monroe- 

Montgomery County Medical Society— Charles A. Thigpen, Mont- 
gomery ; and George Piatt Waller, Montgomery. 

Morgan County Medical Society-. John Murray Kitchens, Danville. 

Perry County Medical Society — John Milton Sadler, Uniontown. 

Pike County Medical Society Sanders, Troy. 

Russell County Medical Society.— William B. Hendrick, Hurtsboro. 

St. Clair County Medical Society— Eugene Presley Cason, Ashville. 


Sumter County Medical Society — Matthew Bun y an Cameron, Sum- 

Talladega County Medical Society — John Thaddeus Donaldson t 
Eastaboga ; and Albert Gallatin SimB, Renfro. 

Tuscaloosa County Medical Society — William Glassell Somerville, 

Walker County Medical Society. — Charles Beaufort Jackson, Horse 

Wilcox County Medical Society— Ruf ub Hall Kilpatrick, Camden. 

Winston County Medical Society — William Riley Bonds, Houston. 

Total number of counties sending delegates 39. 
* Total number of delegates 47. 


Calhoun County — Thomas Wilbourn Ayres, Jacksonville. 
Coosa County — Albert James Peterson, Hanover. 
Cullman County— Marquis LaFayette Johnson, Cullman. 
Dallas County — William Wade Harper, Selma. 
Hale County— Jacob Huggins, New Berne. 
Lowndes County — Shirley Bragg, Lowndesboro. 
Total 6. 


Abernethy, J. C, Birmingham, Jefferson county ; Adams, B. C. Saf- 
ford, Dallas county; Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery, Montgomery 
county ; Barnwell, Rev. R. W., Selma, Dallas county ; Bibb, W. G., 
Montgomery, Montgomery county ; Browder, Wm. M., Gallion, Hale 
county ; Brown, G. W., Pratt Mines, Jefferson county ; Buford, W. L., 
Mt. Willing, Lowndes county; Carson, S. C, Bessemer, Jefferson 
county ; Cochran, A. M., Eleanor, Dallas county ; Collier, A. M., Chad- 
wick, Perry county ; Cunningham, R. M., Pratt Mines, Jefferson coun- 
ty ; Curtis, C. C. Lower Peach Tree, Wilcox county ; Davis, W. E. B., 
Birmingham, Jefferson county ; DickerBon, Rev. J. A., Selma, Dallas 
county ; Donald, J. M., Harrell's, Dallas county ; Duvall, Rev. J. W., 
Selma, Dallas county ; Gbines, W. D., Milltown, Chambers county ; 
Gay, Samuel G., Selma, Dallas county; Glass, E. T., Birmingham, 
Jefferson county; Hill, R. S. Montgomery, Montgomery county; 
Howard, S. G., Selma, Dallas county; King, Goldsby, Selma, 
Dallas county; Lamar, Rev. A. J., Selma, Dallas county; Mar- 
lette, C. E., Gordonsville, Lowndes county ; McDairmid, A. K., 
Hollins, Clay county ; Moore, John T., Orville, Dallas county ; 
Nunnellee, J. H., Summerfield, Dallas county; Parke, Thomas D., 
Birmingham, Jefferson county; Payne, John, Hillman, Jefferson 
county ; Pearson, Benj. R., Montgomery, Montgomery county ; Phil- 
lips, Wm. C, Selma, Dallas county ; Ransom, W. W., Birmingham, Jef- 


ferson county; Robinson, E. M., Birmingham, Jefferson county; 

Stewart, Hon. H. H., Selma, Dallas county ; Sims, , Atlanta, 

Georgia ; Smith, H. M., Selma, Dallas county ; Watkins, I. L. Mont- 
gomery, Montgomery county ; Williams, R. S., Mount Meigs, Mont- 
gomery county. 
Total 40. 


Grand Senior Life Counsellors 6 

Grand Senior Counsellors 22 

Senior Counsellors 8 

Junior Counsellors 18 

Delegates 47 

Health Officers 6 

Members from County Societies and other visitors 89 

Visitors from other States 1 

Total 146 

The following ex-presidents attended the meeting of Association : 
Milton Columbus Baldridge, Huntsville, Madison county; Charles 
Higgs Franklin, Union Springs, Bullock county ; Richard Fraser Mi- 
chel, Montgomery, Montgomery county; Francis Marion Peterson, 
Greensboro, Hale county ; William Henry Sanders, Mobile, Mobile 
county ; Edward Henry Sholl, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 

The Association was called to order at 12 M. by the Presi- 
dent, Dr. James Thomas Searcy, of Tuscaloosa, and opened 
by prayer by Rev. J. A- Dickerson, of Selma. 

The President then introduced Hon. H. H. Stewart, 
Mayor of the city, who proceeded to deliver the following — 


Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

Your attention is claimed but for a few moments, as no attempt to 
make a formal speech will be made. 

The delicate relation of host and guest has given culture to the 
noblest feature of human character in every age, and among all civ- 
ilized people. 

The enjoyment of the host is only measured by the freedom taken 
and the cheerfulness with which the guest accepts hospitality at the 
home and hand of a genial friend, stranger, or community. 

Congenial spirits love that social friction commanding reciprocity 
of mind and heart, but the greater joy obtains with the privileged 


This Southland of ours has always been as generous in this higher 
life aB her sunny skies have been bright, her women beautiful, and 
her men chivalrous. 

None in all this country but claim allegiance to this charm to life. 

HiBtory gives record of but one renowned character that seemingly 
denied its power, yet he fled legal, not social, restraints — for no one 
when occasion was enjoyed entertained a gueBt with greater soul 
around his forest fires, nor protected the life of his friend with truer 
aim, than did — Daniel Boone. 

No potentate was ever entertained as was the first Queen of earth, 

by that Lord of creation, at whose command God had placed the 
wealth of his power. Nothing that would contribute to taste, or 

luxury, nothing conducive to ease or comfort was lacking. 

The golden plumage of winged songsters reveling in the branches 
of the perfumed trees ; the majestic tread of the kingly beast ; the 
soft rippling of the limpid waters, as they bordered the unparalleled 
promenades, moistened the "Lily of the Valley," or imparted Bweet 
flavor to the luscious fruit, and the sweet accord of nature's music* 
made up the harmony of Adam's paradisal home. 

Perfect health reigned there,but through a mistaken code of dietetics 
at the prolonged feast indulged in by this royal pair, doctors became 
a necessity, and from that mistake the pleasure of receiving you as 
the guests of Selma was vouchsafed to us this day. 

Mother Eve made the mistake, but from her error sprang the 
science of medicine that to-day Triune in its spirit of discovery, 
analysis and remedy, Btands unequalled by other achievements of 

From the date of the fatal lunch in Adam's lovely home, all through 
the priestly ministrations of remedial extracts, potted herbs, or bitter 
roots, down to the Homeric era, your science had its successful de- 

In fact, so marked was their success, that you, to-day, admit that 
the skill in the prognosis of disease as practiced by them, without 
even the knowledge of the pulse or its guide to the science, has not 
been excelled in any age. Notwithstanding this and other achieve- 
ments of eminent practitioners, it nevertheless required the glamour 
of the fabled JSsculapius and his sons, with the deep researches of 
the Greek Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle and other learned dignitaries 
of your profession to hew the science to a point where Roman civili- 
zation, under the tutelage of Archagathus, 218 B. C, would accept 
your theory and practice, or that you were enabled to properly diag- 
nose a case. 

From the system of Hippocrates, with a small apothecary of only 
266 drugs, with but few attainments of record to the Roman epoch of 
medicine, you have, by a God-given genius, your study, and your ex- 
periments, made steady progress, until now your science of Thera- 


peutics, your knowledge of Toxicology, and your skill in Pharma- 
cology, have become the remedial agency for all the physical ailments 
of every clime in all the world, while your compounds are almost 
without number, only requiring a Latin hieroglyphic for its immediate 
manufacture by any youthful pharmacist. 

But, gentlemen, we are ignorant concerning your medicines. We 
will not discuss your methods. We can not ; we would not, if we 
could, attempt a resume of your progress and achievements. Our 
duty leads us in another direction. 

Winter has just removed its icy finger from the pulse of Selma 
and allowed the sluggish blood of the recent past to course with 
joyous leaps through every artery of its impulsive body. Every 
heart-beat brings it in rapid unison with nature's change, and crying 
aloud: "Peace on earth, good will to man !" it seeks recreative joys 
with the outside world. 

Spring, modestly apparaled in changeable green, is gently wooing 
us with seductive voice to have others share the health and beauty of 
our City-on-the- Alabama, and I am here, delegated by an honored host, 
to greet and to welcome thiB distinguished assembly of scientists. 

I greet you, gentlemen, not as strangers, but friends ; those of a 
profession who are with us in the beginning and generally with us at 
the end of life. I am here to greet most cordially those whom most 
of us, at one time in our experience, regarded with terror ; those from 
whom, at one time, we did flee, but to whom all of us have now learned 
to fly. I welcome those of a profession who to all of us at one time in 
our lives are the most unwelcome of all visitors. 

I come to welcome you, gentlemen, to the hospitalities of one of the 
most healthy cities in the South ; assuring you that your presence is 
the more enjoyable by reason of your scientific shrewdness in grant- 
ing the healthy citizenB, of a healthy city, the pleasure of your com- 
pany, inasmuch, that while in Selma, you have perfect refuge from 
your own medicines, and the services of your own practitioners. 

The wisdom of our few local doctors in acquainting you with the 
good health of Selma is also commendable, for Selma has grown to be 
the most unhealthy place for doctors in the South . I would welcome 
you in their behalf, but they can better express their feelings than 
I; allow me to say, however, that although at a pecuniary loss 
to the profession, it is through their skill in preventive and sanitary 
science that the health of Selma is what it is, and I am happy to say 
that no corps of doctors in the State have greater record, none have 
endeared themselves to their people more than they. 

As the representative of Selma I bid you welcome to our city and 
to our homes. This welcome is extended in the name and for the 
sake of every inhabitant, from the new born babe who, at this mo- 
ment, with its tiny note is heralding its easy egress to a bright world 


through the skill of your obstetrics, to the oldest man whose feeble 
voice in thiB hour is whispering gratitude to you for softening the pil- 
low of death. From the patient whose poverty and inability to pay, 
has never checked a professional visit, to the richest patron whose 
wealth never "quickened" your conscience nor improved your pre- 

I welcome you, gentlemen, as representing the highest type of 
physical and mental culture. The intellectual bouI of this body is 
burning with incandescent brightness through the individual eye and 
lighting up the face with such intelligent beneficence as to assure me 
of that flow of thought that will feast the literary mind of Selma. 
This presence also assures me of the truthfulness of the old adage, 
that to be a successful doctor or skillful surgeon, one should have 
"An eagle'B eye, a lion's heart, and a woman's hand." 

I tender you the freedom of the city, and place the keys at your 

I shall indulge the hope of that perfect liberty on your part to draft 
on our time and service that is always expected of a personal friend 
on a personal visit. 

Accept the freedom, and grant the wish, and we shall rejoice in 
having Bhared the honor of welcoming to our borders this assembly 
of doctors. 

Now, gentlemen, we leave you to the deliberations of your conven- 

The deep currents of thought, and the learned discussions of the 
subject-matter under your consideration, will doubtless so polish the 
mind and sharpen the blade of your science, as that, when the Great 
Physician shall summon you to the clinic above, you will carry the 
testimonials of your patients that you practiced successfully, and 
lanced with incisive accuracy. 

Dr. Samuel G. Gay, President of the Dallas County Med- 
ical Society was then introduced to the Association by Pres- 
ident Searcy, and proceeded to deliver, on the part of the 
Society, the following address : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

It is with a deep feeling of satisfaction, as President of Dallas 
county's Medical Society, that I face the high honor, and accept the 
pleasant duty, which as its President, devolves upon me of welcoming 
you, gentlemen, one and all, in the most cordial manner, ever charac- 
teristic of the brave, liberal, and cultured citizens of Alabama's Cen- 
tral City. Selma, DallaB county, and the whole State of Alabama may 
well feel proud of the signal honor conferred on her by the gathering 


within her bounds of the leading lights, and members of Alabama's 
"State Medical Association/ 1 for within the bounds of its membership 
we may fairly claim to exhibit a type of all that is best, highest and 
grandest in manhood's aspirations, exemplifying by these characters, 
virtue, courage, gentleness and kindness, ever standing out, and shed- 
ding lustre and brightness as from a towering beacon to pilgrims 
striving for perfection in the brotherhood of mankind. And as a trib- 
ute to the pobility of our State Association, the Dallas County Medi- 
cal Society in its integral capacity and in behalf of the friends in 
whose midst your deliberations are to take place, cordially offers you 
its hand in friendly grasp, wishing for a happy and successful inter- 
change of professional ideas, views and experiences, and which as they 
are unfolded in convention may add new and resplendent lustre to the 
copquests in Medical Science. Of the illustrious heroes whose names 
and fame are intimately associated with the historical city under 
whose canopy and Bunny skies your work will be transacted, let us 
place a laurel on the brows of honored heroes of medical science* 
whose lives make sacred the surroundings, and enroll on the Bcroll of 
honor and fame the names of Parke, Clark, Biggs and Tipton, whoBe 
hallowed footsteps resound on the Eternal Shore. Selma, " Our Cen- 
tral City," conscious of her pride has other jewels of intellect gleaned 
from martial sources, whose fame is indellibly linked with the sacred 
memories of the "Lost Cause," Hardee, Johnson, whose martial 
souls have answered to the roll call of the Eternal bivouac of the dead 
But still linking the military glories of the past with the victories of 
peace of the present, we have the cynosure of all eyes "Our Morgan/' 
whose every culminating year adds new laurels and renown to. 
" Our Central City" and "Our Alabama." 

In the midst of this period of rejoicing, and where nature in answer 
to its recurring law, decorates with green leaves and colored blossoms 
the face of the " Sunny South," it is well to recall another anniver- 
sary, which is also occurring on this auspicious occasion, namely, the 
twenty-fifth Anniversary of this Association, or what might be called 
the " Silver Jubilee." Just twenty-five years ago, seventeen physi- 
cians of this State met together here and organized this Association, 
which under wise guidance and superior generalship has grown in 
power and influence until it may stand with conscious pride, the peer 
of any like Association in this Union of States. In conclusion, allow 
me to express the fervent hope that the grand intellect and fraternal 
brotherhood founded twenty-five years ago may continue its accre" 
tions of power for good, beneficence and usefulness to humanity until 
it shall stand as a monument of adamant for all ages to come. 



Jambs Thomas Searcy, M. D., Tuscaloosa, 

Senior Counsellor and member of the Board of Censors and Com- 
mittee of Public Health of the Medical Association 

of the State of Alabama. 

Gentlemen of the Medical Association 

of the State of Alabama: 

In accordance with our custom and our Constitution, we 
have met again in annual session. I do not know anything 
that increases the consequence of the individual doctor more, 
nor the consequence of the Profession within the Associa- 
tion, nor outside, abroad in the State more than these annual 
sessions. They do us all good. It is a pity more can not 
attend them. They serve to revive the profession more than 
anything else. 

I welcome you all to this meeting in this good city, and 
congratulate you on the prospects of the occasion. We 
have met here before ; we know Selma of old — no better 
place for us. 

The magnitude of our Association in its aggregate of 
doctors ; the objects we have in view in thus banding our- 
selves together; the complexity and efficiency of our organ- 
ization, all contribute to make the position I have held among 
you for the past year one of self-mistrust and embarrass- 

Within the endeared circle of our own fireside, among the 
number of my nearest friends, in the steady run of my pro- 
fessional life, sad, startling events and radical changes have 
occurred in the last year, that have tended to afflict, shock, 
and even bewilder me in the rapidity and magnitude of their 
evolution. "The unexpected happens". I feel like one who 
has run the gauntlet of trying [and dangerous rapids, and 


am just now clearing the embarrassments that have beset my 
course. I think it proper that I offer this as an explanation 
of the short comings you may have witnessed on my part as 
your chief executive officer; and I take the occasion to 
thank you for your kind and friendly expressions, your sym- 
pathy and forbearance, and your generous support 

From the prominence of the position I hold, the outlook 
is encouraging and favorable. The Association has passed 
another year in safety and evident progress. The dangers 
that have beset it throughout the State and particularly on 
the floor of our General Assembly have been more easily 
overcome than usual We had our new charter granted 
without opposition ; and judging from the ease with which 
adverse legislation was suppressed, we can reasonably con- 
sider ourselves more firmly secured in the confidence and good 
will of the people of the State. Political dissensions and 
diversions to some extent tended to weaken the work in our 
county societies, and to draw attention from the objects of 
our Association, as in fact was the case in all other lines of 
business, but these distractions have now blown over, and 
we all, I am assured, feel confident that there are better 
times ahead, even for the " poor doctor," who in times 
of pecuniary depression, along with the preacher, draws 
his pay last, out of the surplus left in the pockets of 
the people, after other obligations have been attended to. 

This Association may now be considered an assured fact 
It has come to stay. Each year makes more and more se- 
cure its foundations and its connections. It is proving itself 
one of the essential elements of this Commonwealth, and is 
growing more and more a necessity in the economy of the 
State's management All we have to do is to deserve more 
and more the confidence imposed in us, and we will raise 
higher and higher our prestige. We will only get our re- 
wards as we earn them. 

As society in the world civilizes, its growth and progress 
are made up by additions of new vocations and lines of 
work; all, however, harmonized into a general community of 


interests, working together for individual profit, modified 
by, and dependent upon public welfare. 

In the earliest conditions of society, even of our society, 
which we now call civilized, the individual considered alone 
his own interests. Every man's hand was against his neigh- 
bor. In the struggles of life the competitions were between 
individuals. As society advanced, there was less and less 
of this life of the savage, and men organized and banded 
themselves together for common good, suppressing individual 
contests for that object. As soon as organization began, di- 
visions of labor set up, which have grown steadily more and 
more numerous and more and more complex. 

Men naturally grade occupations as they grade individu- 
als, according as they partake more of the elements and 
characteristics that tend to public good, and less to selfish- 
ness. Altruistic principles in opposition to selfish egoism 
prevail more and more as parts of the world civilize. For 
this reason, efforts for the benefit of others and for the gen- 
eral good always rank high; and professions that have these 
objects prominent in their practice are always estimated 
highest in society. The medical profession for these rea- 
sons has always been rated among the highest — none higher. 
And just as much as we suppress selfishness in our work we 
rise in the good opinion of our fellows. 

"The proper study of mankind is man." The doctor more 
than any other profession, literally makes man his study ; 
and all other lines of thought are collateral branches which 
in the end contribute to this central study. 

The study of medicine, not confined to the treatment of 
disease, but on its broadest base, is therefore one of the 
most important lines of human work. All other philoso- 
phies contribute to it, and it relates to them. More than 
any other profession, the science of medicine has advanced 
the study of man; and medical men always have been per- 
sons of authority on anthropological questions. 

Except in the medical profession, very little natural study 
of man and mankind has been done. Medicine more than 
any other profession holds theories and philosophies in ref- 


erence to man, down in accordance with nature. More than 
any other student of man, the doctor sticks close to nature. 

Many reasons therefore contribute to render the doctor a 
man of weight and influence in his community. He more 
than any other, has as his part not only to combat the egre- 
gious ignorance respecting the functions and diseases of the 
body, on which quackery flourishes, but he also has a vast 
field of other unnatural errors and superstitions to overlook 
and investigate. And he does not do his full duty unless 
he instructs on all questions that relate to the natural man. 

There are some peculiarities of our profession that tend to 
our disadvantage, and yet would contribute most advanta- 
geously to our association work if managed properly. So 
far as his work goes, no man in any community has greater 
influence, and is trusted with more confidence than the doc- 
tor. No man is more intimate with his patrons, and knows 
them better in their homes, at their firesides. He goes in 
and out among them with familiar assurance. He is ac- 
quainted with the skeleton that is said to hang behind every 
man's door. No worker in society makes as clean a sweep 
of the field he works as the doctor. Still, the trouble is, in 
the majority of cases the doctor's power and influence ceas- 
es with the circumference of the circle of his practice. He 
is not known beyond it Each man works excellently in his 
own severalty, but stops there ; public and professional good 
feel him only that far. We are too much given to this sort 
of individual work. Too much for our own good, the good 
of the profession, or for public good, we confine our labors 
to our own spheres. 

It is true the peculiarities of professional work tend to 
beget these characteristics, but they are that much to our 
disadvantage. We are very much inclined to pull apart and 
divide out the ground with each other, instead of combining 
for our own or for general good. This tends to give oppor- 
tunity to the low grade and the unethical to work under- 
handedly, and tends to beget an opinion in the eye of the 
public that we work selfishly with each other. It ought not 
to be so. 


Another effect of our single handed and isolated work is 
to beget the habit of reticence, and not to cultivate the habit 
of expression. The doctor as a rule is not a public speaker. 
He does not make his Hying in that way, so it is not a pro- 
fessional accomplishment Still, when it comes to giving an 
opinion that embraces every-day, out-door observation of 
nature and the natural man, and is founded on common 
sense, none can excel him. 

We need a school to make us talk more, and express our- 
selves better. Our Societies and our Association help in 
this direction. They are about the only places of practice 
of this kind we have. All this is said to emphasize the fact 
that the medical profession, more than any other, needs 

Our Association should have three leading things in view; 
the benefit of the individual doctor, the benefit of the pro- 
fession as a whole, and the benefit of the people of the 
State. As we take, in order, these three objects, we widen 
the scope of our endeavors. The most selfish view to take 
is our own individual profit A better, because a broader 
view, is professional profit ; the best, because the broadest, 
is the good of our fellow men, ourselves included. 

We grade and estimate work in the world on these princi- 
ples. Indeed, human ethics is pyramidal in shape, only it 
stands on its apex, and broadens as it grows. 

Competitive life exists every where ; it cannot be avoided. 
Competition has made, and continues to improve, men and 
mankind. On the other hand, ethics tend to harmonize 
complications and competitions. As ethics ascend from the 
principles of savagery to those that govern the highest 
grades of society, they broaden in their scope. Altruistic 
rules, as they have been gradually evolved, have tended to 
organize and harmonize society, so that the competitions of 
men may all be adjusted and regulated, and be made to run 
with the least harm and conflict High grade ethics are 
broad ethics. Those are the best. that include most in their 

Any organization, therefore, our organization included, is 


rated and graded, and is eventually successful, only so far 
as it makes broad the principles that govern it. Individual 
profit and advantage must be made subservient to the good 
of the association ; and the profits and advantages of the 
association must be made subservient to the public good. 
We will survive and continue and state privileges be granted 
us only so far as these principles are observed. If our asso- 
ciation shows itself to be actuated by motives not confined 
solely to the interests of its individual members or not even 
solely to the interests of the medical profession, it will not be 
able to maintain its position and its credit in the State. 
Even though the general public are indirectly profited by 
the elevation and the advantage of the medical profession, 
it will not do to show our work stopping there. Our char- 
ter is allowed us by the authority that grants it, more, as is 
implied on the face of it, for public benefit than for profes- 
sional profit. We had to promise that much in order to 
obtain it The State has to be profited by our work. If on 
these broad ethical principles we study, criticise and man- 
age our workings, we will build up an Association to a de- 
gree of stability unrivaled. We gained our present height 
solely on these grounds. 

As I have shown, we have abundant and excellent mate- 
rial scattered throughout the State in our profession ; what 
we want, in the first place, is closer union, still more efficient 
organization. An organization such as we have prospect- 
ively in view cannot be built, any more than Borne, in a day — 
it is the work of steady effort through years, all actuated by 
high motives ; whenever selfishness can be seen to creep or 
work into it, there will be weakness. 

I think we have much to congratulate ourselves for ; but 
there is still more unaccomplished — we have but touched 
the borders of the field. 

In any community, in any society, in any association, 
nothing governs more than a high-toned public opinion. All 
goverment in fact rests upon it ; it makes and it enforces 
government at its own level. But the level of public opin- 
ion always tends to vary ; it ebbs and flows. Nothing keeps 


it high but the eternal vigilance of the ethical. As soon as 
indifference or laxness sets in, public opinion runs down 
like the barometer; pressure alone keeps it up. Public 
opinion and moral sentiment vary with the diligence used 
in promulgating and enforcing broad-gauge ethical prin- 

We ought to denounce with a precision that cannot be 
avoided, and that shall be felt, every attempt within our 
lines to advance the selfish ambition or the individual inter- 
ests of any single member. All our government ought to 
be in the hands of men who are big enough, and broad 
minded enough, to have no selfish motives, but to look 
continually to the good of the profession, and the good 
of the State. Just as we allow selfish motives to have 
the ascendancy, just so much will disintegration and weakness 
ensue. Human associations of all kinds fail and fall to 
pieces because of the selfishness that arises within their 
ranks. I do not mean to imply now that there are indica- 
tions of any growing weakness on our part from these causes ; 
but our strength, so far as it goes, comes solely from the 
exercise of these principles ; and it is well often to study our 
safety and future security by announcing the rules that 
should govern us. 

The highest evolved man is the highly ethical one. He 
has intellectual ability to so understand the complexities of 
human society, as to be able to devise rules to harmonize 
and adjust the rivalries and complications that naturally 
prevail. A keen sense of what is right in the first place 
involves the intellectual capacity to think rightly; and as a 
consequence, in such persons, comes the habit of adjusting 
conduct firmly and consistently in accordance with right 
Both elements, intellectual and ethical ability, constitute the 
best man. We all have an intuitive, instinctive habit, as 
soon as we look at a person, of estimating him in these par- 
ticulars. It is not hard to recognize in any organization the 
men who are in this way working disinterestedly and un- 
selfishly. Just as much as we follow such leadership will 
we make our foundations secure. 


The more, the better — but even half a dozen men of high 
ethical ability and practice are worth their weight in gold in 
any such organization as ours. They keep the barometer of 
public opinion high. Others easily recognize high ethics, 
whether they follow them or not. 

Offices and places of trust should seek the man. For this 
reason, nominating boards and committees have arisen. The 
machinery of every organization is planned and introduced 
for the good of the many in opposition to the selfishness of 
the one or the few. Let us keep our machinery of a high 
type. Failure to do this has disrupted hundreds of asso- 
ciations, and can disrupt ours. 

In our association the controlling and principal governing 
body is the century of counsellors. We have an efficient 
Board ; still we need improvement. Many — I liked to have 
said most — of our counsellors apparently cease their activity 
when they see their names placed on this honor roll of the 
Association. On the contrary, our counsellors ought to be 
workers, alert and active to maintain and advance the inter- 
ests of the Association, not to sit idle, and listlessly observe 
the working of the Board of Censors, or of the Senior Cen- 
sor, as single-handed he often is seen to tug at the helm. 
Representative bodies are the popular methods of govern- 
ment of today. They are the best when they represent the 
best principles of the day. From our counsellors all our 
officers are selected. It is an honor to be a counsellor ; it is 
not hard to make it more and more honorable. The tend- 
ency has been upward since we began, now twenty years 
ago. We will pass at this session a number of grand senior 
to the rank of grand senior life counsellors. Twenty years 
of service as counsellors entitle them to this distinction. 
A vast deal of valuable experience has been gained in 
that twenty years, and they have well earned the promotion. 
Twenty years more of equal progress will, I trust, witness 
our Association at the highest in the comparative rank of 
such organizations. 

Nothing profits better than employment; work alone be- 
gets strength. While the doctors of the State probably 


work individually in their several spheres, as hard as any 
other class of men, they do not by any means do enough 
associated work. One of the most needed reforms in our 
organization is to institute some methods of getting up more 
society work in the counties. Men will not meet on pure 
sense of duty. You cannot run either a prayer meeting 
or a medical society on nothing to do — on no profit 
Men have to see and feel the good of meeting together. If 
some general plan of work were devised for our county 
societies, that would more attractively bring them together, 
they would grow in efficiency. It may be claimed that there 
is enough now devised to give employment. But it is not 
followed up. 

Few doctors know how to run a meeting. They get 
together once a month, or once in six months in some places, 
and see nothing gained by it, because they do not know how 
to take hold. If some means could be devised to increase 
the scientific work, the reading of papers, and the recital of 
cases and experience, then the average doctor could see the 
profit to himself in increase of information and in increase 
of influence and prestige among his fellows and his patrons ; 
and more society, county and state work would follow as a 

Can we not make our county meetings more profitable ? 
Can we not send out from this meeting more enthusiasm 
and life, which will affect the whole profession in the State? 

It is true, much depends upon the individual doctors who 
compose the separate societies ; but much influence and en- 
ergy can be diffused from the central organization. We need 
it here in order to have it there. Every doctor who comes 
to these meetings should go back a revivalist in his own 
county. We can make it so easily. Let every counsellor 
consider himself in duty bound to make this Association 
and this meeting a success, and it will be so, and its influ- 
ence will affect the State. 

We receive our charter from the State and are assigned 
our part in state work and government by no means solely 
for our professional benefit The general benefit of our f el- 


low men in the State is the key-note — the foundation plank 
on which all such privileges and franchises are granted. In 
this State we have exceptional and unique advantages which 
we hold in trust They were obtained in the first place upon 
the promise that the whole State would be benefited ; and 
they are continued and have been enlarged because this 
spirit and purpose have been shown in this work. The 
State is always jealous and suspicious of privileges of this 
sort, because men most frequently combine together with 
the intention of profiting their own combination at the ex- 
pense of others. Distrust for this reason is frequent against 
all associations, and it is generally a most plausable accusa- 
tion to raise by the enemies of our organization. "Monop- 
oly/' "Trust," "Ring," "Combine" are the names ready to 
be hurled at the head of any association which gives the 
least foundation for them. We have not escaped these mis- 
siles ; they have been thrown at us repeatedly ; and only 
because we show that we have the general interests of our 
fellow men in view do we maintain our position. On these 
general principles it is always well to study our management 
and criticise our work. 

With this object, in considering prolessional benefit, 
within the workings of our association, one of our principal 
aims is to beget and maintain a high esprit de corps. This 
can only be accomplished by proving there is more profes- 
sional benefit and profit within the Association than outside 
of it The first thing and one of the hardest has been to 
obtain in a few of the counties the confidence of our pro- 
fessional brethren. We are gradually growing in this direc- 
tion; I hope we will earn the confidence of all after a 

The raising of the standard of medical education in the 
State is ostensibly and correctly one of our duties. We 
have done much good work in that direction, and gradually 
the examinations of our county boards have risen in charac- 
ter and scope. But we need still more improvement to 
bring us abreast with what is being done in some other parts 
of the country. We compare favorably and our methods 


have the advantage of giving general satisfaction ; but still 
we are behind many states. The very fact that the late 
House of Representatives voted to grant a license to prac- 
tice medicine to a man who could not pass a simple county 
examination is a pointer which indicates that we should 
bestir ourselves. Our profession is not doing its full duty 
when such an occurrence can happen. When we ourselves 
show by a more decided stand and policy that half-taught 
men ought not to be allowed to practice, the public will im- 
bibe the spirit and not before. 

Throughout all civilized countries, as a part of their civil- 
ization, higher and higher requirements to practice medicine 
are constantly being added ; and as a condition following, 
not preceding this move, those medical colleges and schools 
that contribute to these sections, have had to raise their 
methods and grades of instruction to correspond. Just as 
we in this Association keep pace with the best progress of 
the world in this particular ; just as our expressed opinion 
declares each year for a high and higher level of acquisitions 
in order to practice medicine, just so much will the standards 
of teaching in the schools that contribute to our ranks be 
adjusted to suit the demand The sentiment that should 
govern, and that does govern in this matter in this State, 
originates on this floor. There is too much indifference on 
this question amongst us. Much, very much more profit- 
able talk can be had along this line. 

Throughout civilized countries now-a-days there are being 
organized "Boards of Charity," whose objects are the inspec- 
tion and the improvement of all the institutions that relate 
to the care of the weak, the unfortunate, the disabled and 
the criminal classes of society. These boards are in many 
or most cases, in the beginning, voluntary associations 
composed of benevolent and charitable persons, who for the 
sake of doing good, of benefiting others, are willing to de- 
vote a portion of their time to such work. In some of the 
civilized countries, and in some of our states, they have 
finally become regularly legalized bodies, appointed by state 
authority. They are every where doing good. They are 


named differently in different places. They go generally 
under the names of "Boards of Charities and Corrections," 
or "Boards of Charities and Custodies," or "Boards of Chari- 
ties and Lunacy," etc., etc. In some states they are em- 
powered with legislative and mandatory powers ; in others, 
they are only advisory. They generally have, as I say, 
begun as voluntary organizations, then have risen to the 
grade of legal advisory, and finally of legal executive bodies ; 
in some cases they have control and management of all the 
beneficiary, reformatory and penal institutions of the State. 

It is a fact but little appreciated — hardly as yet recognized 
by our Association, that we are a legal advisory Board for 
the State on all such matters. We have risen above the 
grade of simply advisory, and have legal powers for inspec- 
tion, and high advisory functions already granted us by law. 
We hold in this particular a rather unusual and anomalous 
position— one not often granted to medical men alone ; still 
one, for that very reason, most appropriate. No class of 
men in this State are better prepared and better posted for 
such work; and within our easy reach lies a large field of 
most efficient action of this kind. 

We have the material for facts and information, and we 
have the workers already in hand. If some easily devised 
means of collecting statistics were instituted, as to the con- 
dition of our pauper and criminal classes, I am ready to as- 
sert we would bring together a mass of information that, 
classified and published, would arouse the sympathy and 
surprise of the State throughout its whole extent. 

Our county doctors know the poor-houses and prisons of 
the State, and through the county boards the necessary 
facts and information could be collected. From the position 
I now hold in one of the large eleemosynary institutions of the 
State, information reaches me of neglect, of bad treatment, 
of willful abuse, done to many of the unfortunates of the 
State, such as would shock the sensibilities of a savage. To 
keep pace with the progress of the world, it is high time 
some move were made in this direction. It is already made 
one of our legal endowments by the laws of the State, 


Shall we take up the task? Facts are needful first; and as 
I say, they are within easy reach. 

The coming season, it is apprehended by many, will be 
one which will possibly test our quarantine and general 
sanitary powers. 

It is much to be desired that a general harmony of action 
shall be attained throughout the State in these particulars, 
and still more throughout the whole country. The signs of 
the times point in that direction. 

Extended movements are always slow to get into shape 
unless something hurries them. In times of war lessons 
are rapidly learned of practically fighting the enemy; the 
same is the fact in time of pestilence. The late epidemic 
of cholera in Europe has awakened a demand in this country 
for some general legislation to avert a possible approach of 
that disease. Somewhat more advanced legislation has been 
obtained in Congress in the shape of the "Harris Bill," 
which, though, altogether relates to maritime quarantine 
and ship sanitation. And it will affect our management as 
a State Board of Health but little, because the execution of 
the quarantine laws at Mobile, our only seaport, as they 
now exist by the legislation of our State, is divided between 
the Health Board of Mobile county, which belongs to our 
organization, and that of the quarantine plant which is under 
a separate management; so that the practical working of 
the "Harris Bill" and maritime quarantine as now regulated 
under that bill by Mr. Carlisle, the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, will not directly bring our Health Board into contact 
with it, but more directly the management of the quarantine 
plant. It is to be hoped that in the near future some gen- 
eral measure will be adopted to harmonize all the existing 
laws, and make uniform all the sanitary and quarantine leg- 
islation of the State and the United States. 

A step largely tending towards bringing this about would 
be the adoption by our general government of a health de- 
partment, as recommended by the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and approved by our State Board, with a Secretary 
of Public Health in the President's cabinet It will prob- 


ably require, however, the experience and lessons of a gen- 
eral calamity like a wide-spread epidemic in the country, to 
force attention to the necessity of such measures. 

I may say, in passing, that the relationship between our 
State Board of Health and the management of the quaran- 
tine station at Mobile remains in statu quo. The report of 
the committee I appointed at your direction soon after our 
last session, can be seen on file with the Secretary, and has 
been published in our transactions, in which they highly 
commend and approve of the construction and arrangement 
of that plant Nothing was accomplished, however, towards 
bringing it under the control of the State Board. The indi- 
cations are, I believe, we will, in time, see all the sanitary 
and quarantine interests of the State under the management, 
or, at any rate, under the advisory control of our State Board 
of Health ; and, eventually, I have no doubt, we will see the 
general government and the several state boards working 
under a uniform system throughout the whole country ; an 
end much to be desired. 

To return more particularly to the condition and internal- 
management of our Association during the past year : As I 
have said, there has been a steady trend towards improve- 
ment in our Association throughout the year — we are another 
year further along. Notwithstanding the general pecuniary 
depression, which has seriously affected our section of the 
country during the year, and the consequent dispirited and 
disaffected state of public feeling, which also has pervaded 
the medical profession, we have had a fairly prosperous 

The Vice-Presidents have kept in constant communication 
with me, and have done in my opinion what could be accom- 
plished in the way of suggestion and supervision. They 
have visited several of the counties in their departments. 
The Senior Censor, with his usual diligence and vigilance, 
has also visited many societies, and has used a constant, 
persevering effort to keep up the lines of duty of the dif- 
ferent officers. 

During the year I have made the following appointments : 


On the Committee to inspect the Quarantine Plant at Mo- 
bile, I appointed from our Health Board, Drs. Cochran, 
Gaston, Seelye, Baldwin, and Whelan, whope report I have 
already referred to. 

On the Publishing Committee I appointed Drs. Means, 
Michel and Jordan, all of Montgomery. Their report will 
appear in order. 

I appointed Dr. W. H. Sanders, of Mobile, Monitor of the 
Association, who will read his address. 

I appointed as regular reporters Dr. T. W. Ayers, of Jack- 
sonvilte, on the Progress of Medicine ; Dr. E. D. Bondurant, 
of the Alabama Bryce Insane Hospital, on Insanity ; Dr. R 
W. Cunningham of Pratt Mines, on the Negro as a Convict ; 
Dr. L. L. Hill of Montgomery, on the Progress of Surgery ; 
Dr. T. D. Parke, of Birmingham, on Continued Fevers ; Dr. 
J. A. Pritchett of Hayneville, on Tuberculosis in the Negro ; 
Dr. L L. Watkins, of Montgomery, on Gynecology. 

In August last, I appointed Dr. C. H. Franklin, of Union 
Springs, Censor, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of Dr. Bryce. 

Owing to the resignation of Dr. T. A. Means, of Mont- 
gomery, from the Secretaryship, in February I appointed 
Dr. J. R Jordan, of Montgomery, to fill the vacancy. 

Last Fall, Dr. J. A. Goggans, of Alexander City, repre- 
sented our Association as fraternal delegate before the 
Georgia Medical Association. He can report his reception. 

Dr. T. L. Robertson, of Birmingham, and Dr. Jerome 
Cochran, of Montgomery, were appointed delegates of this 
Association to the American Medical Association in Detroit. 

Dr. Cochran was also a delegate to the Health Conference 
which met in Lansing, Michigan, in June. 

The Reports of the Secretary, and of the Treasurer, will 
show in detail the condition of their departments. The 
failure of Moses Brothers, Bankers, of Montgomery, still 
embarrasses our finances ; though we have been able to "pay 
as we go" during the year. 

It becomes my sad duty to mention the names of two of 
our Counsellors, who have died since our last meeting; Dr. 


Daniel Edgarly Smith, of Mobile, and Dr. Peter Bryce, of 

Dr. Smith was elected Counsellor in 1882, in Mobile, and 
was one of our Grand Senior Counsellors at the time of his 

Daniel Edgarly Smith was born in Mobile, Alabama, in 
1838, and died in that city in February of this year, at the 
age of 55. He lived in Mobile all his life and was decidedly 
one of the most successful practitioners of medicine. He 
received his academic education in his native city, and grad- 
uated in the University of Mississippi as Bachelor of Arts, 
in 1859. He immediately began the study of medicine under 
Dr. J. F. Heustis as his preceptor. He attended the first 
course of lectures delivered in the Medical College of Ala- 
bama, and was one of its oldest Alumni, having graduated 
in 1861. He served through the war as an assistant surgeon 
in the Confederate army, and began practice in Mobile soon 
after hostilities ceased in 1865. 

Dr. Smith was, for a number of years, one of the Board 
of Censors of Mobile county, and held many positions of 
trust in that Society. He at one time filled the Chair of 
Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the Medi- 
cal College of Alabama. 

His brethren of the Alumni Association of the Mobile 
College, mention Dr. Smith as "an eminently practical man, 
faithful and efficient in the discharge of every duty entrusted 
to him." "As a practitioner," they say, "He was eminently 
successful; by energy and labor he built up a large and 
lucrative practice." In his death the Medical Association 
of Alabama lost one of its distinguished and faithful Coun- 

Dr. Peter Bryce needs no encomium from me in this pres- 
ence. He was well known to you alL No medical man was 
more generally and more favorably known in the State, both 
in the Profession and outside of it. 

He was last year present with us in our meeting at Mont- 
gomery. As he himself recognized and expressed it, it 


proved to be "for the last time." He well appreciated the 
possible risk attending his journey and the fatigue of par- 
ticipation in the proceedings of that meeting, still, when the 
time came, the old spirit arose in him, and he went to his 
wonted place of duty on the Board of Censors and made his 
regular report on Paresis on the floor of the Association. I 
don't think, under the circumstances, his memorable disser- 
tation on that remarkable disease of spinal cord and brain, 
will ever be forgotten by us. His weakness forbade his re- 
maining throughout the meeting. That was the last public 
duty he ever attended to. 

He died on the 14th day of August last, in his Hospital at 
Tuscaloosa, with his mind clear to the last, and with his 
hand still on the machinery of that much loved institution, 
the product of his life work. 

At his death the sense of a great loss pervaded the whole 
State. In accordance with the general sentiment, and as a 
mark of public respect, the Governor ordered the flag at 
half-mast on the Capitol at Montgomery, and the people and 
the press of the State uniformly mourned his loss. 

Peter Bryce was a native of South Carolina, born in 
Columbia in 1834 He was, therefore, at his death in his 
fifty-eighth year — comparatively not an old man. He re- 
ceived his school education in Columbia. His father died 
when he was still a youth ; and with the same high aims 
that always influenced him, he prevailed upon his guardian 
to spend the money left him in giving him a higher educa- 
tion. He graduated in the State Military School in 
Charleston, usually known as "The Citadel," and afterwards 
took his course in medicine in the University of New York, 
where he graduated in 1859. 

He graduated with distinction both in Charleston and in 
New York. At the University of New York he took "the 
Metcalf prize" for scholarship, which, in that old medical 
school, was a most distinguished honor in that day. 

On returning to South Carolina he received the appoint- 
ment of assistant physician in the Hospital for the Insane 
at Columbia. While in the Columbia Asylum he attracted 


the attention of Miss Dorothea Dix, the great philanthropist 
for the insane in this country, who wrote to the Trustees of 
the Hospital, about being completed at Tuscaloosa in this 
State, strongly recommending him, and urging his election 
to the superintendency of that institution. So great was 
the confidence of the Trustees in the wisdom and good judg- 
ment of that great woman, they promptly elected him, 
although, personally, unknown to any one of them, a young 
man of only twenty-six, and at that time unmarried. The 
excellence of their choice was never questioned afterwards — 
on the contrary, it received a steadily increasing approval 
throughout the whole State from the day his connection with 
the Hospital began until his death. Before he directly as- 
sumed charge of the Hospital at Tuscaloosa, he visited and 
spent much time in other institutions in the country ; then 
came, with his bride, to Tuscaloosa in 1860. To maintain 
and support his Hospital during the war, which came on 
directly, and hold it undisturbed during the vicissitudes of 
"Reconstruction days," put to a severe test the excellent 
qualities of Dr. Bryce as a manager of men and finance. 
He came out of those troublous times with his Hospital still 
in his own hands, and in excellent condition. I know no 
other man who could have done it. 

Dr. Bryce was pre-eminently a man of energy, alert and 
alive on all questions, independent and self-reliant; and 
while abundantly self-confident, he was never offensive in 
it. On the contrary, he possessed great social flexibility, 
and readily adjusted himself to any person or society; 
pleasant, genial, large-hearted, courteous, gentle and sym- 
pathetic, he was beloved by his patients and admired by his 
friends ; he was uniformly attractive ; he had few or no ene- 
mies ; an omnivorous reader, he kept abreast of the day, not 
only in his professional literature, but especially in lines of 
advancing philosophical thought. He was truly an "ad- 
vanced man." His ready ability to judge men and charac- 
ter, carried further, made him quick to appreciate truth and 

principle. I never knew a person more apt and ready to 


recognize and appropriate new thought, all done with excel- 
lent discrimination. 

He held many positions of trust and honor. At his death 
he was a member of the State Board of Censors, which he 
had held with few intermissions since the adoption of the 
new constitution. He was Orator at Mobile in 1882, and 
was President at Eufaula in 1878. At the time of his death, 
he was President of the American Medico-Psycological As- 
sociation, composed principally of Superintendents of Insane 
Hospitals, with other prominent alienists and neurologists, 
in this country and Canada. He was elected to the Presi- 
dency, evidently as a special mark of honor and respect, for 
he was not present at the meeting in Washington when he 
was chosen, being too unwell to attend And next month, if he 
had lived, he would have presided at Chicago, over one of the 
most notable associations of specialists of nervous and men- 
tal troubles that has ever gathered before in the world. He 
was also vice-president of the New York Medico-Legal Asso- 
ciation, and a prominent member of the National Society of 
Charities and Correction. 

His principal life-work, however, was the building up and 
the management of his Hospital at Tuscaloosa. No man 
was better fitted for his chosen field. Both the scientific 
and administrative departments of that now immense insti- 
tution were efficiently and successfully conducted by him. 
The every day and ever varying interests of its outside man- 
agement and maintenance did not suffer in comparison with 
the well conducted details of the scientific care and treat- 
ment of the patients in the wards. Every end was kept 
under constant supervision, and there was a general touch 
of all the departments uniformly kept with his central office. 
His Hospital became exceptional and noted among other 
institutions for its excellent industrial system, in which em- 
ployment, so essential in their treatment, was found for the 
patients ; a great deal of it out of doors, and to a proportion 
seldom seen; patients of a lower grade than are kept em- 
ployed in other institutions, are made to do some kind of 


work in this institution. "To keep everybody busy" is the 
motto of the house. 

Also, the Hospital is especially noted over the world for 
the entire abolition of all means of mechanical restraint 
For ten years there have been no such instruments used in 
this Hospital as camisoles, strait jackets, manacles, or crib 
bedsteads in control of the excited insane. 

The name of Bryce deserves mention along with those of 
Pinel and Tuke in the humane management of the insane. 
In the notable recent discussions over the world, that have 
taken place on the mechanical restraint of the excited insane, 
principally published in the Medico-Legal Journal, his name 
stands foremost 

I have not time nor space in this notice to speak even 
properly or sufficiently of my departed friend. I feel, how- 
ever, I have no need to sing his praises in this Association, 
or in this State. Our last General Assembly honored his 
memory in incorporating his name in that of his Hospital 
It will hereafter be known as the Alabama Bryce Insane 

No man ever approached his end with more philosopical 
composure than did Dr. Bryce. He recognized to the full- 
est extent all the conditions of his approaching demise, and 
arranged for it with consummate care and completeness. 
The welfare of his devoted wife and the future of his Hos- 
pital were apparently the only matters of his anxious concern. 
He has left a notable example and a remarkable record for 
us to imitate and admire. 



By Jacob Huggins, M. D., Newberne. 
Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

Shortly after the Medical Association adjourned, last 
Spring, I began the work which devolved upon me as Senior 
Vice-President, by addressing letters of inquiry to the Vice- 
Presidents of the County Societies which were known to be 
in an unsatisfactory condition, as evidenced by my report as 
Junior Vice-President I also, when necessary, wrote to the 
Secretaries and other officials of the medical societies. My 
correspondence was then directed to other counties, until 
every one in the Second Division was embraced in my inves- 

In most instances my communications received prompt 
and respectful attention, but in others, I had to write letter 
after letter, before I could get any information at all. I also 
visited several counties in person, and conferred with offi- 
cials of medical societies and others in regard to their work. 
Those counties were Marengo, Perry and Sumter. I regret 
that circumstances prevented me from visiting other coun- 
ties that needed encouragement and attention. Though I 
cannot say that I am fully satisfied with results, yet I am 
gratified in being able to state that, after much writing and 
persistent effort, I at last succeeded in hearing from, and 
will make a report on the status of every county in my divi- 
sion — a result heretofore unattained, I believe, by any of my 
predecessors. The information in some instances is some- 
what meagre, yet I was glad to get any at all. I now pro- 
ceed to give a synopsis of the information obtained, begin- 
ning with Autauga, and going through the list in alphabeti- 
cal order. 


Autauga. — From all the information I could gather about 
this county, I regret that I cannot give a favorable report. 
I learn from the vice-president of the medical society that 
there is but little interest felt in the work. The society 
meets quarterly, with about sixty per cent of the member- 
ship in attendance. One name was added to the roll of 
membership during the year As the health officer receives 
no pay, he does not make any great efforts to collect vital 
and mortuary statistics. 

Baldwin. — From this county it affords me pleasure to give 
a most gratifying account All the physicians in the county, 
with a single exception, are members of the medical society. 
During the year one examination for license to practice was 
made and certificate granted. The society meets four times 
a year, with a called meeting occasionally, when there is any 
work on hand that needs attention. With rare exceptions, 
every member is present at the society meetings. The 
health officer is succeeding admirably with his work, and 
has the county thoroughly organized. Dr. Lovelady, the 
worthy secretary, from whom I get my information, writes 
as follows: "The status of our medical society was never 
better — not from our numbers, but from its compactness 
and working condition. No jealousies — no bickerings — a 
perfect brotherhood, each vieing with every other, in doing 
perfect work." If every county in the State was in as fine 
a condition as Baldwin, in regard to her medical organiza- 
tion and professional harmony, we would soon be in a sort 
of medical millennium. 

Babboub. — From Dr. L. J. Simpson, vice-president of Bar- 
bour county medical society, I learn that "in most respects 
the status of the society is good. The writer says, "We 
have grown fast numerically in the past year." "We have 
now quite a large and strong society, and we are going to 
grow straight on." I learn that four new members have 
recently been added to the society. Society meets quarterly 
with a fair attendance. The board of censors made one ex- 
amination for license to practice — passed. As the county 
has had three health officers during the past three or four 


months, I could get no definite information in regard to the 
management of this department From the general tenor 
of information received, I would infer that Barbour is moving 

Bullock. — This county still holds its place in the front 
rank of the organized counties of the State. The member- 
ship is a little less than last year — one member having 
resigned, and one dropped from the roll, he not being a res- 
ident of the county. The health officer reported as doing 
excellent work. He has assistants in every beat, who are 
vigilant and prompt in discharge of their duties. The 
society meets once a month, with fair attendance, and papers 
of interest are read at every meeting. Every doctor in the 
county, with one or two exceptions, is a member of the 

Butler. — From a letter received from Dr. Job Thigpen, I 
infer that the status of Butler medical society is about 
the same as last year. This society has for years been con- 
siderably above the average in good standing — and it still 
holds a high rank in the list of organized counties. The 
society meets monthly. Three young men were granted 
certificates to study medicine, and two stood examinations 
for practice, and all acquitted themselves satisfactorily, and 
certificates were granted. The health officer is reported as 
doing fairly well in collecting statistics, vital and mortuary. 

Chilton. — As reported heretofore, this county is still in a 
demoralized condition. I will quote from a letter received 
from the Secretary, Dr. W. E. Stewart; "Our society" says 
Dr. S., "is just what it has been for the past ten years, held 
together by about six of us, some of whom meet occasion- 
ally, and make an effort to get things in better working order. 
No progress is being made — our membership about the 
same as for years. Our board of censors have discharged 
their duties very well. No examinations for the practice of 
medicine, but will probably have two applicants soon. About 
fifty per cent, of the doctors in the county are members of 
the society. We have no EL O.," continues Dr. Stewart, 
"I tried to discharge the duties of H. O. until a regular 


meeting, but as month after month passed, without getting 
any reports from the doctors, notwithstanding frequent and 
urgent requests sent to each physician, I gave it up as a 
hopeless task." "Only two M. D.'s ever reported." "The 
midwives reported regularly. We have been censured for 
the deplorable condition of things, but I can assure you 
that every effort has been made, every appeal a professional 
man can make has been made, and we have only failure." 
"There seems to be no hope for a better condition of affairs 
until a new set of men come in, who will take more interest 
in their profession." 

Choctaw. — I am sorry I cannot report some improvement 
in this county. It is about the same as last year. At least 
80 per cent, of the doctors practicing in the county sure 
members of the society, yet, strange to say, but little inter- 
est is felt or taken in the work. The society meets twice a 
year, and usually has a slim attendance. From the infor- 
mation received, I would judge that the H. O. is doing mod- 
erately well. He has assistants in nearly every beat Doc- 
tors, with few exceptions report regularly, but midwives are 
very negligent; one examination made for the practice of 
medicine. From a letter received from a member of the 
board, I would infer that the censors are zealous in the dis- 
charge of their duties. 

Clarke. — The status of this county is about the same as 
last year — not very good. There is but little interest man- 
ifested by a majority of the members. The roll of member- 
ship about the same as one year ago. One examination 
made for the practice of medicine. I was not informed 
whether the applicant passed or not. Society meets quar- 
terly with about 50 per cent of members usually present. 
The H. O. is said to be endeavoring to do his duty, but the 
doctors do not stand up to him as they should, and thereby 
encourage him. Dr. C. £. Pugh, a member of the board of 
censors, says, that "with just an effort on the part of the 
entire membership, the H. O. would do credit to the society. 
He has but few assistants in the beats, yet midwives report 


promptly." Dr. Pugh expresses the hope of a better con- 
dition in the county in the near future. 

Coffee. — After writing a number of letters, I was at last 
honored with a reply from Dr. B. A. Hill, the Secretary of 
the society. Though the status of Coffee Medical Society 
is not very encouraging, yet it is not by any means 
moribund. Dr. Hill's letter has generated the hope 
that Coffee Medical Society would soon put on new 
life. The society meets monthly, with an attendance 
of about 75 per cent The roll of members has not increased 
in two years. The H. O. has done poor work, attributable, 
he says to the lack of support from the doctors and mid- 
wives. Dr. Hill has recently been elected H. O. and he says 
that "from this date I will prosecute all doctors and mid- 
wives who do not report to me." Since this was written, I 
have received two more letters, one from Dr. Garrett and 
one from Dr. W. W. Grubbs, the recently elected President. 
The latter wrote quite hopefully of the outlook in Coffee. 

Conecuh. — Last year I made quite a favorable report for 
Conecuh. Recently there have been some changes made in 
the society officials. Dr. Andrew Jay has been elected H. O. 
in place of Dr. A. A. McKittrick, who has served quite a num- 
ber of years with credit to himself and honor to the soci- 
ety. Dr. McKittrick's work the past year was fully up to that 
of the preceding, and we hope his successor will keep up the 
high standard erected by the zeal and energy of his prede- 
cessor. The Society meets quarterly as heretofore, and usu- 
ally has a good attendance. About 70 per cent of doctors 
in the county are members of the society. No recent acces- 
sions of membership reported. 

Covington. — When I made my report on this county, last 
Spring, I had reason to believe that another year would 
show considerable improvement in the status of the medical 
society. My hopes were not realized. The Vice President 
writes me that they try to meet every three months, but 
that he lived so far from the place of meeting, he did not 
attend often, hence he could not give full information about 
the medical society or its work. He says the board of cen- 


sors made two examinations for license to practice, but he 
did not inform me whether certificates were granted or not. 
The Vice President, Dr. Stinson, informs me that there were 
a number of " quacks" in the county, who were great stum- 
bling blocks to medical progress. Since the foregoing was 
written, I have received a letter from Dr. McNair, President 
of the medical society, who informed me that the two doc- 
tors who went before the board for examination were suc- 
cessful and received certificates. They were Dr. C. R Rush- 
ton and G. Bozeman. Dr. McNair also informed me that 
"several non-graduates applied for license to practice, and 
being unable to get the board together for that purpose, 
they employed a lawyer to force the board to issue license." 
" The only way the attorney could get the board together 
was by a writ of mandamus." "That," says the doctor, "was 
the first and only full attendance since he came to the 
county." The doctor also states that he and Dr. Sentell 
made several unsuccessful efforts to get a full meeting re- 
cently, in order to elect officers. The EL O., receiving no 
support from doctors or midwives, threw up his office in 
disgust This shows a most gloomy condition of affairs in 
Covington, and what was once written of an ancient classic 
city, might be appropriately said of Covington Medical So- 
ciety, " Illium Fuit" 

Crenshaw. — After several unsuccessful efforts to get infor- 
mation from this county, I at last received a prompt and sat- 
isfactory letter from the Secretary of the medical society, 
Dr. J. E. Kendrick, who informed me that the status of the 
society was about the same as last year, perhaps a little 
better; one new member had been enrolled; society meets 
quarterly with a good attendance ; one examination for prac- 
tice made by board of censors. The H. O has made no at- 
tempt to collect vital and mortuary statistics. "The society 
has resolved to 'revive' that part of their duty," the Secre- 
tary writes, "yet doctors and midwives are hard to move in 
the matter." 

Dale. — Last year I made quite an unfavorable report for 
Dale. This year I give a much more encouraging status of 


affairs. Dr. R R Harper, Secretary of the Society, writes 
as follows; "Our Medical Society is gradually overcoming 
many of its obstacles. There seems to be more interest 
manifested now, than has been for a long time. In fact the 
present outlook is very encouraging." The society meets 
monthly and is fairly attended — one accession to society 
during the year. Two examinations made by board — one 
passed — one rejected. There are three illegal M. D's. and two 
"first course" students practicing in the county. The H. 
O. is not succeeding well with his work. Many of the doc- 
tors and nearly all the midwives refuse to report Dr. Har- 
per attributes the poor success of the H. O., "and the bad 
state of affairs, to the many illegal doctors," and winds up a 
very interesting letter with these words : "We are pushing 
the law on them, and we hope soon to put them all to 

Dalla.8. — This county still holds its place in the front 
rank of organized counties. The status about the same — a 
few accessions to the membership during the year. One 
member, Dr. Hunter, moved out of county, two severed their 
connection with the society, by resignation. The society 
has sustained quite a loss by the death of two of its oldest 
and most highly esteemed members, Drs. Frank Tipton 
and L. L. Alston. Both had been in poor health for several 
years, and have taken but little part in society work, yet we 
all remember their fidelity to the work in the past, their de- 
votion to their chosen profession, and to the Medical Asso- 
ciation of Alabama. Let us honor their memory. 

Elmore. — The reports from this county are quite favora- 
ble. The meetings of the society are well attended. Eight 
were held during the past year. Dr. Justice, the H. O., is said 
to be zealous with his work ; the doctors are sustaining him 
fairly well, but midwives do not report promptly. The 
members take quite an interest in their society, and have 
taken in several members during the year. Some complaint 
made against board of censors, but improvement in this de- 
partment of society work is quite perceptible of late. 

Escambia. — Last year Escambia was my "banner" county. 


From information received both from the President of the 
Society, Dr. Henderson, and from the Secretary, Dr. Parker, 
I learn that "the status of the society is fully up to what it 
has ever been." "We have moved steadily on," says the 
Secretary, " though we have no accessions to membership, 
because there was no material to work on." One examina- 
tion by board — certificate granted. The H. O. has assistants 
in every beat who report promptly, and his work is said to 
be most satisfactory. 

Geneva. — This county was the only delinquent one in my 
last year's report During the past year I have received 
more letters from Geneva than any county in the 2d Divis- 
ion, yet the letters might be considered rather as obituary 
notices of their medical society, than vehicles of encouraging 
information. Dr. Latimer, the Secretary, writes : " I can not 
say that Geneva has a medical society. The board has not 
had a meeting in two years, and therefore are doing nothing." 
" I consider," the Doctor continues, " that we have no soci- 
ety at alL" I wrote to Dr. Finney, the Vice President, and 
he requested Dr. Heath to reply and say to me, "that there 
was no regularly organized board in Geneva, so far as his 
knowledge extended." Dr. Heath in his letter asked me the 
question, " Is the old board the legal board, after it has been 
disorganized and has not met in a year or two ?" On the 
advice of the Senior Censor, I replied : "Yes, the old board 
is still a legal board, and the majority of members can act 
in making examinations." I urged Dr. Heath to get a meet- 
ing, if possible, elect new officers, and delegates to State As- 
sociation, and write me the result I never heard from the 
doctor. I am afraid that the Trojan epitaph could also be 
appropriately applied to Geneva County Medical Society. 

Gbeene. — During the past two years there has been con- 
siderable improvement in the status of this county. The 
membership of this society has gradually increased and 
more interest is taken in the work. There has been in the 
past quite a feeling of antagonism against some of the laws 
and enactments governing the practice of medicine in Ala- 
bama by some of the M. D's. of Greene county, and other 


agencies of discord that prevented professional harmony; 
but these obstacles are fast disappearing, and the outlook 
for the medical society, at this time is quite encouraging 
Several names have been recently added to the roll of mem- 
bers, and three examinations made for the practice of medi- 
cine. Certificates were granted. 

Hale. — I touch this county with some degree of delicacy, 
as it is my home county, and the Association will naturally 
expect a good report. I regret to say that the account of 
our medical status, which I am compelled to present will not 
be clad in rose colored tints. Take the physicians of Hale 
as a class, and they will compare favorably with any in the 
State, in moral standing, intelligence and professional pride. 
I, therefore, am at a loss in accounting for the apathy that 
has prevailed among them for several years. Many of them 
would scale mountains or swim rivers to assist a profes- 
sional brother when in distress, but to aid a H. O., by col- 
lecting and forwarding vital and mortuary statistics, is a 
matter that gives them no concern, and they will not send in 
their reports in some instances, even when importuned in a 
most urgent way. I verily believe it would require the elo- 
quence and logic of a St. Paul, the fiery phillipics of a Sam 
Jones or the versatile genius or combativeness of a Jerome 
Cochran to arouse some of them from their lethargy, and bring 
them to a full sense of the duties they owe to their society 
and the Medical Association of the State. At a recent meet- 
ing of our society, however, I am proud to say that there 
were signs of improvement Some of the clouds of doubt 
and indifference are apparently drifting away, and a silver 
lining of hope is visible — at our recent society meeting, we 
had the best attendance we have had for several years. 
Three names were added to the roll of members with a prob- 
ability of other accessions in the near future. Four prom- 
ising young men entered upon the practice of medicine dur- 
ing the year, after satisfactory examinations. We have an 
efficient board of censors, who are prompt and faithful to 
their duties. The H. O. labors earnestly to get up credita- 
ble reports but frequently fails, on account of the indiffer- 


ence, as before stated, of some of his brother M. D's., and 
from the fact that several beats have no doctors living in 
them. He hopes, however, another year will show a marked 
improvement in this line. 

Henry. — From information received from Dr. F. L Moody, 
I feel safe in saying that the status of Henry county medi- 
cal society is very good, and that the physicians composing 
it are wide awake, intelligent gentlemen. Almost every rep- 
utable doctor in the county is a member of the medical 
society. There are four illegal doctors in the county, and 
one of them is now being prosecuted in the courts. This 
suit, if successful, will be followed by others. Four exam- 
inations were made by the board of censors for certificates 
to practice. Two passed and two were rejected. I am sorry 
to learn that the health officer is doing very poor work. 
From what I learned from members of the society, a new 
health officer will be elected at their regular April meeting, 
and I feel confident that another year will show considera- 
ble improvement in this part of the work. This account of 
the present status of Henry county shows quite an advance 
over last year. 

Lee. — Last year I gave a gloomy account of the condition 
of Lee county. The status is no better. The situation can 
be taken in, by quoting from a letter recently received from 
Dr. Bennett, an official of the society. He says, "Lee county 
medical society has done nothing in two years. Have had 
no meeting in a year. We have no health officer. Have 
made no examinations for practice. Don't think we will or 
can do anything, till we get some laws that will hold and 
help us out more than the ones we have had to work under." 
Judging from the tenor of this information, our diagnosis 
is that Lee county medical society is almost in a moribund 

Lowndes. — This county has for years been one of the best 
organized counties in the State. During the past year, how- 
ever, a hot political campaign engendered some bitter feel- 
ings, which extended to the ranks of the medical profession, 
and lessened the interest usually felt in the medical society. 


The status of the society, however, is still considerably 
above the average. Out of thirty doctors living in the 
county, twenty-three are members of the society. There is 
one illegal doctor in the county, but the grand jury recently 
found an indictment against him. Two examinations were 
made by the board of censors for license to practice. One 
received a certificate, and the other withdrew before exam- 
ination was finished. The health officer, as usual, is doing 
most excellent work. 

Macon. — It affords me pleasure to state that Macon county 
has made great strides forward during the past year or two. 
The president of the medical society, Dr. L. W. Johnson, 
informs me that "the society is in better condition than it 
has ever been before." "The best of feeling and perfect 
harmony exists among the members of the profession." 
During the year, three new members were added to the roll 
of the society. Nearly all the doctors in the county have 
joined the society. They meet monthly, with good attend- 
ance, and valuable papers are usually read by some of the 
members. The work of the health officer is not very satis- 
factory. He gets no pay for his services. 

Marengo. — This county still shows signs of progress. In 
March, 1892, I visited this county in company with Dr. 
Cochran, and attended a meeting of the medical society. 
At that time there were in the county nearly as many illegal 
doctors practicing, as there were members in the society. 
In March, 1893, Dr. Oochran and myself again visited the 
county and attended their society meeting. We learned 
that the roll of membership had increased to nineteen, while 
the list of illegal doctors had fallen from nine to three. 
This is a creditable showing for one year's work. Dr. Wil- 
son, the health officer, is working with commendable zeal, 
and has made quite a favorable change in the status of the 
county health office. Measures were taken at the recent 
meeting to prosecute one or all of the illegal doctors. 

Mobile. — It is hardly necessary to say that this county 
still holds the high position it has always held in the front 
rank of organized counties. Dr. Frazer, the secretary, 


writes : "Our society is in a healthy condition, as evidenced 
by regular meetings every week, good attendance and earnest 
discussions on medical subjects." There were six accessions 
to the membership during the year. The society lost three 
members — one by death, and two by resignations — which 
leaves the roll a little larger than last year. The health 
officer, Dr. Frazer informs me, "succeeded admirably in col- 
lecting vital and mortuary statistics." 

Monroe. — The status of this county about the same as 
last year — perhaps a slight improvement The medical 
society meets twice a year, with a fair attendance. The 
board of censors, which is said to be an efficient one, made 
two examinations for the practice of medicine, but my 
informant did not give results. The health officer is said to be 
very diligent in the discharge of his duties, and is succeed- 
ing very well with his work. He has the county well organ- 

Montgomery. — As might be expected, the Capital City 
county holds the first place in the list of organized counties 
in the southern division of the State. The county medical 
society, as to ability, zeal, and good work in the cause of 
medical progress, is second to none in the State. In fact, 
the Montgomery medical society, for a number of years, has 
been a sort of bulwark and safe-guard against the assaults of 
the enemies of organized medicine, and deserves the grati- 
tude of the Medical Association of the State. During the 
year, the society held thirty-three meetings, which were 
usually well attended. The board of censors and the health 
officer are active and vigilant in the discharge of their du- 
ties. Ten new members have been added to the roll of the 
society during the year, and many interesting papers were 
read at their meetings. In a word, Montgomery medical 
society seems to have adopted "Excelsior" for its motto, 
and is keeping pace with all medical progress of the age. 

Perry. — In my annual report last year, I had nothing very 
favorable to say of Perry county, and though I can't give a 
good report now, yet will say that from information received 
from physicians in different parts of the county, I feel en- 


couraged, and I believe that a brighter day is about to dawn 
on the medical horizon of Perry. A number of young doc- 
tors have recently pitched their tents in this field of promise, 
and I feel confident that they will infuse new life into the 
medical society. About five new names have been added to 
the roll of membership, with the promise of a few more at 
an early day. Several examinations have been made by the 
board of censors, and certificates granted. In the early part 
of the year I visited this county with a view of attending a 
society meeting, but learned that the hour was at night, and 
so I had to forego that pleasure — yet I saw many of the mem- 
bers of the society; also some M. D.'s who were not mem- 
bers. I also visited Uniontown in the southern part of the 
county and conferred with the physicians there. The object 
of my visit was to arouse some interest in the work and 
ascertain their trouble, if any existed, and learn the cause of 
the back-slide in the status of the medical society. I could 
find no reasonable cause for the condition of affairs, except 
a state of apathy and inexplicable indifference among the 
physicians of the county. From Dr. G. R Johnson, the 
health officer, I have recently received a most interesting 
letter, full of information, and knowing him to be a man of 
commendable pride in everything he undertakes, a man of 
intelligence and tact, I will be greatly suprised if he does 
not bring about, during the present year, a favorable change 
in the status of the health office of Perry county. In regard 
to collecting statistics, he writes : "The midwives (be it to 
their credit said) are prompt in reporting, but the JSsculap- 
ians are decidedly negligent." "In fact there are only three 
or four who report occasionally." "Under such circum- 
stances, you will readily appreciate that the collecting of 
statistics, both vital and mortuary, is somewhat embarrass- 
ing." The doctor, I feel sure, will do his best to bring about 
a change. I hope his colleagues will help him. 

Pike. — I am sorry I can't give a favorable report from the 
prosperous county of Pike. Her county medical society is 
not on a par with her material prosperity and advances in 


other matters. The H. O. and Secretary says, "The status 
of society not altogether as good as last year. The mem- 
bership has not increased, nor has there been much interest 
felt in the society." The society meets monthly with about 
40 per cent of membership present The H. O. says he 
has a good deal of trouble in collecting vital statistics in the 
county beats, yet, he thinks it is improving and that he will 
soon have full reports. At a recent meeting of the society 
the matter of collecting vital and mortuary statistics was fully 
discussed and means instituted, by which it was thought full 
reports would hereafter be received. In my report last 
year I reported an increase in membership of 60 per cent 
This year, as before stated, there have been no new members 

Russell. — The status of this county has not improved 
during the past year. No progress whatever reported. 
Membership about the same. One examination before the 
board of censors, for the practice of medicine, but when my 
information was received it had not been finished. Out of 
fifteen M. D.'s in the county, ten are members of the county 
society. The H. O. makes but little effort to get up statis- 
tics, because but few doctors send him reports or give him 
any encouragement The President of society says "they 
are going to try to meet oftener," and hopes thereby to 
arouse more interest 

Sumter. — During the past year I visited Sumter county 
and had interviews with a number of M. D.'s. I have also 
received several communications from physicians in different 
parts of the county. The tenor of the information received 
is that the medical society of Sumter county is not in a 
flourishing condition. During the past year several mem- 
bers of the society took a prominent part in politics, and the 
medical society was lost sight of for the time being, and 
suffered thereby. Tet I have assurances that more interest 
will be taken, and new life infused into the society during 
the present year. Sumter medical society has suffered in 
recent years by the loss of several prominent members, who 


gave distinction to their society. Any county would feel the 
loss of such members as Webb, Sholl, Godfrey and others. 
But there are good men left, and Sumter will again come to 
the front. 

Washington. — My report from this county last year 
showed it was in quite a disorganized condition in regard to 
the medical society. The Secretary recently wrote me that 
all the doctors in the county, with two exceptions, were 
members of the medical society, yet "they are doing nothing 
at all" — only one meeting during the past year and that 
poorly attended. The H. O. is virtually doing nothing, as 
he receives but little assistance from his confreres and no 
pay from the county. One member of the society, Dr. F. 
A. Webb, says he has made several efforts to get the board 
together to be examined. He has so far failed, but had 
assurances when he wrote that his wishes would soon be 
gratified. Dr. Webb says that the senior censor of the 
State had blamed him for the course he had taken, that is, 
practicing without a certificate, "but that he is going before 
a board in order to be in good fellowship with the State 
Association, and to show the senior censor that he is willing 
to comply with what he (Webb) regarded, in his case, an 
ethical point and not law." I hope the doctor will carry 
out his intention and infuse new life into his county society. 

Wilcox. — I am happy to state that the status of Wilcox 
county medical society has greatly improved in the last 
few months. This happy change was doubtless due, to 
some extent, to a visit from Dr. Cochran. He usually brings 
order out of chaos and sometimes gives life to apparently 
moribund societies. The newly elected president of the 
medical society, Dr. J. P. Jones, writes in a most hopeful 
way, and says that "the society is in better condition than 
it has been in several years, and that Dr. Cochran's visit 
has resulted in much good." 

This, gentlemen of the Association, ends my report as 
Senior Vice-President, and severs my official relations with 
you, so far as my supervision of the work in the counties 
is concerned. This trust you placed in hand two years 


ago, and if the administration of the duties of the office has 
fallen short of your expectation, I will only say that I fully 
appreciate its short-comings. Although I might have 
accomplished more, yet I can safely assert that I have not 
been idle or indifferent, but have made reasonable efforts 
to discharge my official duties, to promote the welfare of the 
Association, and to uphold the dignity of my position. If 
no special merit or work has characterized my conduct of 
the office, I trust there has been no retrograde movement, 
while under my charge. 

I would be quite remiss, did I not acknowledge my in- 
debtedness to the worthy President of this Association, for 
many courtesies and generous encouragement. Our official 
relations have moved along pleasantly, like a gentle stream, 
without a single adverse ripple to mar its surface. 

Allow me also to express my high appreciation and thanks 
to our Senior Censor, Dr. Cochran, for much valuable 
assistance in my work as Vice-President He visited a 
number of counties in my division, and the improved status 
in some of them is doubtless attributable to those visits. 
Our senior censor must have a vision as comprehensive as 
the fabled Argus, for his eyes overlooked every county in 
the State, and he seemed to be familiar with the work of 
each. In a word, I received nothing but kindness from all 
the officials, both State and county, and the recollection of 
the same will in after years, constitute a bright page in the 
book of memory. 



By Barcklky Wallace Tools, M. D., Talladega. 
Junior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

An ordinance of this Association defines as one of the 
duties of a Vice-President, that at the annual sessions, 
immediately after the reading of the President's message, 
he shall make a written report, containing detailed accounts 
of the work done by him, as an officer of the Association. 
This report shall include a special section "for every one of 
the county societies, giving a brief, but accurate and com- 
prehensive account of its status and work during the pre- 
ceding year. This report shall be devoted strictly to busi- 
ness, and should not be made the vehicle for sanitary and 
medical discussions." 

Such being the law, I shall endeavor to conform as closely 
as I can to the text, and in doing so, your patience is invoked, 
while the effort is made to discharge this part of my official 
duty, dull and uninteresting as these statements and details 
will be to some present. 

After a personal acquaintance for twelve months with the 
office of Vice-President, the conclusion is reached that the 
honor and dignity of the position seems insignificant and 
dwarfed when compared with the work it enjoins, and the 
disappointments experienced; the latter appearing to be the 
perquisites of the office. It is an official position of vast pos- 
sibilities, but of meagre results. 

In the discharge of my duties, I claim not to have been 
over zealous, or to have transcended in effort and labor my 
predecessors. I have simply endeavored to do my duty, 
and in doing this have given many hours, or rather days of 
work; and much thought in doing what was in my power for 


the upbuilding and encouragement of the county societies 
in my jurisdiction. 

I have done some personal visitation to a few of the socie- 
ties, and have endeavored, by earnest correspondence with 
various officials and private members of the county socie- 
ties, to ascertain their condition, and urge them to make 
progress in the work committed to them. To every one of 
the thirty-three counties in my division, have I sent as many 
as two written communications, and to some more than two. 
Some of the persons addressed responded more or less 
promptly ; others after a long delay, and then giving me very 
imperfect and unsatisfactory information ; and some, strange 
to say, never so much as noticed my letters. 

As a result of my investigations, as to the present status 
of the various county societies in the first, or Northern Di- 
vision,! will now bring them in review in as concise a man- 
ner as possible, and shall refer to them alphabetically. 

Bibb. — The condition of this society is about the same as 
it was the year previous. Membership seven. There are a 
few physicians in the county not members. The society 
endeavors to hold quarterly meetings, but owing to the 
topography of the county, and the distance apart of the 
physicians, and inclement weather, sometimes a regular 
meeting is not held. The county commissioners decline to 
give any salary to the county health officer. There is no 
improvement in the work of collecting vital and mortuary 

Blount. — The condition about the same as it was the year 
before. Number of members, ten. Held three meetings in 
1892. There are some ten or twelve physicians in the county 
eligible for membership who are not members. Dr. W. M. 
Cole is the county health officer, with a salary of $75. He 
is making an earnest effort to discharge his duty faithfully. 
But some doctors refuse to send in any reports ; and others 
are careless and very tardy as to their reports. Several of 
the members of the society became offended at Dr. Cochran, 
because of the views expressed by him in letters to them! 


and withdrew from the society, and do not now make any 
reports to the health officer. 

Calhoun. — This society has been doiiig good work the past 
year. Its spirit and general condition are good, with the 
outlook very favorable for still greater progress in this year. 
The meetings have been instructive and profitable, and the 
attendance good. Number of members, thirty-one. Several 
members have removed from the county in the past year, 
which fact accounts for the present membership being less 
than the number reported last year. There are no illegal 
doctors in the county. Efforts are being made to induce 
physicians in the county who are not members to become 
members. The county health officer's salary is $300. He is 
efficient and faithful, and the work in this department has 
been done as well, perhaps, as in any county in this division. 

Clay. — The condition of this society is very fair — as good, 
if not better than it was last year. Membership, eighteen 
or nineteen, which embraces about every physician eligible 
for membership. Meets quarterly. Average attendance, ten. 
County health officer's salary is $20. Notwithstanding 
this inadequate compensation, the work of collecting vital 
and mortuary statistics is improving, and the physicians are 
responding more regularly to this work than ever before. 
The condition and work of this society, when the moun- 
tainous character of its territory is considered, is encourag- 
ing. The president of the society, Dr. Thomas Northen, 
is efficient and energetic 

Cleburne. — It is gratifying to be able to state that a won- 
derful change for the better has taken place in this society. 
For some two years or more, there has been no meeting of 
the society held. In August and September of 1892, after 
more or less correspondence which was largely done by Dr. 
Cochran, sufficient interest was manifested by some of the 
former members of the society to appoint a day to meet and 
re-organize. By agreemement and invitation, Dr. Cochran 
and I went to Edwardsville, on the 20th of September, 
" and met in the court room with eight of the doctors of the 
county. After discussing the status then occupied by the 


physicians of the county and the necessity and value of a 
thorough medical organization to them and to the county, 
the society was re-organized and a complete set of officers 
were elected and installed. Since then, the society has held 
several meetings, and the prospects and outlook for this 
society are very fair. Number of members, sixteen, which 
includes all in the county eligible for membership, except 
one or two. No illegal doctors in the county. As yet the 
county health officer receives no salary. Much is due for 
the new and favorable change which has occurred in this 
county to the efficient, competent and energetic president, 
Dr. W. H. BelL 

Chambers. — Wish the facts warranted me, in saying many 
pleasant words about this society. The year ending April 
1st, 1893, was no improvement on the year preceding. 
Apathy, want of interest in medical work, and possibly pro- 
fessional discord have been, unfortunately, too prominent 
with a majority of the members of this society, and with 
those not members, during the past two years. Little work 
in any department was done last year. But there is hope 
yet Only last week, on the 11th inst, there was a meeting 
of the society, with a larger attendance than for years, and 
more interest manifested. Three new members were re- 
ceived; the dues were paid up, new officers were elected, 
and two delegates were appointed to attend this meeting of 
the Association. The membership is about fifteen. There 
are physicians in the county eligible for membership, who 
are not members ; there are perhaps five illegal doctors in 
this county. The county health officer does not receive any 

Cherokee. —This society, perhaps, holds about the same 
position as it did the year previous. There have been sev- 
eral additions in membership. The number of members, 
fourteen. There are about eighteen doctors in the county, 
not members. There are two illegal doctors in the county. 
The salary of the county health officer is $150.00. The work 
in this department is not very thorough ; there is room for 
considerable improvement Two meetings of the society 


have been held in 1893, and some interest manifested. This 
society was not represented at the State Association in 1891 
and 1892. We have assurance that this society will be 
represented at this meeting. 

Coosa. — Condition about the same as for the year before. 
"Quarterly meetings" is the rule — occasionally fail to meet 
Membership about thirteen. Two reasons, chiefly, have 
prevented one or two of the regular meetings in 1892 — and 
a fuller attendance, when meetings were held. First, the 
prevalence of la grippe and typhoid fever, over a good part 
of the county, and then the distance, eighteen miles, between 
the chief towns — Goodwater and Bockford — where the 
meetings are held. The health officer's salary is $100.00, 
and the present official is active and energetic, and the work 
in this department is probably more effectively and com- 
pletely done than at any time in the past There are only 
a few physicians in the county who are not members. Taken 
altogether the condition of this society is somewhat better 
than last year. 

Colbert. — The condition of this society is not encourag- 
ing — hardly as good as it was last year. It meets quarterly 
with an average attendance of six, and has a membership of 
fifteen. There are probably four or five physicians in the 
county, eligible for membership, who are not members. I 
have not been able to ascertain what salary the county health 
officer gets, or what is the condition of the work in this de- 
partment Apathy seems to be the proper explanation of 
the present condition in Colbert 

Cullman. — The condition of this society is about as good 
as it was a year ago. A majority of its eleven members take 
an interest in the work and aims of the society. Its rule is 
to meet monthly ; and there were twelve meetings in 1892, 
with an average attendance of seventy-five per cent of its 
membership. There are only two or, perhaps, three physi- 
cians in the county eligible for membership who are not 
members. There are two doctors in the county who might 
be classed "illegaL" The county health officer's salary is 
$100.00 and the work in his department is fairly well done, 


with the probability that it will be more completely done in 
this year than it was last year. Taken altogether, the out- 
look of the society is good. 

DeKalb. — After summing up all the facts and testimony, 
would say that this society has made progress over the pre- 
ceding year, and that its condition is quite favorable. It 
has, and has had, some difficulties to contend with, not 
common perhaps to some other counties. The rule of the 
society is to meet quarterly ; but last year they held six 
meetings, with an average attendance of ten. Some new 
members were added last year. There aro quite a number 
of doctors in this county not members ; some of these doc- 
tors, strange to say, are using their influence against the 
society. There are some illegal doctors in the county. The 
Board of Medical Examiners refused certificates to several 
applicants they had examined. In the cases where they 
continued to practice, witnesses were being secured, so that 
the grand jury could take cognizance of this violation of the 
law. The board required the doctors in charge of the 
"Keely Institute at Fort Payne" to appear before them, for 
examination ; one of the two was granted a certificate, and 
the other one was refused a certificate. The latter left there 
and went to Montgomery. The salary of the health officer 
is $150.03. He experiences considerable difficulty in collect- 
ing vital and mortuary statistics ; some of the reasons being 
the want of knowledge with some of the people on this im- 
portant matter, and strange to say, yet unfortunately too 
true, "from the negligence of a number of doctors not mak- 
ing their returns." As this latter charge (rather call it a 
reproach) is not confined to the doctors of DeKalb county, 
allow me to remark, that it is a matter past explanation or 
comprehension, why, every intelligent and pains-taking 
physician in this State who has any professional, county, or 
State pride, will not, in the first part of every month, make 
out, and forward to the proper health officer, his monthly 
report ; especially, when this costs him only twenty or thirty 
minutes time — frequently not so much, and the postage, 25 
cents at most, for the year. Every physician in the State, 


whether a member of a society or not, is legally and in honor 
bound to make regularly and faithfully these reports. It is 
a reproach to fail to do so, and no physician need to bear it, 
if he will only comply with a simple requirement of the 

Etowah. — The roseate hued picture of this society, drawn 
by my predecessor twelve months ago, faded somewhat dur- 
ing the year; and bright expectations were not fully real- 
ized. In the past year there have been some dissensions, 
and unpleasant feelings with some of the members of the 
society, which resulted in reducing the membership from 
twenty-one to fourteen, caused by the withdrawal of several 
members. However, for the past three months the condi- 
tion is much better and the outlook more hopeful for the 
future. Monthly meetings are held, with an average attend- 
ance of ten. The county health officer's salary is $150.00, 
and he and the Board of Censors are working in harmony 
in the collection of vital and mortuary statistics. Taken 
altogether, the work in this department was not so well done 
in 1892 as it was in 1891. There are eight or ten doctors in 
the county eligible for membership, who are not members. 
There are two doctors in the county about whom there is 
some doubt — whether they are legal or illegal doctors. It 
is believed that this society will profit by its past experi- 
ence, and although not so large in membership, will do better 
work in the future. 

Fayette. — I regret that the facts do not warrant me in 
saying that there has been progress in this society. It has 
a "name to live," but gives very little evidence of vitality. 
Membership about the same as last year. There are some 
illegal doctors in the county. The county health officer 
accomplishes very little in his department Apathy seems 
almost general with this society and its membership. 

Franklin. — The status of this society in 1892 was about 
the same as it was in 1891. They have resolved to do better 
for 1893, and the annual meeting in January indicated that 
this would be the case. Membership, sixteen. They have 
quarterly meetings, with an average attendance of ten. 


There are several physicians in the county who ought to be 
members, but are not There are one or two illegal doctors 
in the county. The county health officer does not receive 
any salary. 

Jackson. — With pleasure I can report that the condition 
of this society is good, and its record for the past year is 
perhaps better than any other year of its existence. The 
society meets monthly, and twelve meetings were held in 
1892, with an average attendance of eight. At most of 
these meetings there was much zeal and interest manifested. 
One of the favorable changes noticeable is, that the interest 
now extends to almost every member — when before, only a 
few members were interested. The membership is fifteen, 
and there are about the same number of physicians in the 
county not members. It was expected that some of these 
outside men would join the society at the January meeting. 
There is one illegal doctor in the county. The county health 
officer's salary is $150 per annum. The work and condition 
of the department of vital and mortuary statistics is about 
the same as for the year before. 

Jeffebson. — It is gratifying to report that this, the largest 
society in the State, has made considerable progress over 
its record of the previous year. Its condition is good. It 
holds bi-monthly meetings. In 1892 there were twenty-four 
meetings, with an average attendance of twenty-four mem- 
bers. Papers were read and discussed at the meetings. 
During the year they received twenty-seven new members, 
and lost five by removal. Present membership is eighty- 
eight There is a large number of physicians in the county 
who are not members. Some of these are out of the way, 
and some are irregulars ; and if members, would not add 
strength to the society. Those who are eligible and should 
be members have been appealed to, and importuned to be- 
come members. The health officer's salary is $600 per 
annum, and he is efficient and successful in his work. There 
has been a marked and decided improvement in the work of 
collecting vital and mortuary statistics for the year 1892 
over that of 1891. The outlook for 1893 is, that it will prove 


a prosperous one for the society. It was my privilege and 
pleasure to be present in the latter part of November at one 
of the regular meetings of this society. 

Lamar. — This society occupies about the same position it 
did the year previous. It has perhaps neither progressed 
nor retrograded. Quarterly meetings are held, with an aver- 
age attendance of six. Their meetings are made interesting 
and profitable to those present The work of collecting vital 
and mortuary statistics is perhaps improving. The salary 
of the county health officer is $25. The membership of this 
society is small, and the effort is being made to induce the 
physicians, not members, to join. There are two illegal 
doctors in the county. 

Lauderdale. — It is not betraying any confidence reposed 
in me, and will not be imparting information to this Asso- 
ciation, when it is stated that this society has been in a fee- 
ble, unsatisfactory and almost disorganized condition for 
several years. This much was about all I was able to learn 
from one of its former members in the latter part of 1892. 
The facts I shall give you now, in regard to its present status, 
have come to me within the past five days, through that 
tireless worker and vigilant sentinel, our senior censor. On 
last Tuesday, the 11th instant, he met with a number of 
physicians at Florence, and succeeded in re-organizing the 
society, all the former members now in the county, except 
one, resuming their membership, and three new members 
joining. New officers were elected, delegates were ap- 
pointed to attend this session of the Association at Selma, 
and the prospect for the future of this society has greatly 

Lawrence. — We may say that this society holds equally 
as good a position now as it did a year ago, with the outlook 
favorable for advancement in the medical year just now 
commenced. The county is a large one and the physicians 
greatly scattered, which makes it difficult for a large attend- 
ance at society meetings. Members, fifteen ; average attend- 
ance, seven. There are several physicians in the county not 
members, who ought to be. There are probably two illegal 


doctors. The county health officer's salary is $160. The 
work in this department has not increased in efficiency during 
the past year. 

Limestone. — The condition of this society is by no means 
bright and encouraging. Meetings in 1892 were very few. 
Membership, nine. The salary of the county health officer 
is $150. I have not been able to diagnose the cause of the 
low vitality in this society, and will not venture to prescribe 
in the case. 

Madison. — After reasonable efforts to obtain information 
of this society from officials, and not xwcceeding, I turned to 
a private member, and prompted by that courtesy and great 
interest which he feels for the advancement of the profes- 
sion and medical organization, he replied promptly to my 
communication. The information obtained is not so definite 
or so general as I desired ; but taken altogether, the condi- 
tion of this society remains about the same as it was the 
year before. There seems to be more or less apathy with 
the membership, especially with the doctors living in the 
country. Of the number of members, number of meetings 
held, average attendance, the salary of the health officer, 
and the work in that department, I am not able to inform 

Since the above was written, and within the past forty- 
eight hours, a letter from the president of this society says 
the outlook for the coming year is very encouraging. 

Marion. — After various efforts in writing to supposed offi- 
cials and private members of this society, I have completely 
failed to gather any information in regard to it. My letters 
have been unnoticed. The society may be living. I have 
no evidence of it. It is the only county in my division from 
which I failed to get some information — and therefore I am 
unable to give you any in regard to it 

Marshall. — Regret that the facts do not warrant me in 
reporting this society to be on the up-grade. There has 
been no improvement perhaps in the past year. This society 
is alive, but has not given much evidence of this fact by its 
works during the past year. Its rule is to meet quarterly, 


but there was but one meeting of the society in 1892, with 
an attendance of six members, the total membership being 
nine. There are four or five doctors in the county eligible 
for membership, who are not members. There are two ille- 
gal doctors in the county. The county health officer does 
not receive any salary. The commissioners' court does not 
allow pay for this work. In this county, as well as some of 
the other counties in the northern division, the mixed, 
unusual and unfortunate political condition existing through 
the greater part of 1892, had a great deal to do in lessening 
interest, preventing progress and harmony in the work of 
county societies. Within the past five days, and since the 
above was written, information has been received that new 
life and interest has been infused into this society. Some 
official changes have been made, and at the beginning of 
this medical year is more favorable for advancement than 
ever before. 

Morgan. — It has been with some difficulty that I have 
obtained any information in regard to this society, as the 
several officials from whom I made effort to obtain it, and 
who knew the real condition, for some reason treated my 
letters with silence. What I have learned is chiefly through 
a member of this Association, who is always ready to 
respond to the call of duty, whether the call comes from 
suffering humanity, or from the medical body ot which he is 
a loyal member. I regret that the condition of this society 
has not improved during the past year. In the year 1892 
there was very little interest manifested, although the rule 
of the society is to hold monthly meetings, yet there were 
only four or five during 1892. In the February meeting of 
this year there was a good attendance. New officials were 
elected, and new resolves were passed that they would do 
better for the future. As "hope" is a great solace at all 
times, let us console ourselves with this reflection, and 
"hope for the best" The county health officer's salary is 
$150.00, and the work in. this department is being fairly 
well done. I am not able to give you any reliable informa- 
tion as to the number of members, or the number of physi- 


cians in the county not members, or whether there are any 
illegal doctors in the county. 

Pickens. — From this picture, which is not so inspiring, 
let us draw one, from one of our border counties on the 
west, which brings hope and encouragement. The condition 
of this society is quite good. Better than it was the year 
previous, and the outlook promising for this year. The 
membership is twenty-one. There were three meetings 
held in 1892, with an average attendance of ten. These 
meetings were interesting and instructive. There were four 
new members added last year, and two lost from the society 
by removal. There are probably not more than two physi- 
cians in the county eligible for membership who are not 
members. There are no illegal doctors in the county. The 
work of collecting vital and mortuary statistics in 1892 was 
imperfectly done. The county health officer receives no 
salary. For 1893 a new health officer has been elected. He 
is competent and ambitious, a recent graduate of the Medi- 
cal College of Alabama, and it is believed that there will be 
a very considerable improvement in this department The 
board of censors meet regularly. One other fact will be 
given which I consider of great value and worthy to be 
mentioned in a report like this — it is that " a more conge- 
nial and fraternal feeling" could not exist Wish that this 
could be said of all our county societies. 

Randolph. — We may say that this society's status in 1892 
was about the same as in 1891. But very recently a favor- 
able change has occurred, advancing it to a better condition 
and making the outlook more favorable for the near future. 
The membership is seventeen. In 1892 there were three 
meetings of the society, with an average attendance of ten. 
All of the physicians in the county eligible for membership 
are members. It is, perhaps, true that the society and its 
agent, the "Medical Examining Board," are liable to censure 
for permitting graduates to practice, before passing an exam- 
ination and receiving certificates to do so. There have 
been two or three cases of this kind, unless my information 
is incorrect Very recently the board seemed to realize 


that the above duty belongs to them, and will now attend to 
this very important and legal requirement with that prompt- 
ness and fidelity which the nature and gravity of this trust 
certainly demands. In the department of vital and mortu- 
ary statistics, we may say that practically nothing has been 
done. The county commissioners have heretofore declined 
to make any appropriation for the services of the county 
health officer. But very recently they have been induced 
to allow $75.00 per annum as a salary to this official. The 
indications at this time are that the year just entered upon 
will show very considerable progress in this matter, and 
also in the other departments of the society's work 

Shelby. — This society maintains about the same position 
as for the year previous. It does not seem to progress or 
to retrograde. It meets monthly, with an average attend- 
ance of eight The meetings are generally interesting and 
instructive. Because of the distance to travel, it is unusual 
to have a large attendance at the meetings. There is one 
illegal doctor in the county, and he has been prosecuted. 
The commissioners' court will not allow any salary to the 
county health officer. The work in this department is not 
in a satisfactory condition. The present membership of the 
society is eleven. 

St. Clair. — The condition of this society is quite as good 
now, perhaps a little better, than it was a year ago. The 
membership is twelve; meets quarterly; attendance not 
large. One cause why the attendance is not large is due to 
the topography of the county. There is a range of moun- 
tains running through the center of the county, dividing it 
into two nearly equal parts, which makes it a laborious 
thing, especially in bad weather, for the members on one 
side to go to some point on the other side of this mountain 
to attend a meeting of the society. There are some physi- 
cians in the county not members, who ought to be. Some 
effort has been made to influence them to become mem- 
bers, and will still be made to accomplish this end. 
There are no illegal doctors in the county. The county 
health officer's salary is $75.00. There was a new one 


elected in January. The work in this department is as 
good as it was the previous year. The outlook indicates 
that there will be improvement in its general work for 

Talladega. — The condition of this society can be classi- 
fied as good. There has been no boom nor sensational re- 
vival in the past year with it; but there has been some 
progress and steady growth. Its quarterly meetings have 
all been held, with an average attendance of twelve. Those 
meetings have been interesting and instructive. Twenty 
represents the active membership, and four honorary mem- 
bers. There have been three new members received during 
the year. From the roll there have been five names re- 
moved; one because the member moved from the county; 
one caused by death, and three dropped from the roll, be- 
cause of non-payment of dues and non-attendance at society 
meetings for more than two years. There are not more 
than four or five physicians in the county, eligible for mem- 
bership, who are not members. There is one illegal doctor 
in the county. He registered his diploma in the probate 
judge's office during the time the penalty for illegal practice 
was inoperative, and has refused to appear before the Med- 
ical Examining Board. The county health officer's salary 
is $125.00. There is improvement in this work ; but the 
condition is not what it ought to be. The Board of Medical 
Examiners did some good work in the year 1892 ; better 
than any previous year. They examined four young men, 
graduated from four different medical colleges. Three of 
these examinations were first-class, and certificates were 
granted ; the fourth showed the applicant to be clearly in- 
competent, and he was rejected. He was greatly incensed 
at the result ; made threats against the board ; said he would 
continue to practice, and would appeal to the State Board. 
He did not make good any of his assertions, and when he 
ascertained that another tribunal would take charge of his 
case, he quietly left the county, and his present location is 
not known to me. 

Tallapoosa. — This society maintains about the same posi- 


tion it did the year before. Its condition may be said to be 
fairly good. Membership, twenty-two — rule is to meet 
quarterly ; average attendance, six. There are two physi- 
cians in the county eligible for membership, who are not 
members. There is one illegal doctor. The county health 
officer's salary is $100.00. The work in this department has 
not improved any in the past twelve months. The present 
president of the society, and the county health officer, both 
recently elected, are one and the same person, and it is ex- 
pected that new life will be infused and progress made in 
all of the work of the society for the year 1893. 

Tuscaloosa. — The condition of this society may be classed 
as good. ' It meets monthly, with a fair attendance. The 
physicians from the country do not attend regularly. Can- 
not give the exact membership, or the real condition of the 
work in the health department, although an effort was made 
to obtain the information. The salary of the county health 
officer is $100.00. As worthy of remark, will state that a 
fraternal and agreeable spirit pervades the members of this 

Walker. — The condition of this society may be stated to 
be about as good as for the year previous. The degree of 
interest, through part of the year 1892, was lessened because 
of the unfortunate and unhealthy political excitement exist- 
ing in that county ; which was also the case with a number 
of other county societies. The number of members is six- 
teen. In 1892 there were six meetings, with an average at- 
tendance of seven. There are two illegal doctors in the 
county. One of them has been indicted, and the other one 
will probably comply with the law. The county health offi- 
cer did receive a salary of $120.00; am not able to say 
whether this is the case for 1893, as there was some doubt 
whether the commissioners court would continue the allow- 
ance. There probably has not been any improvement in the 
work of collecting vital and mortuary statistics in the year 
1892 over that of 1891. 

Winston. — This society maintains a very good position, 
aud it? condition is fully 9s fayprable as for the year before. 


It consists of a little band of seven. They hold quarterly 
meetings with an average attendance of six. There are only 
two physicians in the county, not members ; one of these 
belongs to the Botanic, and the other, to the Homeopathic 
school The health officer receives a salary of $50.00, and 
work in this department is tolerably well done, with some 
improvement in 1892, over that of 1891. A pleasant feature 
exists with this little band, which shall be mentioned, "they 
dwell together in harmony and peace." 

Thus have been brought in review the thirty-three counties 
of the Northern Division. By considerable effort, made in 
different ways, and through different persons, information 
and reports more or less perfect in regard to them, have 
been obtained from all of them, except Marion. In my ex- 
tended and frequent correspondence, in several instances, I 
was surprised and disappointed, in failing to receive any 
response from officials from whom I confidently expected 
information. Then turning to unofficial members of the 
society, it was pleasant to receive their prompt and courteous 

The status of these societies, compared with the year be- 
fore, might be classified under three heads or degrees, viz. : 
Advanced, Stationary, Declined, We may say that twelve of 
these societies have advanced; that fifteen of them are 
stationary, and six of them have declined. The information 
gathered during the past year, as to the moral, intellectual 
and professional status, and character of the physicians of 
Alabama, convinces me that the work of organization, educa- 
tion and qualification, is not completed; and therefore it 
should continue to be one of the great aims and ends of this 
Association. Second, in this "campaign of education," we 
should insist and demand, first, that proper preliminary edu- 
cational qualification must be possessed by the would-be 
doctor. Second, evidence of a thorough medical education, and 
third, the combination with the two preceding requirements, 
of moral integrity, with the intelligent apprehension of the 
high plane a physician should occupy. 



Mr. President: 

Since I received from yon, through onr honored Senior 
Censor, on February 20th last, my appointment as Secretary 
of this Association, I have endeavored to do the work as 
faithfully and as correctly as I could, with the somewhat 
incorrect data at my command. 

The books, as transferred to me by my predecessor, were 
models of neatness, and though they were not written up to 
date, still I dare say they would have been, by the time of 
this meeting. 

The Grand Roll of Honor (the Book of the Dead) now 
contains twenty-two portraits of those who have passed 
away from the work they have so faithfully performed while 
with us — two more than when we met last April in Mont- 
gomery. These two are Dr. Peter Bryce, of Tuscaloosa and 
Dr. Daniel Edgarly Smith, of Mobile. I have succeeded in 
obtaining the necessary information, and have written a 
brief life-history of these distinguished members of our 

Through the assistance of Dr. Jerome Cochran, I have 
also been enabled to write up the life-history of Dr. M. EL 
Jordan, of Birmingham, and with the assistance of Dr. B. J. 
Baldwin, our former president, that of Dr. J. S. Weatherly, 
of Montgomery. 

I take this opportunity to express my thanks to Dr. Jno. 
A. Pritchett of Hay neville, for the assistance he has rendered 
me in getting the necessary data for the life-history of Dr. 
John Patrick Mushatt, of HaynevUle, and I also express my 
thanks to Dr. William EL Sanders, of Mobile, for his valuable 
assistance in the preparation of the life-histories of Drs. 
William EL Anderson and Caleb Toxey, both of Mobile. I 
have also succeeded in compiling a brief history of Drs. 


Wm. D. Bizzell of Atlanta, Ga., and Edmund Pendleton 
Gaines, of Mobile. The latter two I have arranged as best 
I could, from such information as I could find in the "Book 
of the Bolls" and in the various volumes of the 'Transac- 

I therefore, Mr. President, present you the "Book of the 
Dead," complete to date. 

"The Book of Portraits" is not complete by any means, 
though I have addressed a written request to each coun- 
sellor, whose portrait is absent from this album. So far, 
however, I have received but two portraits in reply, viz.: 
those of Dr. Shirley Bragg and Dr. Thaddeus L. Robertson. 

I hope our honored Board of Censors will see fit to make 
some recommendation to the Association, which will enable 
the Secretary to complete this work, which forms such an 
interesting feature of our Association. 

The "Book of the Bolls" is not complete, but I have en- 
deavored to obtain all the information necessary. Such as 
I have obtained, I have inserted. Unless the counsellors 
reply to the requests, the Secretary is unable to keep up 
this book, which is the most important of alL 

At the last meeting of the Association, held in Mont- 
gomery, there were seven counsellors elected. Of these, all 
have accepted the honor and signed the counsellor's pledge, 
except two, viz.: Dr. Allen Love Warren of Kowaliga, El- 
more county, who declined the honor, March 11th, on account 
of ill health, and Dr. Edward Pierson Nicholson, Valley 
Head, DeKalb county. 

On March 3rd, I mailed about fifteen hundred (1500) 
copies of the annual circular, containing the necessary in- 
formation for the members, delegates, Ac., in regard to the 
present meeting. The special rates I obtained, partly 
through Mr. M. Slaughter, of Atlanta, Assistant Commis- 
sioner Southern Passenger Association, and partly through 
the general passenger agents of those roads, which are not 
members of that association. 

After consultation with the Senior Censor, and with your 
own approval, I purchased for the use of the Secretary, a 


cabinet-desk, as a place for safe-keeping of all the books, 
seals and other property of the Association, belonging to 
the office of the Secretary. The cost of this desk was 
twenty-five dollars. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. B. Jordan, M. D., 





Mr. President : 

We beg to submit the following report, as the result of our work 
for the past year : 

Eleven hundred copies of the Transactions at a cost of— 

Printing $ 864 80 

Binding. 108 00 

Shipping, including postage 88 68— $1,141 48 

800 examination blanks 2 60 

660 postal cards and printing (two forms) 9 50 

700 envelopes and printing 1 50 

800 application blanks, Form 8 5 00 

1600 annual circulars (Dr. Jordan) 6 00—$ 34 50 

Total expenditures $1,165 08 

Publications received through the State Board of Health Library 
during the year 1892— 

Transactions State Medical Societies (No. copies.) 28 

Annual Reports State Boards Health " 24 

Annual Reports City Boards Health " 10 

Monthly Statements of Boards Health (for '02, sets complete). . 16 

Weekly Statements of Boards Health 8 

Monthly Medical and Surgical Journals (regular) 11 

Miscellaneous Med. Journals, Essays, Lectures, Monographs, Ac. 166 

Government Publications 105 

Total. . . . .' 848 

In addition to the above publications received by the State Board 
of Health Library, the following were contributed by Dr. J. A. Wil- 
kinson, Flomaton, Ala. : 

The Journal of Obstetrics for 1886-87-88 (complete). 
The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal for 1882-88-84-85- 
86-87-88-80-00-01 (complete). 
The N. Y. Medical Record for 1885-86-87-88-80-00-01 (complete). 
Medical Statistics, vols. 1-2, 1875. 


Monthly Medical and Surgical Periodicals that came regularly : 

The Alabama Medical and Surgical Age. 

The Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The Virginia Medical Monthly. 

The Texas Sanitarian. 

The Sanitary Inspector (Augusta, Me.). 

The Sanitary Record (Columbus, Ohio). 

Practice (Richmond, Va.>. 

Merck's Bulletin (New York). 

Physical Education (Massachusetts). 

The Monthly Bulletin (Rhode Island). 

The Analyst (N. Y.) (semi-monthly). 

Monthly and Weekly Statements of Boards of Health that came 
regularly : 


For the City of Mobile, Ala. 

" " " " Nashville, Tenn. 

".."." M Portland, Me. 

" " " " Chicago, 111. 

« " « « San Antonio, Texas. 

" " M " Denver, Colorado. 

« " « " Des Moines, Iowa. 

" u " " St. Paul, Minn. 

«« u u u Tacomaj Wagh# 

Bulletin State Board of Health of Tennessee. 

" " " " Connecticut. 

North Carolina. 
" . " New York. 


For the City of Pensacola, Fla. 

For the City of New Orleans, La. 

Abstract Sanitary Reports, Washington, D. C. 

Of the eleven hundred copies of the Transactions published, there 
were distributed— 

To County Societies 606 

Delegates 88 

Counsellors (96) 190 

Correspondents 12 

Exchanges— State Boards of Health 88 

M Medical Associations 8 


Federal Government 8 

State Government 6 

Miscellaneous — Honors 2 

Alabama State Board of Health Library 186 

Secretary's office 1 

Total distribution 1100 

Note. — It will be seen that the report of the Publishing Committee 
does not correspond with that of the Treasurer. The reason of this 
is that our report begins with April 27th, 1892, while that of the 
Treasurer begins earlier in the year. 

J. R. Jordan, M. D., 
R. F. Michbl, M. D., 

Publishing Committee. 



Walter Clark Jackson, M. D., Treasurer, 

In account with the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, 

from April 12th, 1892, to April 18th, 1808. 

To Annual Dues of Counsellors— 


Abernethy, William Henry, Tinela $ 10 00 

Baldridge, Milton Columbus, Huntsville 10 00 

Brockway, Dudley Samuel, Livingston 10 00 

Brown, Pugh H., Troy 10 00 

Bryce, Peter, Tuscaloosa. 10 00 

Cason, Davis Elmore, Ashville 10 00 

Cochran, Jerome, Mobile 10 00 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, Decatur 10 00 

DuBose, Wilds Scott, Columbiana 10 00 

Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs 10 00 

Fletcher, Richard Matthew, Madison 10 00 

Furnis8, John Perkins, Selma. 10 00 

Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, Mobile 10 00 

Gaston, John Brown, Montgomery 10 00 

Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, Jasper 10 00 

Hayes, Robert Hughes, Union Springs 10 00 

Hendrick, Gustavus, Brundidge 10 00 

Hill, Samuel Henry, Carrollton 

Hogan, Samuel Mardis, Union Springs 10 00 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles, Letohatchie 10 00 

Jackson, Robert Dandridge, Summerfleld 10 00 

Jackson, Walter Clark, Montgomery 10 00 

Jay, Andrew, Evergreen 10 00 

Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham 10 00 

Jones, Capers Capehart, East Lake 10 00 

Kendrick, Joel Cloud, Greenville 10 00 

Kendrick, William Toulmin, Montgomery 10 00 

Ketchum, George Augustus, Mobile 10 00 

Luckie, James Buchner, Birmingham 10 00 

McKinnon, John Alexander, Selma 10 00 

McKittrick, Adam Alexander, Evergreen 10 00 

Means, Thomas Alexander, Montgomery 10 00 


Michel, Richard Fraser, Montgomery $ 10 00 

Moody, Joseph, Franconia 10 00 

Peterson, Francis Marion, Greensboro 10 00 

Prince, Francis Marion, Bessemer 10 00 

Pritehett, John Albert, Hayneville 10 00 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, Birmingham 10 00 

Sanders, William Henry, Mobile 10 00 

Sears, John William, Birmingham 10 00 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery 10 00 

Sholl, Edward Henry, Birmingham 10 00 

Sledge, William Henry, Livingston 10 00 

Smith, Daniel Edgarly, Mobile 10 00 

Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden 10 00 

Stoyall, Andrew McAdams, Jasper 10 00 

Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega. 10 00 

Thigpen, Job, Greenville 10 00 

Thomas, James Grey, Mobile 10 00 

Wall, Conrad, Forest Home 10 00 

Webb, Robert Dickens, Birmingham 10 00 

$ 500 00 


Baldwin, Benjamin James, Montgomery $ 10 00 

Bragg, Shirley, Lowndesboro 10 00 

Darby, John Isaac, Columbia 

Goggans, James Adrian, Alexander City 10 00 

Goodwin, Albert, Eufaula 10 00 

Hugging, Jacob, New Berne 10 00 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler, Mobile. 10 00 

Kendrick, Joel Beder, Birmingham 10 00 

Lowry, Samuel Hickman, Huntsville 10 00 

Nolen, Abner Jackson, New Site 10 00 

Redden, Robert James, Sulligent 10 00 

Rushing, Francis Marion, Elba 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa 10 00 

Trent, Powhatan Green, Rock Mills 10 00 

Whaley, Lewis, Birmingham 10 00 

Whelan, Charles, Birmingham 10 00 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, Montgomery 10 00 

Wilkinson, James Anthony, Flomaton 10 00 

$ 160 00 


Barnes, Benjamin Shields, Suggsville 

Binford, Peter, Somerville $ JO 00 

Camp, Erasmus Taylor, Gadsden 10 00 


Coley, Andrew Jackson, Alexander City $ 10 00 

Copeland, William Preston, Eufaula 10 00 

Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville 10 00 

Deweese, Thomas [Peters, Nauvoo 10 00 

Dowling, Oscar, Columbia 10 00 

Goode, Rhett, Mobile 10 00 

Harlan, John Jefferson, Hayneville 10 00 

Hatchett, James Benton, Athens 10 00 

Heacock, John William, Alpine 10 00 

Hill, Luther Leon i das, Montgomery 10 00 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston 10 00 

Marechal, Edwin Lesley, Mobile 10 00 

MoWhorter, George Tilghman, Riverton 10 00 

Purdon, John Edward, Cullman 10 00 

Band, Edgar, Leighton 10 00 

Robinson, Christopher Americus, Huntsville 10 00 

Stewart, John Pope, Attalla. 10 00 

Thomason, William Levi, Guntersville 10 00 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega 10 00 

Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville 10 00 

Wilkerson, Charles A., Marion 10 00 

$ 28000 


Blake, Wyatt Heflin, Lineville $ 10 00 

Duggar, Reuben Henry, Gallion 5 00 

Jordan, James Beid, Montgomery 5 00 

Nicholson, Edward Pierson, Valley Head 

Warren, Allen Love, Eowaliga 

Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, Demopolis 5 00 

Wilkinson, John Edward, Prattville 10 00 

$ 8500 
To Dues from Medical Societies— 

Autauga $ 800 

Barbour 18 00 

Baldwin 8 00 



Bullock 17 00 

Butler 7 00 

Calhoun 20 00 


Chilton 8 00 

Choctaw 12 00 

Cherokee 12 00 







Conecuh . . . . 


Covington.. .. 





















Limestone. . . 













Randolph.. . . 



8t Clair 


10 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

5 00 

9 00 


10 00 

6 00 

11 00 

23 00 

18 00 

16 00 

10 00 

8 00 



8 00 


10 00 

13 00 

60 00 



5 00 


12 00 

12 00 

11 00 

17 00 

7 00 

5 00 

10 00 

23 00 

10 00 

11 00 


11 00 


8 00 

5 00 

11 00 



Talladega $ 9 00 

Tallapoosa 6 00 

Tuscaloosa 18 00 

Walker 12 00 


Wilcox 4 00 

Winston 6 00 

$ 620 00 
To Dubs from Delegates- 

Autauga— Walter Jay Bell, Prattville $ 5 00 

Barbour — Samuel Augustus Holt, Eufaula 5 00 

Bullock— Samuel Calvin Cowan, Union Springs 5 00 

Henry Mitchell Hunter, Union Springs 5 00 

Butler— Francis Marion Thigpen, Greenville 6 00 

Calhoun— William Buchanan Arberry, Anniston 5 00 

John Howard Murfree, Anniston 5 00 

Clarke— Gross Scruggs Chapman, Jackson 5 00 

Colbert— James Marion Pinkston, Sheffield 5 00 

Coosa— Julius Jones, Rockford 5 00 

Crenshaw— William Henry Costan, Leon 5 00 

Joseph Robert Horn, Luverne 5 00 

Cullman— Edward A. H. Purdon, Cullman 5 00 

Dale— Robert Franklin Harper, Ozark 5 00 

Dallas— Edward Burton Ward, Selma 5 00 

DeEaib— Edward Pierson Nicholson, Valley Head 5 00 

Elmore— James Augustus Howie, Jordan 5 00 

William Allen Huddleston, Wetumpka 5 00 

Escambia— Stephen Cary Henderson, Brewton 5 00 

John Elijah Martin, Brewton 

Etowah— William Sterling Edwards, Gadsden 5 00 

Fayette— Thomas Clark Morton, Fayette C. H 5 00 

Hale — Reuben Henry Duggar, Gallion 5 00 

Rufus Jackson Griffin, Carthage 5 00 

Henry — John Robert Graves Howell, Dothan. .'. 

Jefferson — John Thomas Chapman, Bessemer 5 00 

Robert Neal Ramsay, Thomas 5 00 

Lamar— William Locke Morton, Vernon 5 00 

Lee— William Calvin Hanson, Auburn 5 00 

Macon — Clarence Lee Crawford Atkeson, Notasulga 5 00 

Madison— Louis Mills Siddons, Gurley 5 00 

Marengo— Robert Bell McCants, Faunsdale 5 00 

Bryan Watkins Whitfield, Demopolis 5 00 

Marshall— Thaddeus Alonzo Casey, Galliton 5 00 

Phocian B. Lusk, Guntersville 5 00 

Mobile— William Richard Jackson, Mobile 5 00 

Samuel Rutherford Olliphant, Mobile 5 00 


Montgomery— Robert Sommerville Hill, Montgomery $ 5 00 

Isaac LaFayette Watkins, Montgomery 5 00 

Morgan— Samuel Lile, New Decatur 5 00 

Pickens— Victor Savage, Gordo 5 00 

Pike— Charles McSwean, Brundidge 6 00 

Shelby— John Harford Williams, Columbiana 5 00 

Sumter — Samuel Patton Hand, Coatopa 5 00 

Talladega— George Armstrong Hill, Sylacauga 5 00 

Jason Samuel McCants, Talladega 5 00 

Tallapoosa— Joseph Wiley McClendon, Jackson's Gap 5 00 

Tuscaloosa— Joseph Louis Fant, Tuscaloosa 5 00 

Walker— Charles Beaufort Jackson, Horse Creek 5 00 

Total from Delegates $ 285 00 


By expenses printing Transactions $1,211 48 

rent theatre 50 00 

expenses last session 85 20 

Dr. T. A. Mean* 106 47 

M " 141 55 

Dr. J. R. Jordan 18 05 

W. C. Holt 2 60 

G. W. Beers A Co., printers 18 95 

Dr. J. R. Jordan 2 68 

W. 0. Holt 1 75 

book case 25 00 

registrar 10 00 

Dr. W. C. Jackson, salary 100 00 

postage 5 00 

Dr. J. R. Jordan 50 76 

By total of all expenditures $ 1,804 44 

Summary Statement. 

To balance on hand last statement $ 1,273 68 

dues from counsellors 925 CO 

dues from medical societies 620 00 

dues from delegates 245 00 

cash from sale of Transactions 11 00 

interest on deposit 92 04 

Total receipts $ 8,166 67 

By total expenditures 1,804 44 

To balance due Association $ 1,862 28 

By credit to Association Moses Bank. . . 1,800 58 

To cash balance 50 65 


Notb.— By vote of the Association the Treasurer is relieved of all 
responsibility for the money deposited by him in the Moses Bros. 
Bank. At the time of last report this deposit amounted to $1,584.46 ; 
this amount was augmented by interest allowed between time of 
suspension of the bank and time when the bank was- placed in the 
hands of Commissioners, amounting to $92.04, making a total of 
$1,626.60. During the past year the Commissioners have paid divi- 
dends to the amount of $826.92, which leaves the claim against Moses 
Brothers in the amount as stated above. This claim is now the prop- 
erty of the Association, and the Treasurer is charged with the duty 
of collecting for the Association such dividends thereon as may from 
time to time become available. 


The following counsellors have not paid their dues: Drs. S. H* 
Hill, F. M. Rushing, John I. Darby and B. S. Barnes. 

The following counsellors-elect failed to accept the positions: 
Drs. Edward Pierson Nicholson, and Allen Love Warren. 

The following county societies have paid no dues : Bibb, Blount, 
Chambers, Geneva, Lauderdale and Washington. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

W. C. Jackson, 


After the reading of this report, as the hour was late, the 
Senior Censor, Dr. Jerome Cochran, moved that the Moni- 
tor's address be postponed until the evening session at the 
theatre, and that it be delivered immediately after the 
annual oration. Carried. 

The Association, on motion, adjourned at 3 P. m. to meet 
in the Academy of Music at 8 p. m. 


Evening Session— Academy of Music. 

The Association was called to order at 8:30 P. M. by the 
President, who immediately introduced to the audience the 
orator of the Association, Dr. Glenn Andrews, of Mont- 

(This address will be found in the Appendix of Medical 
and Sanitary Dissertations and Reports.) 

The President next introduced Dr. William Henry San- 
ders, of Mobile, who delivered the Monitor's Address. 

(This address will be found in the Appendix of Medical 
and Sanitary Dissertations and Reports). 

The Association and audience were also entertained by a 
programme of music and recitations by local talent 




Wednesday, April 19 — Morning Session. 


The Association was called to order at 10 a. m. by the 
President, and opened with prayer by Rev. R. W. Barnwell, 
of Selma. 

There being no miscellaneous business, the Secretary 
proceeded to call the schedule of the Regular Reporters in 
the following order : 

(1) Thomas Willborn Ayers, M. D., Jacksonville; Pro- 
gress of Medicine. 

(2) Eugene DuBose Bondurant, M. D., Tuscaloosa ; In- 
sanity in Alabama. 

(3) Russell McWhorter Cunningham, M. D., Pratt Mines ; 
The Negro as a Convict 

(4) Luther Leonidas Hill, M. D., Montgomery ; Progress 
in Surgery. 

(5) Thomas Duke Parke, M. D., Birmingham ; Continued 
Fevers in Birmingham. 

(6) John Albert Pritchett, M. D., Hayneville ; Tubercu- 
losis in the Negro. 

(7) Isaac LaFayette Watkins, M. D., Montgomery; 

The Association then, at 4 p. m., adjourned. 

Note.— The foregoing reports were read in the order given, and 
under the rules, were referred to the Publishing Committee. These 
reports, with the discussions following them, will be found in the 
Appendix of Medical and Sanitary Dissertations and Reports, in the 
latter part of this volume. 


Evening Session. 

The Association was called to order at 8 P. M. by the 

Under the head of miscellaneous business, the discussion 
of Dr. Parke's report on "Continued Fevers in Birming- 
ham," was continued. 

Upon the conclusion of this discussion, at 10 P. M., the 
Association, onjnotion, adjourned. 



Thubsday, April 20— Morning Session. 


The Association was called to order at 10 A M. by Presi- 
dent Searcy, and opened with prayer by the Bey. A- J. 
Lamar, of Selma. 

Under the head of miscellaneous business, the President 
announced that there was one regular report which had not 
been read, viz : Dr. L L. Watkins' ; subject, Gynaecology — 
(see preceding page). 

This report was then read by Dr. Jordan in the absence 
of Dr. Watkins, which, with the discussion, will be found in 
the proper place. 

The discussion of the regular reports was here ended, and 
the Association at once proceeded to the Omnibus Dis- 

The following list of volunteer papers was then called by 
the Secretary, and they were read and discussed in the 
order named : 

(1) Andrew Boyd, M. D., Scottsboro; Fistula in Ano. 

(2) W. E. B. Davis, M. D., Birmingham; Ectopic Gesta- 
tion. (Specimens). 

(3) W. W.Harper, M.D., Selma; Skin Grafting. 

(4) W. H. Johnston, M. D., Birmingham; Tedious and 
Powerless Labors ; their Causes and Treatment 

(5) Goldsby King, M. D., Selma ; Case of Osteo-Myelitis. 
(Exhibiting the patient). 

(6) William H. Sanders, M. D., Mobile ; Glioma Betinae. 

(7) R D. Webb, M. D., Birmingham; "Death." (This 
paper was read bv Dr. E. H. Scholl, M. D., Birmingham). 

(8) A. M. Stovall, M. D., Jasper; Infant Feeding. 


(9) Charles A. Thigpen, M. D., Montgomery; Post-Nasal 
Adenoid Growths and their Treatment 

(10) R S. Hill, M. D., Montgomery ; Surgery. (Bead by 

(11) B. R Pearson, M. D., Montgomery; Some of the 
More Common Diseases of the Eectum. (Bead by title). 

The omnibus discussion was here ended, and Dr. E. EL 
Sholl, of Birmingham, moved that the hour of meeting for 
Friday, April 21, be changed from 10 A. M. to 9 A. M. 

The Association, then, at 3 P. m., on motion, adjourned. 

Thursday, Apbii 20— Evening Session. 

The Association was entertained at the Hotel Albert 
by a reception and a lunch given by the local profession. 



Friday, April 21. 


The Association was called to order at 9 A M. by President 
Searcy, and opened with prayer by the Rev. J. W. Duvall, 
of Selma. 

There being no miscellaneous business, Dr. B. W. Toole, 
of Talladega, moved the following — 


At the close of this session of the Medical Association of the State 
of Alabama, we claim the privilege and pleasure of making some 
acknowledgment of the kindly attention and generous hospitality of 
which we have been the recipients from the warm-hearted people of 
this beautiful city, and which will cause us to remember this meeting 
with more than ordinary satisfaction. It has been an appropriate 
celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of this Association in the 
place of its real birth. 

First— To the municipal authorities for the cordial greeting and 
eloquent words of welcome extended to us by their Mayor, Hon. H. 
H. Stewart. 

Second— To the citizens of Selma for their thoughtful attentions and 
unceasing efforts to make our sojourn with them in every way 

Third— To the medical profession of the city and county for their 
kindness and the warm-hearted welcome given us by their represen- 
tative, Dr. S. Q. Gay. 

Fourth— To the ladies and gentlemen who rendered the first even- 
ing of our session so delightful with music— soft, enchanting melody, 
—our thanks are due. 

Fifth— To the local profession and citizens, we would return thanks 
for the very elegant reception given to the Association on Thursday 
evening at the Hotel Albert, where the beauty, wit, refreshment and 
hospitality of this fair city were so harmoniously blended and exhib- 
ited, as the hundreds of ladies and gentlemen enjoyed the sumptuous 


repast in the capacious and attractive dining-room of the stately and 
beautiful Hotel Albert. 

Sixth— To the railroads of the State that have given us a reduction 
of fare in attending our annual session, and to the Press of the city 
for the pleasant notice and reports they have given of us and our 
proceedings, our sincere thanks are returned. 

With grateful recollections of all of these courtesies and attentions, 
we will return to our homes with hearts full of pleasant memories of 
our visit to this beautiful city. 

The Report of the Board of Board of Censors was then 
read as follows : 




Part I. The Report of the Board of Censors. The Work of the 
State Association — The President's Message — The Reports of the 
Vice-Presidents — The Report of the Secretary and the Book of the 
Rolls— The Report of the Publishing Committee— The Report of 
the Treasurer and the Book of Accounts — The Roll of the Corre- 
spondents—Revision of the Minutes of 1892— Amendments to the 
Constitution— Delinquent County Societies— Recent Medical Legis- 
lation — The Historian— Case of Dr. W. C. Wheeler — Banquets add 
Receptions— The Work of the County Societies. 

Part II. The Report of the State Board of Medical Examiners. 
The Work of the State Board— Dollar Dues for Examination Papers 
—Important Suggestions for the Medical Examining Boards— New 
Rules for the Examining Boards— Illegal Practitioners — Beneficiary 
Scholarships — Remarks by Members of the State Board — The Work 
of the County Boards. 

Part III. The Rkport of the State Board of Health. The Work 
of the State Board — Financial Statement — Inspection of Jails and 
Poor Houses — Conference of State Boards of Health— The Work of 
the County Boards of Health. 

Part IV. Supplement art Papers. The Cholera Conference — The 
New National Quarantine Law. 



We have again to report that the Association is in a con- 
dition of prosperous and progressive activity. Our aggre- 
gate membership continues to increase, and the auxiliary 
county societies, taking them altogether, have improved 
in organization and efficiency. At the same time, as has 



been the case at all periods of our history, there are several 
of our county societies that have not reached any high 
standard in the discharge of their responsible duties under 
the law of the state and under the rules of the association. 
These less prosperous societies are mostly to be found in 
counties where the members of the profession are greatly 
scattered, and where attendance on society meetings involves 
considerable inconvenience. Such societies should be assid- 
uously fostered and encouraged, and should be watched over 
with untiring solicitude by the officers of the association. 
The existence of these societies that do not prosper furnishes 
the special field in which can be best utilized the efforts of 
our presidents and vice-presidents. Those officers are in 
command, and should look after the efficiency of every com- 
pany and regiment of the great association army. They 
should stimulate officers of the county societies to the 
prompt, constant and energetic discharge of the duties sev- 
erally incumbent upon them ; and should know no rest or 
weariness until they are able to report every society in the 
state in good working order. In this way the spirit and 
power of our organization and discipline will be made grad- 
ually to pervade the entire rank and file of the profession 
of the state. But in spite of the fact that some of the 
county societies are not so prosperous as they ought to be, 
we have good reason to congratulate ourselves on the pro- 
gress that has been achieved. The points of greatest weak- 
ness — those that stand most in need of energetic and wise 
attention and management — will be specially mentioned in 
subsequent sections of this report 


We have duly considered the suggestions and recommend- 
ations of the President's Message, and proceed to discuss 
them seriatim : 


The First Becomrnendation. 

The president devotes the first part of his message to the 
discussion of the fundamental laws of human progress, and 
to the importance in the evolution of that progress of high 
ethical aims — of the subordination of narrow and egoistic 
aspirations to those more comprehensive altruistic princi- 
ples that minister to the welfare of societies and common- 
wealths. His utterances in regard to these matters are full 
of wisdom and worthy of careful study — worthy, indeed, to 
find lodgement in the minds and hearts of all of us, and to 
be made the everyday rules of our conduct 

The Second RecommendatiofL 

The next contention of the president is, that the members 
of the college of counsellors have not fully appreciated the 
character and extent of their obligation to exert themselves 
for the promotion of the welfare of the association. Our 
counsellors have done well, but many of them might have 
done better. In all great emergencies they come to the front 
and can be depended on to do their full duty. But they are 
often negligent of those little every-day details which so 
often need so much to be looked after, and which, taken in 
the aggregate, are of so much importance in the history of 
individuals and in the history of societies. No counsellor 
should feel that he has given to the association the full 
measure of service which the association has the right to 
expect of him as long as any part of the work of his county 
society is in any way neglected or inadequately accomplished. 
He should claim as belonging to him by special right all 
positions in his county society that involve irksome effort, 
unusual expense of time or money, or unpleasant responsi- 
bility. Such is the sum and substance of the counsellor's 

If any county society is not harmonious and prosperous 
the counsellors who belong to it, if there are any, must bear 
the most of the blame. If any county board of medical ex- 
aminers is negligent or inefficient; or if any county board of 


health falls short of its duty, it is because the counsellors 
have not sufficiently exerted themselves. They have the 
high places in the association, and they should understand 
that honors and privileges are, and of right ought to be, 
inseparably associated with obligations and responsibilities. 
Almost the highest honor that an Alabama doctor can aspire 
to is to become a counsellor of the association ; and highly 
honorable as this distinction now is, it will become more 
and more honorable as the years pass away, that is to say, 
as the medical profession of the state increases in numbers 
and ability, and especially as the counsellors themselves live 
unselfish and noble lives and show themselves zealous of 
good works. If every counsellor of the association was 
always on the alert to do it some service, it would flourish 
like a green bay tree. 

The Third Recommendation. 

There can be no question as to the propriety of the presi- 
dent's plea for the better education of our doctors, both as 
to a better scholastic and scientific education preliminary 
to the study of medicine, and as to instruction in the various 
branches of the medical curriculum in the medical schools 
of this country. Too many of our young men begin the 
study of medicine without a decent knowledge of their 
mother tongue. Such inadequately prepared medical stu- 
dents naturally flock to those inferior medical colleges where 
the standard of matriculation is lowest, and where gradua- 
tion is easiest, and so begin the practice of medicine with 
a minimum of medical knowledge as well as a minimum of 
scholarly accomplishments. In Alabama the evils growing 
out of this state of facts are so great as to excite serious 
apprehension in the minds of those who have at heart the 
honor of the profession and the welfare of the people of 
the state. 


The Fourth Recomrnrndaticm, 

We heartily concur with the president in his remarks in 
reference to the general subject of quarantine, and specially 
of the quarantine board of Mobile Bay. It is certainly not 
desirable that there should be two separate quarantine 
authorities with separate jurisdictions for the city of Mobile. 
It is certainly reasonable to insist that the regularly consti- 
tuted health authorities of the state should have the con- 
trol of all quarantines in the state and of all matters 
relating to the medical control of quarantine. It is certainly 
true that the creation of the quarantine board of Mobile 
Bay, composed largely of lawyers and merchants, by the 
General Assembly two years ago was a mistake, and a 
mistake that ought to be corrected without undue delay. 
The quarantine of the port of Mobile is not of merely local 
concern. The danger of the invasion by yellow fever of the 
city of Mobile is a danger that concerns all the people of 
the state. If Mobile gets yellow fever Montgomery, Bir- 
mingham and Selma are also in danger of invasion. It was 
on this ground that the General Assembly appropriated 
$25,000 towards the construction of the Mobile quarantine 
plant; and it is for this reason that the people of the state 
can not allow the Mobile Bay quarantine to remain in the 
hands of a board that is dominated by commercial influences. 

In order to bring about the restoration of the control of 
maritime quarantine at Mobile to the hands of the Mobile 
board of health under the health laws of the State this 
association acting as the state board of health should use 
all its influence to induce the next session of the General 
Assembly to make the necessary changes in the existing 
law. There will be another session of the association 
before the General Assembly will meet again, and at this 
session we can formulate our plans more in detail But let 
it be understood now and always that this association stands 
pledged to use all its influence to bring about the desired 


The Fifth Be&mmendation. 

We are also in hearty agreement with the president in his 
view of the importance of the exercise by the state and 
county boards of health of all the authorities and duties 
in them vested in looking after the sanitary condition of 
prisons, jails, poor houses and other public institutions. 
Our powers in this direction are ample, and we must rise to 
the full measure of our duty under the law. Heretofore we 
have not done this. Hereafter we musfdo it 


We have duly considered the reports of the vice-presi- 
dents. We find them full and circumstantial, and giving 
ample evidence of persistent and active work in the dis- 
charge of their highly important and arduous duties. One 
of the items of information which they disclose is that the 
vice-presidents of the county societies have been, in a large 
number of instances, inexcusably negligent in the discharge 
of the duties imposed upon them by the ordinances of the 
association. Indeed, it would seem that the majority of the 
vice-presidents of the county societies have got into the 
habit of regarding the offices they hold as entirely honorary 
and ornamental. This is not to be tolerated. When men 
accept office they should also accept the responsibilities of 
office. This is a lesson which the county vice-presidents 
specially need to learn, and, therefore, one on which the 
vice-presidents of the association need specially to insist 
Sixty-six active and efficient county vice-presidents means 
sixty-six active and efficient workers for the state associa- 
tion ; and sixty-six good workers can accomplish a great deal. 

The senior vice-president has given us a very full and cir- 
cumstantial account of the status and work of the county 
societies under his jurisdiction; and his account of his 
administration gives ample evidence that he has been 
honestly ambitious to serve the association. He has spent 
his time and his money without stint for the advancement 


of the cause in which we are so much interested; and he 
deserves our thanks. 

Almost the same might be said of the work of the junior 
vice-president He, too, has been an industrious and 
unselfish worker, and his administration has been eminently 


Sometime during the month of January Dr. T. A. Means, 
for many years secretary of the association, resigned his 
membership in the Montgomery Medical Society. Under 
our rules this act severed his connection with the state asso- 
ciation, and it became necessary for the president to make a 
temporary appointment to fill the vacancy thus occasioned. 
For this purpose he made choice of Dr. J. R Jordan, of 
Montgomery. In the meantime Dr. Means turned over to 
the senior censor the property of the association which was 
in his hands, as per the appended schedule, which was duly 
turned over to Dr. Jordan as soon as he received his appoint- 
ment Also, Dr. Means's salary and outstanding accounts 
were duly audited and paid. 


One Lecturn ; three Books of Bolls and portraits; twenty- 
one volumes of Transactions, from 1869 to 1892; twenty- 
four postal card notices ; twenty-two forms, county society 
blanks ; one Boll of Members, original copy ; one letter file, 
containing counsellor's pledges; seventeen commercial en- 
velopes ; one package examination blanks ; one package 
blank pledges and appointments ; one package record notices ; 
one box of wafers and old seal ; two seal presses, with seals ; 
thirty-eight blank diplomas ; one package old blanks. 

We have duly examined the annual report prepared by 
the secretary pro tempore, and recommend that it be ap- 
proved by the association. We have also examined the 
Book of the Bolls and find it written up to date. 



We have duly examined the report of the publishing 
committee and find it to be satisfactory. We therefore 
recommend that it be approved by the association. 

We feel compelled, however, to call the attention of the 
committee to the importance of using all possible diligence 
to begin the printing of the transactions as soon as the ma- 
terial can be prepared for the press, and of getting the vol- 
nines ready for distention as promptly as circumstances 
will admit of. The earlier the annual volumes can be placed 
in the hands of members the better. 


Our report of last year and the message of President 
Baldwin have sufficiently apprised the association of the 
facts connected with the financial loses occasioned us by the 
failure of the Moses Brothers' Bank. In connection with 
that failure we have had to consider the question of the re- 
sponsibility for the sum involved, originally $1,53446, of 
our treasurer. After careful investigation of all the details 
of the case we recommend that the treasurer, Dr. W. 0. 
Jackson, be discharged from all personal responsibility in 
connection with the said deposit in the Moses Bank, with 
the understanding that he still collect from time to time 
such dividend as may be declared from time to time, and 
deposit the same in the banks or depositories designated by 
the board of censors, and to the credit of the association. 

We further recommend that the treasurer's report pre- 
sented to this meeting of the association be approved. 

We have also duly examined the Book of Accounts and 
find it written up to date. 


So far as we have been able to learn no death has occurred 
amongst the correspondents of the association. No conn- 


sellor of ten years standing has severed his connection with 
the association, thus earning a place on this roll. We there- 
fore have no changes to recommend in the roll of the corres- 


A number of minor errors occur in the minutes of our last 
session; but none have come to our knowledge of sufficient 
magnitude to require mention here. 


At the last session of the association we recommended the 
adoption of two amendments to the constitution, as follows : 

(1) That article 47 of the constitution shall be amended by 
substituting for the word "secretary" — the last word of the 
article — the words "senior censor." 

(2) That article 48 of the constitution — the article requir- 
ing the treasurer to give bond — shall be repealed, and that 
there shall be substituted for it a new article in the following 
words: Art 48. All the funds and securities of the associa- 
tion shall be placed in such banks or depositories as may be 
from time to time designated by the board of censors, and 
shall be drawn out only on orders countersigned by the 
president of the association and the senior censor. 

We again recommend the adoption of these proposed 


At the last annual revision of the roll of the county medi- 
cal societies, the societies of the counties of Chambers, 
Cherokee, Chilton, Geneva, Lauderdale, Marion, Perry, 
Pickens and Russell, were reported delinquent in delegates, 
reports and dues, and were accordingly referred to the board 
of censors for investigation. We have endeavored to comply 
with this order and have to report as follows : 


Chambers County Society. — This society is not in a pros- 
perous condition. But after the adjournment of the last 
session its dues were paid and its report rendered; and it 
has a representative at this meeting. We therefore recom- 
mend that the Chambers county society be retained on the 
roll and that we be discharged from the further considera- 
tion of this case. 

Cherokee County Society. — This society has never been 
specially prosperoua It has, however, according to our in- 
formation, improved somewhat during the past year. Its 
dues for last year have been paid and its report rendered, 
and it has a representative present at this meeting. We 
therefore recommend that the Cherokee county society be 
retained on the roll and that we be discharged from the 
further consideration of this case. 

Chilton County Society. — This society is not in a prosper- 
ous condition, but after the adjournment of the last session 
of the association its dues were paid and its report rendered. 
We therefore recommend that the Chilton county society be 
retained on the roll and that we be discharged from the fur- 
ther consideration of this case. 

Coffee County Society. — This society is not so flourishing 
as we would like to see il But it is making some effort to 
discharge the duties devolving on it under the law; and 
since it was referred to us its dues have been paid and its 
report rendered. We therefore recommend that the Coffee 
county society be retained on the roll, and that we be dis- 
charged from the further consideration of this case. 

Cleburne County Society. — Soon after the adjournment of 
our last session this society elected new officers, received 
several new members, paid its dues, and rendered its report 
It is now in much better condition than ever before. We 
therefore recommend that the Cleburne county society be 
retained on the roll and that we be discharged from the 
further consideration of this case. 

Covington Countg Society. — This society has not been very 
prosperous, but it has been endeavoring to discharge its 


duties under the law ; and since our last session it has paid 
its dues and rendered its report We therefore recommend 
that the Covington county society be retained on the roll 
and that we be discharged from the further consideration of 
this case. 

Geneva County Society. — This society has been in a condi- 
tion of suspended animation for two or three years ; paying 
no dues and rendering no reports, and neglecting its duties 
generally. We are glad to be able to state that there seems 
now to be a disposition on the part of the members to make 
an effort to do better. We recommend that the Geneva 
county society be continued under investigation. 

Lauderdale County Society. — As has been heretofore re- 
ported, this society had fallen into almost complete disor- 
ganization. It is not necessary to tell the story over again. 
It is sufficient to say that it has been recently reorganized ; 
has elected new officers, received some new members, and 
requests the association to recognize it under its original 
charter. We recommend that this request in regard to the 
charter be granted. In the meantime we also recommend 
that this society be continued under investigation until it 
becomes strong enough to stand alone. 

Marion County Society. — This society has held several 
meetings during the past year ; has paid a portion of its 
dues, and has rendered its report It is represented at this 
session of the association. Altogether the outlook in regard 
to it is more favorable than ever before. We, therefore, 
recommend that the Marion County Society be retained on 
the roll and that we be discharged from the further consid- 
eration of this case. 

Perry County Society. — This society should be one of the 
most prosperous in the state, but it has not come to the 
front as it might have done. However, it is endeavoring to 
discharge its duties under the law ; has paid its dues and 
rendered its report for last year, and in several ways 
promises to do better. We, therefore, recommend that the 
Perry County Society be retained on the roll and that we be 
discharged from the further consideration of this case. 


Pickens County Society. — The prevalence of high water last 
spring in the western part of the state made it out of the 
question for the doctors of Pickens to attend the association 
last year. But they have since paid the dues and rendered 
the report We, therefore, recommend that the Pickens 
County Society be retained on the roll and that we be dis- 
charged from the further consideration of this case. 

Bussell County Society. — This society has not been pros- 
perous. There seems to be no reason for this want of 
prosperity, except the apathy of the Bussell county doctors. 
After our adjournment last year the report was rendered. 
The board of examiners have been engaged in the discharge 
of their functions, and altogether, perhaps, the society is 
quite as vigorous as it has been for some years. We, there- 
fore, recommend that the Bussell County Society be retained 
on the roll and that we be discharged from the further con- 
sideration of this case. 


During the recent session of the General Assembly the 
following measures were introduced : 

(1). An act to amend, extend and confirm the charter of 
the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

This very important measure was introduced into the 
General Assembly by order of the association. It was 
passed without modification and with very little opposition. 
It can be found in full on pages 126, 127 and 128 of the last 
volume of Transactions, and, therefore, need not be repro- 
duced here. It was approved February 6th, 1893. 

(2). An act to provide a salary for the clerk of the State 
Board of Health. 

This act makes an additional and special appropriation of 
$400 a year for the clerk of the State Board of Health. It 
was approved February 18th, 1893. Besides this the clerk 
gets $500 a year from our regular appropriation of $3,000 a 
year, making his entire salary $900 a year. 



(3). A bill to incorporate the Eclectic State Medical As- 

(4). A bill to further regulate the practice of medicine in 

These two bills were introduced into the Senate by CoL 
Samford, of Lee. They were exactly in the line of the 
famous Quarles bill which gave us so much trouble in the 
General Assembly of 1890-91. Col. Samford called them 
up and had them put on the calendar of the Senate against 
the adverse report of the Senate judiciary committee, but 
they never came to a vote. Fearing that these bills might 
gain some favor an appeal was made to the doctors in the 
several counties requesting them generally to write to their 
members of the two houses begging them to use their influ- 
ence to prevent their passage. In response to this appeal a 
large number of letters were written to the members, and 
with very decided effect. 

(5). A bill to grant a special license to one Mr. Hall to 
practice medicine in certain beats in the counties of Butler, 
Conecuh and Covington. 

This bill passed the House by a majority of two. It was 
under adverse report in the Senate and never reached a vote. 
The case in itself was of little consequence, but the prece- 
dent would have been very mischievous. If the General 
Assembly once goes into the business of making doctors it 
would be overrun with applications at every session. It 
would be so much easier to get a license of the General 
Assembly than to get a diploma from a medical college. 

(6). An act to repeal the color-blind law. This was ap- 
proved on the 10th of December, 1892. 


Heretofore it has been the custom for the presidents in 
their annual messages to give some notice of counsellors 
who may have died during their several administrations. 
These notices have sometimes been elaborate and sometimes 
very brief. All will admit that whenever one of our coun- 


sellors is taken away from us by death the association 
should pay some tribute to his memory and that some ade- 
quate record of his life should be published in the Transac- 
tions. The president has many things to discuss in his 
message, and it has occurred to us that it would be well to 
create a new office, that of Historian, whose special duty it 
shall be to prepare biographies of our deceased counsellors. 
To this end we recommend to the association the adoption 
of the following ordinance : 

Be it ordained by the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, That 
the president of the association shall appoint, annually, a Historian, 
whose duty it shall be to prepare, under the direction of the President, 
suitable biographical sketches of such counsellors as may have died 
during his term of office ; and that the report of the historian shall 
be read at each annual session of the association on the first day 
thereof next after the annual reports of the vice-presidents, or at 
such other time as may be found most convenient. 


During the past year charges of unprofessional conduct 
were made in the Madison County Medical Society by Dr. 
A. R Erskine against Dr. W. C. Wheeler, both of them be- 
ing members of said society. 

The specification is that Dr. Wheeler visited and pre- 
scribed for a patient in charge of Dr. Erskine and from 
which Dr. Erskine had not been discharged. The trial was 
had with all the usual formalities ; the charge was sustained 
by the Board of Censors and subsequently by the society ; 
and Dr. Wheeler was subjected to censure, the lightest pen- 
alty known to the Code of Ethics. From this decision Dr. 
Wheeler appealed to the State Board. We have had the 
testimony in the case submitted to us, and have taken Dr. 
Wheeler's personal statement There is no controversy as 
to the facta After full and careful consideration of all the 
facts of the case we have reached the conclusion that the 
decision of the Madison County Medical Society was in strict 
accordance with the provision of the Code of Ethics, and we 
therefore recommend that the findings of the said society 
in the said case be sustained. 



The interest of the association to the large majority of 
our members grows out of the medical papers and discus- 
sion, and for this very important part of our proceedings the 
time at our disposal is not as ample as we could wish. In 
order that we may have, for the purpose mentioned, as much 
time as possible, we recommend that in the future at our 
annual sessions there shall be no music or recitations in 
connection with the annual oration on Tuesday evening; 
and that there shall be no entertainment or reception on 
either Wednesday or Thursday evening, but that both of 
these evenings shall be devoted to our medical and scientific 


The county societies have their ups and downs ; but on 
the whole they are increasing in efficiency and in the num- 
ber of their members. The status of all the county societies 
is discussed in the reports of the two vice-presidents, and 
therefore need not be again discussed in detail here. The 
most difficult problem that confronts us in regard to the 
management of these societies is how to impress the officers 
of them with a proper appreciation of their official duties 
and responsibilities. There can be no question of the fact 
that efficient officers make efficient and prosperous societies. 
In the nature of things many of the county societies cannot 
hold very frequent meetings. This inability was foreseen 
from the beginning of our movement for the organization of 
the profession of the state ; and it was for this reason that 
the officers of the societies were invested with large powers 
and duties so that they can act temporarily for the societies 
in the discharge of most of their legal functions. 

With the hope of helping to impart more life and energy 
to some of the more backward or embarrassed societies the 
senior censor, mostly at his own expense, has during the 
past year visited the following societies : Cleburne, Colbert, 


Dale (twice), Dallas, Etowah, Lauderdale (twice), Limestone, 
Madison, Marengo (twice), Marion (twice), Morgan, Wilcox* 


We had on hand a year ago for sale of the book of 

rules $15 55 

Sold during the past year 29 copies at 50 cents 
each 14 50 

Making a total of $30 05 

By postage on 39 copies 4 29 

Leaving a balance on hand of $25 76 

Sent complimentary ten copies, which makes a total of 39 
copies disposed of. 

We recommend that this balance of twenty-five dollars 
and such further amount as may be necessary be appro- 
priated for printing an appendix to the book of rules. 




During the past year the State Board of Medical Ex- 
aminers have examined applicants for the practice of medi- 
cine as follows : 

William Wallace Derrick (colored), M. D., Meharry Med- 
ical College, 1893. Certificate refused. 

John Darius Crum (colored), M. D., Howard University, 
1887. Certificate granted. 

William Beatty Gibson, M. D., Bellvue Hospital Medical 
College, 1887. Certificate granted. 

Dr. Cram's examination was his second before the state 
board, he having failed in his first examination. 

Dr. Gibson's examination was a case of appeal from the 


Barbour county board of examiners. The fact that he suc- 
ceeded before the state board after having failed before the 
county board involves no censure, implied or otherwise, of 
the county board. On the contrary, as will be seen in our 
comments on Dr. Gibson's first examination, he certainly 
had full justice done him by the Barbour county board, the 
valuation of his answers being higher than in our opinion 
they were entitled to receive. When he came before the 
state board it was doubtless with a fuller appreciation of 
the high standard required under our rules. He took more 
time and achieved a better result 


Our account for the dollar dues for examination papers 

stands as follows : 

To balance on hand at last statement $ 51 10 

To dues received the past year on 91 sets of papers, 

one dollar each 91 00 

Total receipts $142 10 

By cash to Brown Printing Co. for binding 103 

sets of papers at 50 cents each 51 50 

By cash for expressage 2 50 

Total expenditures $ 54 00 

To balance on hand $ 88 10 

We recommend that we be authorized to expend as much 
of this amount as may be necessary to engrave in first-class 
style a certificate for the use of the county boards of medical 


From time to time in our annual reports we have called 
attention to such of the rules for the government of the ex- 
amining boards as have not always been sufficiently ob- 


served. We are glad to be able to state that in the more 
populous counties, where the greater number of examina- 
tions have been made, the examining boards have generally 
attained a satisfactory grade of efficiency. In some of the 
smaller counties, however, where the boards are not in the 
habit of making frequent examinations, this important work 
is not always done after a fashion that commands our un- 
qualified approval. The special shortcomings of the boards 
amenable to this adverse criticism will be noted in our re- 
view of the work of the county boards. In the meantime we 
desire to call attention here to the rules that are most fre- 
quently neglected or violated. 

(1) No physician coming into a county should be allowed 
to practice at all — not even to take one single case — until he 
has complied with the law. 

(2) The examination should always include the ten 
schedule branches, and no others ; and questions concerning 
the medical treatment of diseases must be absolutely 

(3) Care must always be taken to select a trustworthy 
and competent supervisor, and this without reference to the 
wishes of the applicant. The supervisor should be well 
paid and should be required to do his whole duty. 

(4) Members of the board of examiners should carefully 
and promptly prepare questions in the branches assigned 
them ; but if any examiner fails so to do the questions in his 
branches should be furnished by the other members of the 
board. An applicant must not be kept waiting because one 
member of the board neglect to do his duty. 

(5) Trivial and rudimentary questions should be scrupu- 
lously avoided ; and mere catch-questions, or questions of 
special difficulty and but little practical importance should 
not be tolerated. 

(6) The rule with regard to an adequate knowledge of the 
English language should be vigorously enforced. There are 
already too many doctors in Alabama who can not write de- 
cent English, and we don't want any more of that sort 

(7) The examining boards must hold all applicants up to 


a respectable standard of professional qualifications. We 
can not afford to fill up the profession with ignorant and 
incompetent men ; and the mere fact that a man has man- 
aged to get a diploma from a third class medical college does 
not afford even a fair presumption that he is qualified to 
practice medicine. 

(8) Surely there is not a single board of medical exam- 
iners in Alabama who are so wanting in intelligence, in 
medical knowledge, in professional pride, and in moral cour- 
age as to be unable to conduct an examination as it should 
be conducted, and to give such ratings to the answers of 
applicants as will be just and fair to everybody concerned. 


(1) Some years ago the oral examination of applicants 
was repealed for the well understood reason that it was often 
difficult to get the members of the examining boards together 
to conduct the oral examination in a proper way. It some- 
times occurs, however, that the examining board have some 
doubts left in their minds by the written examination which 
an oral examination might serve to clear up. To meet such 
contingencies we recommend that whenever any board of 
examiners may deem it expedient they may also require the 
applicant to pass an oral examination in the presence of not 
less than a quorum of the board. 

(2) Sometimes it happens that an examiner prepares 
faulty, or inadequate, or badly expressed questions, and in 
this way one member may bring discredit on the entire 
board. To obviate occurrences of this kind we recommend 
that all the questions as prepared by the different members 
of a board in their respective branches should be submitted 
to the entire board for discussion, criticism, change, or 

(3) It may also occur that, with or without improper mo- 
tive, some one of the examiners may overrate or underrate 
the answers of an applicant to his questions, and to the grave 
discredit of the board. We therefore recommend that when- 


ever there is any doubt about the correctness of any of the 
ratings, and whenever it is practicable so to do, the entire 
board should revise all the valuations and either approve of 
them, or scale them up or down as in their judgment justice 
and fair dealing may dictate. 

(4) Under the pressure of the laws now in force, in a 
large majority of the states, for the regulation of the prac- 
tice of medicine, most of the medical colleges in the eastern, 
western, and northern parts of the United States have been 
forced to adopt longer sessions, more comprehensive sched- 
ules of study, and three annual courses of lectures as a pre- 
requsite for examination for diploma. Most of the southern 
colleges have also adopted the three course system; and 
require some degree of literary qualification as a prelimi- 
nary to matriculation. In view of these facts two course 
medical colleges can not be any longer classed as reputable, 
and we therefore recommend that an additional rule be 
adopted for the government of the boards of medical exam- 
iners as follows : That after the annual sessions of 1893-4 
the diplomas of medical colleges that require only two 
courses of lectures for graduation shall not be recognized 
by the authorized boards of medical examiners in Alabama. 


The number of illegal practitioners in the state has greatly 
diminished since the defect in the criminal section of our 
law was amended by the General Assembly two years ago. 
They are now most numerous in the counties of Chambers, 
Dale, Henry and Marshall. In Henry and Dale the exam- 
ining boards have recently and under very discouraging cir- 
cumstances been pushing prosecutions against the illegals 
in those counties. If anything of this sort has been done 
in Chambers and Marshall we have not heard of it But 
without further argument, we feel impelled to say, that the 
time has come when in all the counties the laws against 
illegal practitioners must be promptly and resolutely en- 
forced. A little earnest work now will save us from a great 
deal of trouble hereafter. 



Ever since the reorganization of the association after the 
war we have recognized that in order to secure a higher 
grade of qualification on the part of our doctors it is of the 
first importance that no one should be allowed to engage in 
the study of medicine without an adequate knowledge of 
such branches of learning as are taught in our common 
schools and academies. To this end, some fifteen years ago 
we adopted a rule to the effect that no member of the asso- 
ciation should receive into his office as a student of medicine 
any person who had not been able to obtain a certificate 
from an examining board showing proficiency in the grammar 
of the English language, in the general literature of the 
English language, in the general outlines of the history of 
the world, in the outlines of the history of. the United 
States, in the elements of arithmetic, in the elements of 
algebra and geometry, in the elements of inorganic chem- 
istry, and in the elements of physics or natural philosophy. 

It was hoped that in this way something might be accom- 
plished towards preventing the entrance into the profession 
of ignorant and incompetent men. And, indeed, something 
in this direction has been accomplished, but very much 
less than we had hoped for. There are several reasons for 
this failure : (1) The rule has not always been obeyed and 
some of our members have received students without cer- 
tificates of the required preliminary education. (2) A still 
greater evil has been that a large number of young men have 
begun the study of medicine without placing themselves un- 
der the guidance of perceptors. (3) While most of our med- 
ical colleges ostensibly demand a respectable amount of 
preliminary education as a pre-equisite to matriculation, it is 
notorious that all of them do not provide any means for en- 
forcing the demand. (4) In this state the medical college 
of Alabama is required to receive annually one beneficiary 
student from each county in the state. These beneficiary 
students are selected by the judges of probate and the com- 
missioners courts of the several counties who must certify 


that they are of good moral character and without the means 
to procure a medical education. It is notorious that the 

preliminary education of persons seeking these beneficiary 
scholarships is very often very defective. Such persons be- 
gin the study of medicine at a very great disadvantage as 
compared with those whose educational opportunities have 
been better ; and even if by assiduous application and hard 
study they acquire a sufficient knowledge of the elements of 
medicine to pass a fairly good medical examination they are 
handicapped throughout their lives by their educational de- 
ficiencies and many of them fail to develop into the sort of 
doctors that do honor to the profession and to the state. It 
is proper to add that the faculty of the college appreciate 
the magnitude of the evil here outlined. They have estab- 
lished rules requiring on the part of students a decent pre- 
liminary education as a pre-requisite to matriculation. But 
they have heretofore acted on the presumption that they 
were under legal obligation to accept whatever beneficiary 
students might come to them armed with certificates from 
the probate judges, and without having the right in such 
cases to raise the question of preliminary education. It 
occurs to us that they are in error in regard to this matter, 
and that they can require beneficiary students to submit to 
the same rules as pay students have to observe in regard to 
matriculation. That the law may admit of this construction 
is greatly to be desired. 

After due consideration the board of censors instructed 
the senior censor to submit the question at issue to CoL H. 
C. Tompkins, of Montgomery, for his written legal opinion. 

Note bt thb Senior Censor. — In obedience to the foregoing in- 
structions the senior censor has applied to Col. Tompkins for his 
written opinion in regard to this issue, and said opinion is here sub- 

Montgomery, Alabama, June 10, 1893. 

Dr. Jerome Cochran, Senior Censor, M. A. S. A.: 

Dear Sib — Yours of the 7th inst. is at hand. I have ex- 
amined the charter of the Medical College of Alabama, and 


in my opinion that college has the authority, by reasonable 
rules and regulations, to fix a standard of qualifications for 
all students admitted to it 

The third section of the act in question declares that the 
board of trustees shall have authority to enact all such by- 
laws and regulations for their own government, not repug- 
nant to the laws of the land, as they think advisable. 

The fourth section provides that the faculty shall have 
authority to make such by-laws and regulations as they may 
deem requisite for the proper management of said college 
and its relations with the students. 

The seventh section provides for the admission of one in- 
digent student from each county of the state to be received 
upon the recommendation and certificate of the judge of 
probate and commissioners court that he is of good char- 
acter and without the means to procure medical instruction. 
The section further provides that such student shall, during 
his compliance with the rules and by-laws of the college, be 
admitted free of charge. 

We are bound to believe that the legislature of the state, 
in giving to the board of trustees and the faculty power to 
enact by-laws and regulations, intended that they should 
have the power to enact such by-laws and regulations as are 
usual and customary in colleges. Among such regulations 
as are usual and customary are unquestionably regulations 
as to the standard of qualification for admission. Those 
regulations could not be such as to defeat the seventh sec- 
tion altogether, for that which regulates in the very nature 
of things does not prohibit. 

It would be a strange conclusion to reach that the college 
was compelled to admit any person whom the commissioners 
court and judge of probate of that county should recommend. 
The only qualifications to be established by their recommen- 
dation are, first, good character, and, second, inability to 
procure a medical education. To say that the trustees and 
faculty would have to admit to a college one who was so 
illiterate as to be incapable of becoming a physician, would 
be also to say that they would be compelled to admit a 


lunatic or an idiot, because a lunatic or an idiot might be a 
man of good moral character and might be unable to procure 
a medical education. If the trustees and faculty had no 
authority to adopt any rule, then they would be compelled 
to admit such lunatic or idiot. The legislature certainly 
never contemplated any such thing. The legislature did 
contemplate that the trustees and faculty should make rules 
and regulations for the government of the college. Those 
rules and regulations were to be such rules and regulations 
as were usual and customary in such institutions; and, as 
stated above, as probably there was not then and never has 
been any college in which there was not a standard of quali- 
fication fixed as a condition to entering it, we must believe 
that the legislature intended to empower the medical college 
to adopt similar reasonable rules and regulations. Of 
course an unreasonable rule or regulation would be void, as 
it would in any other college which was a public school ; 
but it would be no more than reasonable to refuse to admit 
to the college a person who has not sufficient education to 
fit him for the medical profession, which unquestionably 
requires that one who follows it should be one of some edu- 
cation outside of the mere theory of medicine. I am clearly 
of the opinion that your board of trustees has the right to 
adopt such regulation. 

Tours truly, 

H. C. Tompkins. 


(1). We need fewer medical colleges and better ones — 
colleges that would exact a higher standard of graduation. 
Fewer unprepared students should be admitted, and fewer 
should be passed. Our examining boards should familiarize 
themselves more fully with the recommended methods and 
standards of examination and should rigidly adhere to the 
prescribed requirements, not only as to method but as to 
results, so that by our well ordered system we may keep 
out of the overflowing ranks of the profession those who 


are turned loose by the colleges with hardly a shadow of 
positive knowledge. Every examining board should consult 
freely and constantly the Book of Rules, which indeed 
should be in the hands of every medical man in the state. 
Unless the avenues that lead to the profession are more 
strictly guarded by those who have the power, and whose 
duty it is, it will not be many years before the profession 
will lose its claim to be called learned. 

(2). Comparing the general character of the work of the 
county examining boards now with that of 1887, when the 
new rules were adopted, we are able to note a very great 
improvement, both on the part of the boards and on the 
part of the applicants. In our report to the association for 
that year we were certain that our examining boards were 
better doctors than when they began the work of conducting 
examinations because of the reflex effect it has on a doctor 
to become an examiner. This incidental benefit is very 
manifest and will become more and more so as the years go 
by, thus becoming an important factor in the elevation of 
the profession of the state. 


For the year 1892 the county boards of medical exam- 
iners report one hundred and seven (107) examinations. In 
ninety-five (95) of these the certificate was granted. In 
twelve (12) the certificate was refused. The per centage of 
failures was 11.22. The reports from the several counties 
are as follows : 

Autauga County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Baldwin Bounty Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Malachy Coglan, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1802. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

The defects in this examination are chiefly on the part of the board 
and of the supervisor. The board evidently made some effort to ob- 
serve the rules, which is to their credit. For the most part the ques- 


tions are well chosen, but are hardly numerous enough with some of 
the examiners, while with others they are rather more numerous than 
is strictly necessary, and they are written on paper of different sizes. 
The questions in the handwriting of the applicant are not in schedule 
relation to the answers. The examination on the part of the applicant 
is fairly creditable considering that the examination occupied only 
two days. 

Barbour County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Beatty Gibson, M. D., Bellvue Hospital Medical College, 
1889. Certificate granted. 

The time, three days, devoted to this examination was rather short. 
The questions are more numerous than seems strictly necessary. 
Paper of different sizes is used. The examination on the part of the 
applicant is poor. Although he exhibits some knowledge of medicine 
in a general way some of his answers show egregious blunders. 

Bibb County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Luther Middleton Latham, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1802. 
Certificate granted. 

Thornley Edward Schoolar, M, D., medical department of Vanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

William Thomas Sellers, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Dr. Latham's examination is fairly good both as to questions and 
answers, although somewhat brief. The original questions are not 
given; and the board has failed to give the valuations of the 

Dr. Schoolar's examination is creditable to him. Some fault could 
be found with some of the questions. For example, under the head 
of mechanism of labor, these three questions are entirely irrelevant : 
"Give the blood vessels of the uterus." "What is the cause of albu- 
minuria? 1 ' "How is flooding after delivery divided?" 

Dr. Sellers shows considerable knowledge of medicine, but his ig- 
norance of English orthography is notable. He is one of the great 
army of unlearned men who are invading a learned profession. Take 
a few examples : connicle, orriflce, neutriment — tonge. Then again 
we have to note some irrelevant questions. Under the mechanism of 
labor we have : "Name the organs of generation." "What nerves sup- 
ply the uterus?" "How can foetal movement be excited?" Under 
obstetrical operations we have : "Give the symptoms and treatment 
of puerperal fever." Not bad questions, but they do not belong to 
mechanism of labor and obstetric operations. 

Blount County Board. — No report has been received from this board 

for several years, although it is known that it has made some exami- 


nations. This negligence is culpable and without any possible ex- 

Bulloch County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Butler County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 

practice of medicine, none. 

Calhoun County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 

practice of medicine- 
William Thomas Morgan, M. D., medical department of Vanderbilt 

University, 1892. Certificate refused. 
The board properly rejected Dr. Morgan ; and its ratings are Just 

in every particular. 

Chambers County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Cherokee County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Hugh Lounge Appleton, M. D., medical department Vanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Robert Lee Hughes, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Leonidas Franklin Smith, M. D., medical department Vanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Dr. Appleton acquitted himself fairly well in the medical part of 
his examination. Faulty spelling comes to the front, but in a com- 
paratively modest way. We have "ventrical," "shure," etc. 

About the same may be said of the examination of Dr. Hughes, 
which shows a good deal of faulty spelling, while the medical informa- 
tion is so good as to suggest a careless supervisor. 

Dr. Smith's examination is not specially worthy of praise. The 
questions in chemistry and anatomy are for the most part very ele- 
mentary and unsatisfactory. Treatment is included in natural history 
of diseases, contrary to the rules. The paper is not all of the same 
size. The answers are fairly accurate, many of them are very brief. 

Chillon County Board— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine none. 

Clarke County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Clay County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the prac- 
tice of medicine — 

John H. Garrett, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Bhurrelle Anderson Stevens, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

These examinations were conducted in tolerably faithful accord 


with the rales, bat the questions are hardly numerous enough to 
elicit a full knowledge of the applicant's proficiency. At the same 
time they are somewhat too elementary in their scope. 

Dr. Garrett's answers are shorter than they should be. His knowl- 
edge of medicine seems to be fair, while his English is decidedly 

Dr. Stephen's answers are also too brief, and he makes many 

Cleburne County Board.— -For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Coffee County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Colbert County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Julius Tilman Wesley Haney, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1891. Certificate granted. 

We have never been able to get the papers in this case — an inex- 
cusable negligence on the part of the board. 

Conecuh County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Henry Green, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1802. Certificate 

William Raymond Fountain, M. D., medical department of the 
University of Louisville, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Dr. Green passed a very creditable examination, and the board 
seems to have rated him fairly. 

Dr. Fountain's examination is on the part of the board quite open 
to criticism. The papers are in bad order, and of different sizes. The 
questions are not rewritten by the applicant before the answers, and 
the ratings are in some of the branches entirely too high. In ob- 
stetrics, probably meaning obstetric operations, and in physical 
diagnosis the ratings are 99; while in medical jurisprudence the 
rating runs up to 100. The answers show a fair knowledge of medi- 
cine, and he was entitled to the certificate, but he was not entitled to 
such ratings as these. 

Cooea County Board— -For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Covington County Board. — We are informed that this board made 
at least two examinations, but we have been unable to obtain the 
papers. They perhaps did their work in such bad style that they are 
ashamed to have it inspected. 

Crenshaw County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine, none. 

Cullman County Board.— -For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine— 


Bethea P. Bindley, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

James Clifton Collins, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1891. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Gotloeb Hartung, M. D., Wurzburg, Germany. Certificate granted. 

Edward Anthony Harry Purdon, M. D., Grant University, Chatta- 
nooga, 1892. Certificate granted. 

These papers came up in very bad order ; and many of the ques- 
tions are badly chosen. They reflect no credit on the board. 

Dr. Brindley's answers are very poor. 

The same may be said of Dr. Collins' answers, and his orthography 
is also faulty. 

Dr. Hartung acquits himself fairly well and was entitled to the 

Dr. Purdon also acquits himself fairly well and was entitled to the 

Dale County Board, — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Benjamin Littleberry Byrd, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

James Eldridge Stokes, M. D., Georgia College of Eclectic Medicine 
and Surgery, 1892. Certificate refused. 

Dr. Byrd passed a fair examination and was entitled to the certifi- 
cate. At the same time he is not entitled to the high ratings given 
him by the board. 

Dr. Stokes examination does him no credit. He seems to know very 
litte English and less medicine. He was properly rejected. 

Dallas County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

DeKalb County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Thomas Hayne Appleton, M. D., Grant University, Chattanooga, 
1792. Certificate granted. 

William F. Berry, M. D., Toledo Medical College, 1886. Certificate 

John Dechard Hall, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 18 — . 
Certificate refused. 

William Franklin McCormack, M. D., Grant University, Chatta- 
nooga, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Joseph Dalton McGhee, M. D., Grant University, Chattanooga, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

William H. Smith, M. D., Medical College of Ohio, 1884. Certificate 

This board in a general way is doing good work and deserves favor- 
able mention. At the same time some of its papers are not in first 
rate order, and some of the questions in some of the examinations 


are not well chosen. If they will give just a little more attention to 
the details of their work they will take a high stand amongst the 
boards of the state. 

Dr. Apple ton's examination shows him to have been but indiffer- 
ently qualified. 

Dr. Berry's examination is of average merit as far as it goes. But 
he refused to answer the questions in hygiene, and so failed to obtain 
the certificate. The questions in hygiene were not all of them well 
chosen or well expressed, but it would have been better for the appli- 
cant to have written such answers as he could and so have taken his 
chances. It is to be regretted, also, that these questions were not 
revised by the board. 

Dr. Hall's examination shows his total unfitness to practice medi- 
cine. He was properly rejected by the board. 

Dr. McCormack's papers come up in good order. Carelessness is 
shown on the part of the board in preparing some of the questions. 
The applicant uses bad grammar and his answers are for the most 
part brief and evasive. In our opinion the averages given were not 

In Dr. McGhee's examination the papers are not in first rate order. 
Several parts of sheets are used. In some of the branches the ques- 
tions are not sufficiently numerous. The applicant shows great lack 
of knowledge of the English language. He spells badly, and pays no 
careful attention to the construction of his sentences. These things 
mar what would otherwise be a fair examination. 

In Dr. Smith's examination the papers are in fair order, and the 
questions are answered with more than ordinary ability. 

Elmore County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Thomas Franklin Moore, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1890. 
Certificate granted. 

This examination was conducted in utter defiance of the rules. 
Only two members of the board were engaged in it, not a quorum ; 
there was no supervisor, and the applicant had the opportunity to 
consult books to his heart's content. The certificate issued under 
such circumstances is illegal, and if the case was carried before a 
court of competent jurisdiction it would no doubt be set aside. 

Escambia County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Eugene Yuille Malone, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1802. 
Certificate granted. 

This would be an excellent examination in everv way and highly 
creditable to all concerned if it had been properly conducted. We 
have been informed, however, that there was only a pretense of super- 
vision, and that the applicant had every opportunity to get help. 
This being the case, neither the board nor the applicant can expect 


commendation. What they are really entitled to is sufficiently evi- 
dent without special mention. 

Etowah County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Fayette County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
pratice of medicine — 

William A. Graham, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1692. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

John C. Johnson, M. D., Louisville Hospital Medical College, 1892 
Certificate granted. 

This board has been in the habit of doing very unsatisfactory work. 
These two papers are an improvement on what was done in previous 
years. Still, on the part of the board they are very defective. There 
is no supervisor's certificate, no ratings of answers, and physical diag- 
nosis is omitted. In the meantime in several of the branches the 
questions are fairly good. A little more attention to details would 
have made a creditable showing. 

Drs. Graham and Johnson were both entitled to the certificate. 

Franklin County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Geneva County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicince, none. 

This board has been negligent of its duty. They had at least one 
applicant, and failed to examine him. 

Greene County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Thomas Elmore Murphy, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892 
Certificate granted. 

LeVert Snoddy, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

In Dr. Murphy's examination the board does itself no credit. The 
papers are in bad order, and many of the questions are not well 
chosen. The applicant acquits himself fairly well. 

In Dr. Snoddy's examination the board were evidently desirous of 
doing their duty. But they have made the questions in some of the 
branches too numerous — twenty-eight questions in anatomy, fifteen 
in physiology, and nineteen in obstetrics, which is not a schedule 
branch. The applicant's spelling is inexcusably bad. 

Hale County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Henry County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Julian Hartridge Kennedy, M. D., Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, 1892. Certificate granted. 


J. F. Yarbrough, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1892. Certificate 

These exeminationa are very defective on the part of the board. 
The paper is of various sizes, is written on both sides, and torn and 

Dr. Kennedy does some bad spelling—such as oscultation, histeria, 
etc. Still, he was perhaps entitled to his certificate. 

Dr. Yarbrough's answers are not satisfactory. 

Jackson County Board. — For the study of medicine — 

LaFayette McLendon. Certificate granted. 

George B. Tate. Certificate refused. 

Mr. McLendon's examination is satisfactory and his answers show 
him to have a fair knowledge of the elementary branches of education. 

Not much regard to the rules was observed in Mr. Tate's examina- 
tion, but there can be no doubt that the applicant was properly re- 

For the practice of medicine — 

John Wilson Baggers, M. D., Medical Department of Yanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate refused. 

James Moore Horton, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate refused. 

These papers are in fairly good order. The questions are usually, 
but not always, well chosen. In these cases the board have done their 
full duty. The applicants were properly rejected. 

Jeffenon County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine— 

James Alexander Cooper, M. D., University of Toronto, Canada, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

Robert Jemison Hayes, M. D., Tennessee Medical College, Knox- 
ville, 1892. Certificate granted. 

William Richard Luckie, M. D., Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

James Whitfield Miller, M. D., Medical Department of Yanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Percy Nash Richardson (colored), M. D., Meharry Medical College, 
1892. Certificate refused. 

Reginald Knight Smith, M. D., College of Physicians & Surgeons, 
Baltimore, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Dyer Findley Talley, M. D., Medical Department of Tulane Univer- 
sity, 1892. Certificate granted. 

David Smith Williams, M. D., University of Nashville, 1868. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

The work of this board is well done and stands in no need of special 

Lamar County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine— 


James A. Braugan, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Francis Alexander Collins, M. D., Memphis Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Gilbert B. Wimberly, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

In their anxiety to do thorough work the board have multiplied 
their questions in some of the branches beyond all reason. There are 
thirty in physiology and thirty in surgery, and some of them are like 
the following : "Give the functions of each pair of cranial nerves ;" 
describe the great sympathetic system of nerves. 1 ' A very few such 
questions go a long way. There is considerable similarity in the an- 
swers of Dr8. Braugan and Collins. A few specimens are given : "The 
blood gets by some hocuspocus into the carotid/' "How are friction 
sounds detected?" "On account of more fuss." "How would you 
treat a case of prolapse of the umbilical cdrd ?" "Place the patient 
in the knee and breast position and use a curette or flexible catheter." 
"Describe the antiseptic treatment of wounds." "Local administra- 
tion." "Pecery." "Orricular opening." "Stumach." "Carbolic acid 
gas, CO ?" Describe the great sympathetic nerves." "They have a 
grate power over the organs of vegetation and surround the ciloxas." 

Dr. Wimberly's examination is much better. Considering the ava- 
lanche of questions he had to meet he did fairly well. 

Lauderdale County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine, none. 

Lawrence County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Fennell D. Gibson, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, 1891. Certificate granted. 

John Rufus Howel, M. D., Memphis Medical College, 1888. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Lee County Board. For the study of medicine, none. For the prac- 
tice of medicine, none. 

Limestone County Board. For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

McDonald Logwood, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Benton Sanders Pettus, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Frank Paul Petty, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, 1892. Certificate granted. 

The board in these examinations have not strictly followed the 
schedule branches. They have used 'practice of medicine' instead of 
"natural history of diseases," and 'obstetrics' instead of "obstetric 
operations." Their questions are sometimes too elementary. 

All of the applicants made fairly good records. 


Lowndes County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Gyrus Edmund Marlette, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1881. 
Certificate granted. 

This examination is full and complete and deserves commendation. 
The examination in anatomy is perhaps a little overdone, as there are 
virtually 24 questions under 12 heads. 

Macon County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Madison County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Wright Haden, M. D. f Medical Department of Vanderbilt 
University, 1871. Certificate granted. 

These papers came up in fairly good order, and altogether it is a 
good examination. But a few of the questions are quite open to criti- 
cism. The applicant shows a satisfactory knowledge of medicine, but 
his English is inexcusably bad. He writes, 'si stem/ 'clavical,' 'flynt,' 
'scarlett fever/ 'I should of said.' 

Marengo County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Benjamin Glover Eaton, M. D., Medical Department of the Univer- 
sity of Louisville, 1*92. Certificate granted. 

Frank Gildersleeve Kimbrough, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1890. Certificate granted. 

Robert J. Harris, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1890. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

William Crocheron Lockhart, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1889. Certificate granted. 

Lovick Edward Peacock, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

William Sidney Tucker, M. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 1889. 
Certificate granted. 

Edwin Strudwick Webb, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

These examinations were made under circumstances that preclude 
critical strictures. 

Marion County Boord. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Charles W. Graham, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1891. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

This is in every way an exceedingly defective examination. 

Marshall County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Webster Johnson, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, 1892. Certificate granted. 


David Carnes Jordan, M. D., Memphis Hospital Medical College, 
1802. Certificate granted. 

Wesley Bibb Kerr, M. D., Medical Department of Grant University, 
Chattanooga, 1892. Certificate refused. 

Emmett Kimbrough Moon, M. D., Medical Department of Grant 
University, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Some fault might be found with some of these examinations. But 
take them all together they were fairly well done. Dr. Kerr was 
properly rejected. 

Mobile County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

James Armistead Abrahams, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

Paul Jerome Morris Acker, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 

Isaac W. Bard, M. D. v Medical Department of the Western Reserve 
University, 1874. Certificate granted. 

Samuel C. Edmunds, M. D., Medical Department of the University 
of Louisville, 1866. Certificate granted. 

Marion Toulmin Gaines, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1890. 
Certificate granted. 

Duke W. Goodman, M. D., Medical Department of Tulane Univer- 
sity, 1891. Certificate granted. 

F. Tilghman McKaig, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1890. 
Certificate granted. 

Ira Webster Porter, Jr., M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Charles W. Schaemle, M. D., Jefferson Medical College, 1890. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Dillon J. Spotswood, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1890. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Joshua D. Terrill, M. D., Ohio Medical College, 1885. Certificate 

These papers come up in admirable order. They are all of respect- 
able ability, and some of tbem are so elaborate as to suggest careless- 
ness on the part of the supervisor. They stand in no need of special 

Monroe County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Franklin Betts, M. D., Medical Department of Tulane Uni- 
versity, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Bosser Alexander Thompson, M. D., Medical Department of the 
University of Tennessee, 1888. Certificate granted. 

These examinations are amenable to some criticism, but may be 
allowed to pass. 

Montgomery County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine— 


Benjamin Sidney Chapman, M. D., University of the City of New 
York. 1892. Certificate granted. 

Thomas Aubrey Dickson, M. D., Medical Department of Tulane Uni- 
versity, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Thomas Duncan, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

George Piatt Waller, M. D., University of the City of New York, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

These examinations stand in no need of special comment. They are 
all satisfactory both on the part of the board and on the part of the 

Morgan County Board. — For the Study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Perry County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Henry Harden Byara, M. D. f Kentucky School of Medicine, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Yaughan Holmes Caine, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Gaius Rowan Johnson, M. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Dr. Byars exhibits many culpable instances of bad spelling, but 
probably deserved his certificate on other grounds. 

Dr. Caine'8 papers came up in very bad order— no supervisor's cer- 
tificate, no application, and no ratings in the several branches. And 
many of the questions are badly chosen. In the midst of all this con- 
fusion, however, the applicant acquits himself fairly well. 

The examination of Dr. Johnson shows some carelessness on the 
part of the board in not following out the schedule prescribed in the 
rules. The applicant sustains himself very well. 

Picktns County Board — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine— 

James Francis Barrett, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

H. G. Reed, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1890. Certificate 

Harvey B. Unchurch, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

These examinations were very poorly conducted on the part of the 
board. There is no supervisor's certificate. The ratings in the several 
branches are not given. The schedule of the ten branches is not fol- 
lowed. They use different sizes of paper. In a note they promise to 
do better. In the light of past comments upon their work the wonder 
is they have not put their resolve in operation sooner. 

Dr. Barrett displays very little knowledge of grammar, nor is his 
knowledge of medicine what it ought to be. 


Dr. Reed acquits himself so badly that it is questionable if he was 
entitled to the certificate. 
Dr. Upchurch sustains himself fairly well. 

Pike County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the prac- 
tice of medicine — 

William Shelby Sanders, M. D., Medical Department of Vanderbilt 
University, 1802. Certificate granted. 

A very good examination with two exceptions : paper is used of 
different sizes, and the cbirography of the applicant is very bad. 

Randolyh County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine- 
Joseph Charles Swann, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1890. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

This examination should have been reported last year. It is rather 
crudely done. The supervisor's certificate is not in due form. Paper 
of different sizes is used. The questions are fairly well chosen ; and 
the answers are fairly good, although somewhat brief. 

Bus$fll County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

St. Clair County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Mathis Turner, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1802. 
Certificate granted. 

This examination is fairly well done. Some of the answers are not 
full enough, and there is a good deal of bad spelling. 

Shelby County Board— -For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine— 

John Calhoun Boyer, M. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Jackson Flavins Kainett, M. D., Georgia College of Eclectic Medi- 
cine and Surgery, 1892. Certificate granted. 

On the part of the board these examinations could hardly have been 
worse. Some of the schedule branches are left out. There is no 
supervisor's certificate ; no application ; and the papers are generally 
in bad order. The applicants do themselves very little credit. 

Sumter County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Talladega County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Grace Harrison, M. D., Medical Department of the Univer- 
sity of Maryland, 1892. Certificate granted. 

Joseph Davis Heacock, M. D., Medical Department of Tulane Uni- 
versity, 1892. Certificate granted. 

James Washington Pruett, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 


Reuben Calvin Stevens, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 
1892. Certificate refused. 

This board is doing its work well. Still some of the questions, par* 
ticularly in the mechanism of labor, are not well chosen. 

All of the applicants acquitted themselves creditably, except Dr 
Stevens, who was righteously rejected. 

Tallapoosa County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Hartford Lee Ison, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 1801. 
Certificate granted. 

Charles Starr Webb, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1891. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Dr. Lee Ison's examination is not satisfactory. 

Dr. Webb acquits himself fairly well. 

Tuscaloosa County Board — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine- 
William Bonnell Hall, M. D., Medical Department of the University 
of Virginia, 1890. Certificate granted. 

Reuben Martin Searcy, M. D., Georgetown University, 1892. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Dr. Hall's examination is full and elaborate — far beyond any neces* 
sity. It is the finest ever passed in the State. 
Dr. Searcy's examination is satisfactory. 

Walker County hoard. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Washington County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine — 

Walton Worthy Shoemaker, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

This examination was not well done. 

Winston County Board. For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Riley Bonds, Jr., M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1892. 
Certificate granted. 

Thomas William Cossey, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 
1891. Certificate refused. 

Dr. Bonds shows great want of preliminary education. His ignorance 
of grammar and his bad spelling should have turned the scales against 
him even if his medical knowledge had been satisfactory, which was 
not at all the case. It is inconceivable that any half-way decent 
college could ever have graduated Dr. Cossey. His ignoramce is sim- 
ply astonishing. 

Wilcox County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 


Notb. — One set of papers was received without anything to show 
who had been examined or in what county the examination was 
made ; in short without one single indication of any sort to serve for 
its identification. 



We are glad to be able again to report that the work of 
the state board of health is making encouraging progress, 
especially in regard to the great undertaking to which we 
have devoted so much attention, namely, the collection of 
vital statistics. The doctors and the people are getting 
more and more accustomed to the report and registration of 
births and deaths, and the courts of county commissioners 
are more and more falling into the habit of making appro- 
priations for the payment of the county health officers. If 
the work is lagging in any of the counties it is because the 
doctors of those counties have not appreciated sufficiently 
their obligations in regard to it. Wherever the doctors lead 
the way in hygienic effort the people in due time will cheer- 
fully follow. 

In our previous reports we have frequently alluded to the 
multiplicity and magnitude of the difficulties that stand in 
the way of the collection of vital and mortuary statistics in 
sparsely settled counties. Our experience has abundantly 
shown that we have never over-estimated these difficulties ; 
but it has, also, shown that great as they are they are not 
insuperable. We are no longer making an experiment, but 
have safely passed the experimental stage. We have only 
to follow up this work with the same systematic energy as 
during the past ten years to make it finally a triumphant 

During the past year no destructive epidemic has invaded 
our state. We have been free from yellow fever, cholera, 
and smallpox. We have had local and sporadic outbreaks 
of scarlet fever, diphtheria, and grippe ; but none of these 


diseases have added greatly to our mortality. In a general 
way we can state that the health of our people has been ex- 
ceptionally good. 


Thb Statb Board of Health, 

In account with the Statb or Alabama : 

1802. Debits. 

April 80. To cash from Auditor, $ 260 00 

May 81. ° " 250 00 

June 80. u " 250 00 

July 80. " " 260 00 

Aug. 81. " " 250 00 

Sept. 80. " " 100 00 

Oct. 1. " " 15000 

Oct. 81. " « 250 00 

Nov. 80. " " 260 00 

Dec. 81. u u 250 00 


Jan. 81. M " 260 00 

Feb. 28. " " 250 00 

Men. 81. " " 250 00 

Total $8,000 00 

1892. OBBDIT8. 

April 8. By post-office box rent $ 150 

" 80. health officer's salary (April) 150 00 

" 80. clerk's salary (April) 50 00 

May 10. cash to Joel White 8 90 

" 11. receipt book 26 

" 11. 1000 stamped envelopes (lc) 11 20 

" 11. postage 6 00 

" 21. drayage on books 25 

" 81. health officer's salary (May) 150 00 

" 81. clerk's salary (May) 50 00 

June 14. drayage on books 40 

" 28. postage 2 00 

" 80. health officer's salary (June). 160 00 

" 80. • clerk's salary (June) 60 00 

July 6. 100 stamps (2c) 2 00 

'* 8. 500 envelopes (plain) 1 00 

" 26. 1000 stamped envelopes (2c) 22 00 

M 80. health officer's salary (July) 150 00 

" 80. clerk's salary (July) 50 00 


Aug. 5. By 100 stamps (2c) t 2 00 

" 12. post-office box rent 1 50 

" 30. telegram ( 111. 8 tote Board of Health ) 115 

" 31. 210 stamps (2c) 4 20 

" 31. 250 stamped envelopes (lc) 2 80 

" 31. health officer's salary (August) 150 00 

" 31. clerk's salary (August) 50 00 

8ept. 1. postage (Book of Rules) 50 

" 28. stamps and envelopes 5 00 

" 30. health officer's salary (September) 150 00 

" 80. clerk's salary (September) 50 00 

Oct. 11. post-office boxrent 1 50 

" 11. drayage on books 25 

" 27. envelopes and stamps 10 00 

" 31. health officer's salary (October) 150 00 

" 81. clerk's salary (October) 50 00 

Nov. 1. cash to Joel White 2 65 

" 5. cash to Brown Printing Co 150 00 

" 30. health officer's salary (November) 150 00 

" 30. clerk's salary (November) 50 00 

Dec. 5. postage 5 00 

" 14. envelopes (lc) 5 00 

" 21. 1000 envelopes (2c) 22 00 

" 31. health officer's salary (December) 150 00 

" 31. clerk's salary (December) 50 00 


Jan. 5. post-office box rent 1 60 

" 6. cash to Roemer (wrapping paper) 1 25 

" 9. postage 4 00 

" 16. drayage on books (Washington) ... 25 

" 31. health officer's salary (January) 150 00 

" 31. clerk's salary (January) 50 00 

Feb. 1. expressage 25 

" 5. postage 5 00 

" 10. expressage 30 

" 28. postage 5 00 

" 28. health officer's salary (February) 150 00 

" 28. clerk's salary (February) 50 00 

March 1. expressage 45 

" 6. postage 5 00 

" 14. 1000 stamped envelopes (lc) 11 20 

" 31. cash to Brown Printing Co 311 10 

" 31. health officer's salary (March) 150 00 

" 31. clerk's salary (March) 41 65 

Total 13,000 00 


Db. Cr. 

To total receipts from April 1, 1892, to April 1, 1893. .$3,000 00 
By total expenditures from April 1, 1892, to April 

1, 1893 $3,000 00 


By health officer's salary from April 1, 1892, to April 1, 1898. .$1,800 00 

clerk's salary for the same time 591 66 

cash for postage for the same time (stamps and envelopes) 129 90 

cash to Brown Printing Co 481 10 

miscellaneous 17 86 

Total $8,000 00 


We desire to call the attention of the county boards of 
health in a very special way to section 1282 of the Code, the 
section in which the legal duties of said boards are sepa- 
rately specified. These duties are very important, and it is 
certain that some of them are not sufficiently appreciated 
by some of our boards. This is emphatically true of sub- 
section 4 of said section of the Code, which is in these 
words: "To exercise a general superintendence over the 
sanitary regulations of the public institutions situate in the 
county, including hospitals, asylums, work houses, prisons, 
markets, and public schools." 

A wide field of usefulness for the county boards of health 
is opened up by these provisions of the law, and it should 
be assiduously cultivated. The jails and poor houses espe- 
cially require looking after. It is believed that in some of 
the counties the jails and poor houses are not managed in a 
way to foster the health and comfort of their inmates. 
Common humanity requires that prisoners deprived of their 
liberty and the afflicted poor who are the recipients of pub- 
lic charity should not be allowed to suffer from unsanitary 
surroundings or from inadequate or improper diet 

Let all the county boards of health, therefore, place them- 
selves in official communication with the courts of county 

commissioners, the sheriffs, the probate judges, and the 


grand juries, with a view to proper concert of action ; and 
let them make such inspections and recommendations as 
may be necessary to keep these institutions in good sanitary 

The number of inspections that ought to be made will 
depend very much upon circumstances. The more populous 
the jails and poor houses the more frequent should be the 
inspections; say, in the more populous counties once a 
month, and in the less populous counties once a quarter. 
The inspections may be made by committees of the boards 
or by the county health officers, as may be most convenient 
or most expedient under the circumstances of each case. 
They should be made carefully and systematically, and 
should be carefully written up for submission'to the boards 
of health, to the county authorities and to the state health 
officer. When abuses grow up in jails and poor houses it is 
nearly always the result of negligence and want of proper 
information on the part of the county officers, and it is the 
duty of the county boards of health to keep said officers 
properly informed. 


We have duly considered the Report of the State Health 
Officer in regard to the Conference of State Boards of Health 
held in New York April 5th-8th, to consider the means for 
the prevention of the introduction of cholera into this coun- 
try during the current year ; and have given our approval 
to the principles and policies advocated by him at said con- 
ference. This paper will be found in the fourth part of this 


The work of the county boards of health is steadily im- 
proving, when we consider aU the counties together. That 
is to say, a larger number of counties than ever before are 
engaged in the] collection of vital statistics, and a larger 


number than ever before are approximating satisfactory re- 
sults. This persistent progress, even while it is slow, is 
very gratifying. In it we have the assurance that complete 
success will ultimately crown our efforts in the most difficult 
enterprise ever undertaken by the medical profession of any 
country in the world. It is a work, therefore, of which the 
medical profession of Alabama may well be proud. We 
proceed to notice each one of the county boards of health, 
and its work for the past year, separately : 

Autauga County Board. — No report was received from this board for 
the past year. Dr. W. J. Bell, the county health officer, made some 
effort to do the work, but failed. Dr. R. L. Huddles ton, of Wads- 
worth, is health officer for 1898. The outlook for effective work is 
not encouraging. 

Baldwin County Board. — Dr. W. M. Lovelady continues to act as 
health officer for the county. No other county in the state presents 
more difficulties in the way of long distances and sparseness of popu- 
lation. In spite of these difficulties the work is fairly well done, and 
continues to improve. The health officer's salary is three hundred 
dollars a year. 

Barbour County Board. — The work in this county still continues to 
be in a very unsatisfactory condition. In the beginning of the year 
Dr. W. H. Robertson was county health officer. He was succeeded 
by Dr. W. A. Warren. At this time Dr. H. L. Brannon has the place. 
This is a large and wealthy county with a large number of fairly 
qualified physicians, and it should do better work. 

Bibb County Board. — No reports have been received from this county 
during the past year. Dr. Fred Black is still the county health 

Blount County Board. — This county is in about the same condition 
as last year. The reports are regularly made, but are not up to any 
high grade of efficiency. Dr. W. M. Cole is still the county health 
officer. This board ought to do better work. 

Bulloch County Board.— The work in this county has improved con- 
siderably. It has always been well done ; but for a year or two the 
reports were not believed to be quite complete. It is believed now 
that they are complete. Dr. S. C. Gowan is still the county health 

Butler County Board. — Our work in Butler county continues to im- 
prove, and lacks very little of being complete. Dr. J. G. Kendrick is 
still the county health officer. 


Calhoun County Board.— The work in this county is about the same 
as last year— good but not quite complete. The separate reports for 
Anniston, Oxford, Jacksonville and Piedmont are about complete. 
Dr. T. W. Ayres is still the county health officer. 

Chambers County Board.— No reports were received from this board 
for the past year. Dr. J. B. Rutland continues nominally county 
health officer. He receives no salary. 

Cherokee County Board.— The work in this county has not improved, 
and is not on a satisfactory basis. Dr. G. W. D. Lawrence is still the 
county health officer. 

Chilton County Board.— No reports have been received from this 
county during the past year. There is no appropriation to pay a 
health officer. 

Choctaw County Board. — Dr. B. B. Carr, who had been so long health 
officer in this county, died a few months ago, leaving his books and 
papers in such a condition that his successor was not able to make 
out the annual report. Dr. T. A. Knighton is now county health offi- 
cer. He makes regular reports, but they are not complete. 

Clarke County Board. — The reports from this county are very good ; 
Just a little more effort would make them complete. Dr. J. W. Arm- 
istead is still the county health officer. 

Clay County Board. — The work in this county is well done. Dr. 
Thomas Northen, the efficient county health officer, believes the re- 
ports to be about complete. 

Cleburne County Board, — The condition of things in this county is 
much more favorable, but the collection of vital statistics is not a suc- 
cess. Dr. T. J. John is the county health officer. 

Coffee County Board. — The reports from this county for the past year 
have been very defective. Dr. W. W. Grubbs was the county health 
officer. He has been succeeded by Dr. B. A. Hill, who promises better 

Colbert County Board. — As usual no reports have been received from 
this board for the past year. Dr. Palmer is the county health 

Conecuh County Board.— Dr. A. A. McKittrick, who has been health 
officer in this county so long, and who conducted the work of the office 
with so much energy, has been superceded by Dr. Andrew Jay. The 
reports are still claimed to be complete. Dr. McKittrick occupied 
the office until the first day of January. 

Coosa County Board. — During the past year the work in this county 
has been done in a very satisfactory manner. The reports have been 
nearly complete. Dr. A. J. Peterson is the county health officer. 


Covington County Board.-— No reports for the past year have been 
received from this board. Dr. W. E. Sentell is still the nominal health 
officer. He has no salary. 

Crenshaw County Board. — We have not received any reports from 
this county during the past year. There is no appropriation to pay 
the county health officer. Dr. A. J. Jones, however, has recently ac- 
cepted the position and will endeavor to put the work on a good 

CuUman County Board. — The work of this board continues to be 
fairly well done, but the reports are not quite complete. Dr. M. L. 
Johnson is still health officer. 

Dale County Board. — The work has been very poorly done in this 
county. Dr. R. F. Harper is county health officer. He has no salary. 

Dallas County Board.— Our work in this county has been done about 
as usual. The reports for Selma are claimed to be complete. For 
many of the county beats the reports are defective. On account of 
the large negro population this is a difficult county to manage. Dr. 
E. 6. Ward was county health officer up to March, when he was super- 
ceded by Dr. W. W. Harper. 

DtKalb County Board — Our work in this county still continues to 
improve, but is still not entirely satisfactory. Dr. H. P. McWhorter 
is still the county health officer. 

Elmore County Board.— This board has again acquitted itself well. 
The reports are not quite complete, but very nearly so. Dr. 0. S. 
Justice is still the county health officer. 

Escambia County Board. — This board continues to do excellent work. 
Dr. J. L. Bass, the previous health officer, has left the county, and the 
place is now filled by Dr. E. T. Parker. 

Etowah County Board. — The work of this board has Blowly improved 
and is now fairly well done. Dr. D. H. Baker is still the county health 

Fayette County Board. — During the past year no report has been re- 
ceived from this board. There is no appropriation to pay a county 
health officer. 

Franklin County Board. — This board has never made any reports. 
There is no appropriation for the county health officer ; which place, 
however, is still held by Dr. L. W. Desprez. 

Geneva County Board. — No reports have been received from this 
board. Recently the board has shown more signs of life, and has 
elected Dr. M. F. Flemming as county health officer. It is hoped he 
will be able to give a good account of himself. 


Greene County Board. — The work of this board has been very imper- 
fectly done during the past year. Dr. T. W. Pierce continued to act 
as health officer until January, when he was superceded by Dr. G. A. 
Moore. The organization of the county has considerably improved 
of late years, but the collection of vital statistics has not been made 
a success. 

Hale County Board.— Our work in this county has improved a little, 
but is not well done. Dr. J. Huggins is still the county health officer. 

Henry County Board. — Our work in this county is still in a very un- 
satisfactory condition. As health officer Dr. Phillips was succeeded 
by Dr. W. H. Williams, and now Dr. J. W. Payne is the incumbent of 
the office. The condition of the society has improved and we trust 
the collection of vital statistics will also improve. 

Jackson County Board. — The work in this county has gone on about 
as usual. The reports have been good, but not complete. Dr. G. L. 
Hayes continued to act as county health officer up to the first of Jan- 
uary, when Dr. A. N. Blackmore was elected to succeed him. 

Jefferson County Board. — The work of this board again deserves 
special commendation. The collection of vital statistics continues to 
improve. The separate reports for Birmingham, Bessemer, Pratt 
City, and Warrior, and for the prisons at Pratt Mines and Coalburg, 
are believed to be nearly complete. The reports for the county beats 
are more defective. The board has continued its policy of inspecting 
the Jail, poor house, market, hospitals, and schools. It is also active 
as a municipal board of health for the city of Birmingham. Dr. H. N. 
Bosser is still the county health officer. 

Lamar County Board. — The work of this board has not improved to 
any measurable extent. The reports are regularly made but they are 
not complete. Dr. D. D. Hollis continues to occupy the position of 
county health officer. 

Lauderdale County Board. — The board of this county has not been 
making reports for several years. It has recently been reorganized, 
but will hardly engage in the collection of vital statistics during the 
current year. 

Lawrence County Board.— This board has sent in its reports regu- 
larly, but they are quite defective. Dr. W. J. McMahon is still the 
county health officer. 

Lee County Board. — We have received no reports from this county 
during the past two or three years, and the outlook for the future is 
not good. 

Limestone County Board. — In this county, during the past year, our 
work has not been well done. Dr. G. R. Lewis was county health 


officer. For the current year Dr. W. J. Hagan is the county health 
officer, and the prospect for good work has greatly improved. 

Lowndes County Board. — In this county the work goes on as usual. 
Dr. Shirley Bragg is county health officer and claims that his reports 
are about complete. 

Macon County Board.— The work of this board continues to be a 
failure. The health officer gets no pay and does poor work. 

Madison County Board. — The work of this board for the past year 
has been extremely defective. Dr. W. 0. Wheeler was county health 
officer. For the current year Dr. J. T. Johnson is the county health 
officer, and there has been a decided improvement already accom- 

Marengo County Board.— The reports from this county last year was 
the first for several years. They were very defective, but as a begin- 
ning were welcomed. Dr. I. G. Wilson continues to occupy the posi- 
tion of county health officer. 

Marion County Board. — The organization of this county has been 
greatly improved, but no vital statistics reports of any value have 
been received from it. 

Marshall County Board. — The work of this board continues defective. 
The health officer gets no salary. 

Mobile County Board. — During the past year the work of this board 
improved materially, although it did not reach a high grade of effi- 
ciency. Dr. E. L. Marechal was the county health officer. Since the 
first of January Dr. D. G. Handle has been county health officer. 
This is a large and wealthy county, the health officers salary is $420 a 
year, and this board should do better work. 

Monroe County Board. — Our work in this county continues to be 
fairly well done. The reports are often delayed, and many supple- 
ments are sent in. Dr. VI. W. McMillan is still the county health 

Montgomery County Board. — The work of this county continues to 
improve, but is not yet what it ought to be, and what the board could 
easily make it. Dr. P. H. Owen is still the county health officer. 

Morgan County Board. — The work of this board for the past year 
showed some deterioration in place of the improvement that was ex- 
pected. This year Dr. W. A. Barclift is the county health officer. 

Perry County Board. — This board last year failed again to make any 
reports. Dr. O. L. Shivers was the county health officer. This year 
the health officer is Dr. G. R. Johnson. He promises to do better 


Pickens County Board.— During the past year the Pickens county 
board has been in a state of suspended animation. Since January 
Dr. H. B. Upchurch has been the county health officer. He is en- 
deavoring to bring about a better state of affairs. 

Pike County Board. — Our work in this county has gone on about as 
usual. The reports are fairly good, but not complete. Dr. C. W. Hil- 
liard is still the county health officer. 

Randolph County Board. — No reports were received from this board 
last year. There is no appropriation for the health officer. 

Russell County Board.— This board made some effort last year to- 
wards the collection of statistics but accomplished very little. This 
year the health officer is Dr. H. H. Allen. 

Shelby County Board. — We have had no reports from this board for 
the past year. The health officer has no salary. 

St. Clair County Board. — There has been considerable improvement 
in the reports from this county, and the improvement seems likely to 
continue. Dr. E. P. Cason is the county health officer. 

Sumter County Board. — Our work in Sumter county still drags 
along in a very unsatisfactory way. Dr. D. S. Brockway is still county 
health officer. 

Talladega County Board. — There continues to be some slight im- 
provement in the work of this board ; but it has not yet reached a 
satisfactory degree of efficiency. Dr. W. F. Thetford is still the county 
health officer. 

Tallapoosa County Board. — During the past year the retrogression 
in the work of this board, noted in our last report, continued. A few 
months ago Dr. A. L. Harlan was elected county health officer, with 
the result of great improvement in the monthly reports. 

Tuskaloosa County Board. — The work of this board continues about 
as heretofore. It ought to be greatly improved. Dr. J. B. Bead is 
still the county health officer. 

Walker County Board. — No reports have been received from this 
board for last year. 

Washington County Board. —No reports from last year have been 
received from this county. There is no county health officer, and no 
appropriation to pay one. 

Wilcox County Board. — No reports have been received from this 
county for the past year. Dr. R. H. Kilpatrick is the nominal health 

Winston County Board. — There has been some improvement in the 
reports from this county. Dr. J. C. Taylor is still the county health 
officer. He gets no salary. 





The Conference of State Boards of Health for the year 
1893 was called to meet in New York at the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel The meeting was held on the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th 
days of April The Program of Proceedings issued in ad- 
vance was as follows : 

1. Report of National Quarantine Commission: Dr. Irving A. 
Watson. New Hamshire, Chairman ; Dr. Peter H. Bryce, Ontario, 

2. (a* What are the present conditions, as to equipment and effi- 
ciency of administration of quarantine stations on the seaboard of 
the United States, including improvements to be actually available 
during the coming season. 

(ft) What is the practice as to the inspection of persons and the 
disinfection of baggage, and what is the exact practical meaning of 
certificates issued to passengers and immigrants as to themselves and 
the disinfection of their effects? (To be responded to by port quar- 
antine authorities of the United States.) 

3. The same questions as to Canadian ports. (To be responded to 
by port quarantine authorities of Canada.) 

4. The same questions as to Mexican ports. (To be responded to 
by port quarantine authorities of Mexico.) 

5. (n) What available plan can be agreed upon which will pass a 
properly certified passenger or immigrant and his baggage and effects 
from his starting point in the United States, Canada or Mexico, to 
his destination without unnecessary interference or delay. 

(6) Is it necessary and practicable to disinfect the baggage of all 
immigrants, and require certificates of disinfection? 

6. In the emergency of an epidemic, would it be practicable to 
conduct a uniform system of inspection service at the various state 
lines, as against any given infected district, by means of which co- 
operation and mutual protection would be secured? 

Propositions Nos. 5 and 6 will be referred to committees, appointed 
at the opening session, and requested to report to the Conference in 
time for its action before adjournment. 

7. v«n V.'imt has been done by such State Board of Health to pro- 
tect the territory under its jurisdiction against cholera? 

(6) What quarantine powers has each board ? 

(c) What are the present conditions in the principal cities and 
towns of each state ? (This will be responded to briefly, preferably 
in writing, by each state board.) 


8. Id the even t of cholera in this coud try , what requirements should 
be made of transportation companies to prevent spread of the dis- 
ease. Dr. C. A. Lindsley, Dr. E. P. La Chapelle, Dr. F. W. Reiley, Dr. 
L. F. Salamon, Dr. R. M. Swearingen. 

The reading of the Report of the National Quarantine 
Commission, as provided for in the first number of the Pro- 
gram, had to be deferred on account of the absence of Dr. 
Peter EL Bryce of the Province of Ontario, Canada, the sec- 
retary of the commission. On the last day of the session it 
was read in pari But as it was very elaborate, and because 
it covered ground that had already been considered, and 
because on account of the time that had already elapsed 
since the investigations of the Commission were made it 
was of historical rather than current importance, the read- 
ing of the whole of it was not deemed necessary. 

Under the second number of the program the members 
from the different states and provinces were called on to 
give an account of the character and efficiency of the quar- 
antine and other defenses of their respective localities for 
the prevention of the invasion of migrating epidemic dis- 
eases. It is not necssary to repeat these statements in detail 
for each state and province ; but a few general inferences 
based upon them are oi some interest. The absence of effi- 
cient means to prevent the admission of epidemic diseases 
into the New England states was specially notable. At the 
same time it was easily understood. Heretofore these states 
have had practically but one migrating pestilence to deal 
with, namely, smallpox, and this disease came to them only 
from Canada. It has been many years since they have had 
anything to fear from yellow fever. And hence they had 
few apprehensions to lead them to the construction of elab- 
orate defenses, until the recent menace from cholera roused 
them from their lethargy; and even now the danger to them 
of invasion by cholera is not very great The great majority 
of European immigrants are bound for the great West, and 
not for New England, or the South. . 

Another notable fact was the comparative absence of effi- 
cient quarantines on the North Atlantic coast. This is due 


doubtless to the fact that our North Atlantic cities have not 
been for more than half a century much subject to invasion 
by foreign epidemics. They have not felt the need of quar- 
antine protection, and hence their quarantine establishments 
are of very primitive construction. 

On the South Atlantic coast where the danger of yellow 
fever invasion is always more or less to be feared, the quar- 
antine defenses are considerably more efficient, although 
Charleston is the only city on the South Atlantic coast with 
a thoroughly equipped modern quarantine plant. The most 
efficient quarantine defenses for the South Atlantic coast, and 
as far north as Philadelphia, are to be found in the national 
quarantine establishments under the management of the 
Marine Hospital Service. This line of defenses is now or 
soon will be in a very satisfactory condition of efficiency. 

The quarantine defenses of our gulf coast are by far the 
most complete, the most efficient, and the most efficiently 
managed of any on the coast line in the United States. 
This is due to our proximity to the West Indies, the peren- 
nial home of yellow fever, which is thus to us an ever present 
menace of pestilential invasion. Here the states of Louis- 
iana, Alabama and Florida, have finely equipped quarantine 
stations, and these are supplemented by the stations of the 
national government at Chandeleur and Tortugas. 

The New York quarantine requires a separate notice. 
This city is the great entrepot for that great army of immi- 
grants who every year leave their homes in far off Europe 
to become citizens of the great republic They come by 
millions in crowded ships with unsanitary surroundings, 
and are liable to bring with them such diseases as typhus, 
small pox and cholera. Through this port, on several occa- 
sions, typhus fever has gained access to the city of New 
York. Through this port small pox has been repeatedly in- 
troduced into the west. And it was at this port last fall 
that the fleet of cholera ships made their appearance, and 
spread consternation throughout the length and breadth of 
the continent. The conference was therefore very much in- 
terested in ascertaining just what sort of a quarantine was 


depended on for the protection of the metropolitan city of 
the nation, and indirectly for the protection of the whole 
country, and especially of the great west, the destination of 
most of the immigrants. Accordingly we paid a visit to 
Ellis Island, where all the immigrants are landed, and to 
the two quarantine islands, Hoffman and Swinburne. After 
this visit a committee, consisting of Drs. Patten, Plunkett, 
McCormack, La Chappelle, Probst and Wells, were ap- 
pointed to prepare resolutions in relation to the quarantine 
outfit in the lower bay. The report of this committee, which 
was adopted, was as follows : 

"Resolved, That it be expressed as the sense of this confer- 
ence, representing the health authorities of the United 
States, Canada and Mexico, that the importance of having 
maintained at the port of New York a thoroughly efficient 
system of quarantine against imported pestilence is so great 
as to warrant the conference in offering certain urgent 
recommendations : 

Inasmuch as the state of New York has assumed the re- 
sponsibility of carrying on the important work, upon the 
equipment and efficiency of which other states must of 
necessity largely depend, the representatives of these states 
and communities feel themselves justified in urging that the 
present plant and appliances for the performance of quaran- 
tine at Hoffman Island be so enlarged and improved as to 
conform with the highest standard of modern improve- 

The conference recognizes the fact that the present quar- 
antine administration has labored under the disadvantage of 
having to operate a system burdened with grave, inherited 
defects, and full credit is accorded for such good work as 
has been done by the present active quarantine officer. 
The conference is informed that several important improve- 
ments are contemplated, and that as soon as possible these 
will be instituted. It is intended to increase the area of 
Hoffman Island, the observation and disinfecting station 
containing the principal quarantine plant, from two acres to 
about ten. 


The facilities for the disinfection of baggage and bedding 
are deemed entirely inadequate. The conference is informed 
that an extension of the same to about nine times its present 
capacity is contemplated, but in view of the constant menace 
from cholera the conference urgently recommends that these 
facilities be increased immediately. 

If practicable, it is also recommended that a wharf in deep 
water be built for the better accommodation of vessels under 
treatment at Hoffman Island. 

The supply of drinking water in cisterns is such as to 
render its contamination at the stations possible, and the 
necessity for a better arrangement is imperative. 

It appears that no disinfection of immigrants' baggage 
other than on vessels has been practiced at the port of New 
York since last October, and this conference formally pro- 
tests against the continuance of this neglect The confer- 
ence also deems it its duty to report that the certificates at 
present issued by the United States officials as represented, 
by Dr. Wheeler, of that service, have no value whatever in 
guaranteeing any previous inspection or disinfection of im- 
migrants' baggage, as this station is not designed for quar- 
antine work. 

The hospital at Swinburne Island is well equipped, and 
the crematory attached to same is one of approved construc- 

To consider proposition "5," as divided into "a" and "b, M 
and prepare a report on same, the following committee was 
appointed: Drs. Jerome Cochran, of Alabama; C. H. Hew- 
itt, of Minnesota ; F. W. Beilly, of Illinois ; C. N. Metcalf , 
of Indiana; E. P. LaChappelle, of Ontario; Benj. Lee, of 
Pennsylvania; 0. A. Lindsley, of Connecticut; J. T. Beeves, 
of Wisconsin, and John J. Kinyoun, United States Marine 
Hospital service. 

After four hours discussion among themselves they sub- 
mitted the following report : 

"It is not believed that it would be practicable to conduct 


a uniform system of inspection service at state lines as 
against any given district infected by any epidemic disease, 
but it is argued that it is the paramount duty of every healh 
organization to exercise the utmost vigilance for the protec- 
tion of its own territory. In this direction lies the practical 
protection of the whole country. To the extent, for example, 
that New York preserves herself from epidemic disease she 
protects her neighbors. 

"As to the limitation of an outbreak it is believed that 
the best and most effective work for the prevention of the 
spread of an epidemic disease can be done at the point 
where the outbreak occurs. The early notification of state 
and provincial boards of health of the existence of com- 
municable diseases in any state or province, as agreed upon 
at the conference at Toronto, is also urged upon the mem- 
bers of the conference as a measure of great value. 

"It is believed that transportation companies should be 
required — in event of cholera appearing in this country — 
to refuse the transportation of persons and things from any 
infected district, except under the direct supervision of the 
health authority of such district It also is recommended 
that transportation companies, both by land and water, 
secure and maintain the highest practical sanitary condition 
of equipment, stations, grounds, latrines, water supplies, 
etc., not only during the existence of cholera, but as a highly 
effective method of preventing the introduction and spread 
of communicable diseases. 

"Your committee further venture to offer the following 
proposition : That no person be allowed to embark on board 
a vessel sailing from abroad to this country unless he or 
she furnishes satisfactory evidence of vaccination within the 
previous seven years, and that no person be allowed to land 
in this country until he or she has furnished to the quaran- 
tine officer evidence that such vaccination was successful, 
or unless such person present physical evidence of a pre- 
vious attack of small-pox." 

The report fell short of the expectations and views of the 
conference and after a general expression of opinion, it was, 


upon motion, referred to a new and different committee, 
composed of the following : Drs. V. C. Vaughan, of Michi- 
gan; J. H. Ranch, Illinois; E. P. LaChapelle, Ontario; G. 
F. Patten, Louisiana, and Atkinson, Missouri. 

At the evening session this committee submitted the fol- 
lowing report, which was carefully considered section by 
section and then adopted : 

Resolved, That in our opinion a uniform system of inspec- 
tion service may be established and carried out But we do 
not believe that this inspection should be carried out at the 
state lines. 

Sec. 2. In an emergency of cholera at any place, inspec- 
tion should be instituted and no suspect should be allowed 
to enter a train. 

Sec. 3. A medical inspector should accompany each out- 
going train. He should carry medicines, disinfectants, eta, 
and should pay special attention to the closets, following 
directions formulated by the State Board of Health. Rules 
for the care of closets should be posted in each closet 

Sec. 4. If any person on the train shows symptoms of 
the disease such person should be isolated so far as is pos- 
sible. One closet should be selected for the exclusive use 
of such persons. The sick person should be carried to one 
of the temporary hospitals provided for below, or the car 
containing the sick person should be side-tracked in an iso- 
lated place and proper accommodation provided in the car. 
In either case the names and addresses of other passengers 
on that car should be telegraphed to the health authorities 
at their respective places of destination. 

Sec. 5. When passengers in a car in which a suspect has 
been found are transferred another car should, if possible, 
be provided for their exclusive use. 

Sec 6. Railroad companies should be requested to pro- 
vide, at such places in each state as the State Board of 
Health may designate, accommodations for those who may 
be taken sick en route. * Such accommodations should be 
subject to the inspection and approval of the State Board 
of Health. 


Sec. 7. Each train medical inspector should be furnished 
by the State Board of Health with a list of physicians along 
the line, any one of whom may be called upon for assistance 
in case of necessity. The compensation for these auxiliaries 
should be provided for by the State Board of Health. A 
special car must be provided for passengers going on a train 
at an infected place. 

Seo. 8. Ordinary articles of merchandise do not require 
disinfection. Household goods, personal effects and wearing 
apparel from an infected locality must not be received for 
transportation, however, until such articles have been prop- 
erly disinfected. Each trunk, box or package must have a 
card showing that the article has been disinfected and the 
method of disinfection. 

Seo. 9. In case any car should be contaminated in any 
way, such car must be removed from the train as soon as 
practicable and purified. 

Seo. 10. That it is the sense of this conference that in 
the emergency of an epidemic of cholera it should be re- 
quired that all passenger coaches should be provided with 
closets, specially arranged for the retention and disinfection 
of all fecal matter, the apparatus and methods to be subject 
to the approval of the respective State and Provincial 
Boards of Health. 

Seo. 11. A system of rules applicable to river and lake 
transportation should be formulated in accordance with the 
above rules." 

It is believed by the present writer that the several propo- 
sitions contained in the second of these two reports could 
have emenated only from sanitarians whose knowledge of 
the dissemination of communicable diseases and of the 
methods at our command for preventing or restricting the 
dissemination of said diseases, has been derived exclusively 
from closet study and based upon the abstract discussion 
of theories only half way scientific. I cannot enter into an 
elaborate discussion of their numerous absurdities, but will 
content myself with noticing very briefly a few of them. 

Take the second proposition. If cholera appears at any 


place something more than an inspection should be insti- 
tuted- The health authorities of the place should take ab- 
solute possession of the infected house or houses. What 
sort of inspection at the point of departure of a railroad 
train is going to discover a suspect? By what signs can a 
suspect be known? From some stations trains depart every 
few minutes, and at such places how is time to be had to 
make inspections? 

Take the third section. Because there were half a dozen 
cases of cholera in New York would you send out a medical 
officer with every outgoing train? It would be folly to 
attempt it I suppose several hundred trains leave New 
York every day. Are several hundred medical officers to be 
sent out every day under such circumstances? It would be 
a bonanza for the doctors but utter destruction to commerce 
and travel. But this system of medical inspectors on all 
outgoing trains is only to be instituted in an emergency, 
whatever that may mean. Whenever an emergency arises 
of such magnitude of danger as to warrant the employment 
of this army of medical inspectors, better put a stop to all 
railroad travel at once. But what would these multitudinous 
doctors do? Men already sick with cholera are not going 
to attempt to travel Even the short period of cholera incu- 
bation is long enough to allow a man infected with cholera 
to leave New York well and reach New Orleans still well, the 
cholera only developing a day or two after his arrival So 
the probabilities are that the army of doctors going as 
inspectors from New York would probably not discover a 
man sick with cholera on a thousand outgoing trains. Then 
when these trains reach interior cities and the passengers 
they carry transfer themselves to other trains still more 
numerous, are all these also to have medical inspectors? and 
so on, world without end? It is utter folly to think of it 
It is like invoking a tempest to wash a cockle shell ashore. 

Take section four. The provision about closets — one only 
to be used by sick persons — is entirely without reason. No- 
body ever took cholera from the seat of a water closet This 
• 10 


closet question comes up again in section ten with a require- 
ment that all passenger coaches should have specially 
arranged closets for the retention and disinfection of all 
fecal matter. I know the argument It is very specious. 
The cholera germ is to be found in the cholera dejections ; 
scattered along the road-bed they might be washed into 
streams and contaminate some water supply used by men 
and women ; and so might cause sporadic cases or an epi- 
demic of cholera. But the argument really amounts to 
nothing. The chances are that for every cholera, patient 
found on railroad trains there would be some hundreds of 
thousands of travellers who wouldn't have cholera. Sup- 
pose there was a case of cholera on a car, and suppose chol- 
era dejections were scattered along the road-bed for a few 
miles, the chances are a hundred to one that no trouble 
would come of it It is another case of invoking a storm 
to wash a cockle shell ashore. Then the car containing the 
sick person is to be side-tracked in some isolated place. 
But side-tracks are not common in isolated places. And 
would the people of even isolated places allow a car contain- 
ing a cholera patient to be side-tracked anywhere in the 
neighborhood of their residences? And what would be 
done with the patient after he was side-tracked? How 
would he be taken care of? By neighboring physicians and 
nurses? Not much. And how would the railroads manage 
to run their trains with their side-tracks encumbered by 
hospital cars. 

Take the sixth section. Railroads should be requested 
to provide accommodations for those who may be taken 
sick en route at such places in each state as the State Board 
of Health may designate. Suppose the railroads failed to 
pay any attention to the request? Or suppose in Alabama 
there was a railroad hospital at Montgomery, and the case 
of cholera was discovered on the train going south from Cull- 
man, more than a hundred miles north of Montgomery, is 
the train with the sick man to run all that distance before 
he is cared for? A thousand such hospitals might be built 
and not one of them ever used It is another storm and 


and cockle shell story. Something might, perhaps, by pos- 
sibility be done to transport immigrants on special trains 
and under special surveillance ; but it would be only under 
peculiar circumstances that even this would be practicable. 

In one word, all this system of railroad inspection to pre- 
vent the transmission of epidemics is practically impossible 
and absurd. It has been attempted in yellow fever seasons 
in the South where the number of trains to be looked after 
was not large, and attempted at considerable cost If any 
of these inspectors ever intercepted a case of yellow fever, or 
ever intercepted a man that was dangerous to the public 
health, I never heard of it 

In my judgment there are just three places in which to 
fight the progress of cholera in connection with immigrants. 
The first is at the point of departure in the foreign country. 
The second is at the port of arrival in this country. The 
third is at the point of destination in the interior of the 
country, when the immigrant has finished his journey. 

Propositions "6" and "8" of programme were referred to 
a committee for a report upon same, composed of the fol- 
lowing delegates : Drs. Irving A. Watson, of New Hamp- 
shire ; Walter Wyman, Surgeon General Marine Hospital 
Service ; F. Montizambert, Quarantine Officer, Dominion of 
Canada; L. F. Salomon, of Louisiana; J. H. Ranch, of 
Illinois ; 0. O. Probst, of Ohio ; F. H. DeVaux, of North 
Dakota, and J. D. Plunket, of Tennessee. At the evening 
session the committee made the following report, which 
was adopted : 

" Whereas, Article 14, of the immigration regulations of 
the United States, provides that each immigrant, or head of 
a family, prior to or at the time of embarkation shall be 
given a ticket on which shall be written his or her name, a 
number or letter designating a list and his or her number 
on the said list, for convenience of identification on arrival. 

Resolved, That for the purpose of assisting the quarantine 
officers and health inspectors said tickets should also have 
printed thereon figures or letters, or words which shall be 
hereafter provided ; that the ship's surgeon, or agent, shall 


indicate by punch or otherwise on said ticket, the informa- 
tion hereafter to be specified, that the quarantine officers at 
the port of arrival, and the inspecting officers at the several 
inspecting stations in the interior states, shall indicate in 
like manner the same information ; said ticket to be carried 
by the immigrant from the port of embarkation to the point 
of destination, and then delivered to the proper health 
officer ; provided, that this provision does not conflict or 
interfere with the rules or regulations of the Treasury De- 

Resolved, That the secretary of the conference be directed 
to forward this resolution, with the necessary forms, to the 
secretary of the treasury. 

Besolved f That the steamship companies shall be furnished 
with blank forms to be filled out by the surgeons on the 
voyage, dividing passengers into lists by states or provinces 
to which they are destined, such lists to be handed to the 
quarantine officer, to be by him punched, with such infor- 
mation as derived at quarantine ; this to be enclosed in an 
envelope with the printed address of the executive officer of 
such state or provincial board of health, and at once 
posted. The state or provincial officer receiving it to notify, 
by telegram if necessary, the local health officer into whose 
jurisdiction each family or person is going. Some such 
form as the following is suggested : 

Steamship , from , dat e — , 

place , when started , name , age — , 

destination , fullest details , disease , 

isolated cases. 

A question which gave rise to a good deal of discussion 
was as to the extent to which it is expedient to invoke the 
assistance of the marine hospital service in the administra- 
tion of quarantines and other protective measures for the 
prevention of the dissemination of infectious diseases 
amongst the states. This marine hospital service is very 
ambitious, and with the immense pecuniary resources placed 


at its disposal it will be able to break down opposition in 
many directions. The administration of our sea coast 
quarantines is now largely in their hands, and doubtless in 
course of time they will completely monopolize it In ad- 
dition to this they are now ambitious to undertake the 
administration of quarantines between the states. This ex- 
tension of the jurisdiction of this service met with scant 
favor from the conference, and every resolution favoring it 
was promptly voted down. It met with most favor from the 
Western members — another illustration of the drift in the 
Western states towards a paternal government and state 

The fact that we are to have the Columbian Exposition 
this year at Chicago has generated an unreasonable fear of 
the advent of cholera. In my opinion the danger of an in- 
vasion of this country by cholera this year is greatly less 
than was the danger of invasion last year. Last year we 
took no extraonlmary precautions and yet we escaped inva- 
sion. It is urged that the number of Europeans flocking to 
Chicago will of itself greatly increase our danger. I do not 
think so. It is not probable that Europeans will flock to 
Chicago in very large numbers, and the class of people who 
will attend the exposition are not the sort of people who are 
likely to disseminate cholera. In 1884-85 there was a wide- 
spread epidemic of cholera in Western Europe ; we resorted 
to no extraordinary measures of defense ; and we had no 
cholera. There is no reason, therefore, why we should lose 
our heads, and impose useless restrictions on immigration 
and commerce. 

I desire to add to this report two documents bearing on 
points embraced in it The first is in the shape of an inter- 
view with the New Orleans Times-Democrat, and bears date 
the 23d of February. The other is an editorial from the 
New York Times, printed during the progress of the confer- 



The Times-Democrat correspondent waited on Dr. Jerome Cochran 
to-day and asked that gentleman his views as to the probable invasion 
of cholera next summer. In reply he said : 

"We are undoubtedly in some danger ; but I think the probabilities 
are that we will escape. Cholera still lingers in various places in 
Western Europe, and may break out again when the weather gets 
warm and in some places become epidemic. But very energetic 
efforts will be made by the health authorities to restrain its spread, 
and I think the chances are that it will not prevail extensively. Of 
course our danger will be in proportion to the extent of its preval- 
ence in those countries with which we are in most direct and frequent 

"Do you think it is desirable to prohibit immigration from European 
ports during the coming summer in order to prevent the introduction 
of cholera? 11 was asked. 

"I do not think that so extreme a measure is likely to be necessary. 
It might, however, become so if cholera, contrary to my expectation, 
should prevail as extensively in Western Europe as it did last summer 
and fall. But even then we ought to be able to protect ourselves 
without laying an embargo on immigration. We were in great 
danger a few months ago when half a dozen large immigrant ships 
with scores of cholera cases on board and with hundreds of immi- 
grants exposed to the infection, made their appearance in the port of 
New York — in greater danger, I think, than we are ever likely to be 
in again, and yet the disease failed to get a footing on shore." 

"But a few cases did get into New York and they might have 

"Yes, a few cases did get in, and they did not spread. It is fortu- 
nate that these cases did occur in crowded New York city ; fortunate 
because it gave the health authorities an opportunity to show that 
cholera cases can be so managed as to prevent any dissemination of 
the disease. In England a still larger experience went to prove the 
same thing. Some forty cases were brought from Hamburg at dif- 
ferent times into Liverpool and London, and there was no spread." 

"You believe, then, that even if a few cases of cholera should be 
introduced into our seaports there would be no great danger of its 
epidemic dissemination?" 

"That is my belief. With a rigid enforcement of isolation and dis- 
infection, there is no reason why the disease should be allowed to 
propagate itself. If it should be allowed to spread in any commu- 
nity, that fact would be a sufficient proof of the want of skill or of 
the want of means of the local health authorities." 

"What about our quarantine defenses?" 

"They are certainly very much better than they ever were before ; 


and this is specially true of our Gulf quarantines, which, in my 
opinion, are the best in the world — much better, take them altogether, 
than those on the Atlantic coast. Still cholera might get into the 
country in spite of all our efforts to keep it out. There is contraband 
of revenue, and there may be contraband of quarantine. Hence the 
importance of being able to manage it after it gets among us. Be- 
sides the defensive quarantines at our own seaports, very important 
measures of prevention are now employed at the ports of departure — 
the European ports from which the ships come. Great care is taken 
that persons who have been exposed to cholera shall not be allowed 
to embark for this country, and all baggage and freights that are re- 
garded as suspicious are disinfected. In a word, our first line of 
quarantine defenses is erected in these foreign ports. Our home 
quarantines constitute a second line ; and the isolation of cases that 
may occur among us constitute a third line of defense." — Times- 
Democrat, February 22, 1893. 


The discussions of the doctors who have been conferring in this 
city for the last few days upon questions of quarantine and defense 
against cholera have been disturbed by a serious difference of opinion 
as to the limits of state and national jurisdiction. As those doctors 
are mostly representatives of State Boards of Health, a majority of 
them take a "state rights" view of the case, and some go so far as to 
maintain that the national authorities have no right to meddle in the 
matter at all. This controversy is significant mainly because it indi- 
cates the constant liability to conflict of authority that comes from 
the failure of Congress to assume jurisdiction within clearly-defined 

There is really no reason why the limits of state and national juris- 
diction should not be clearly defined, and there will be controversy and 
conflict of authority so long as Congress refrains from providing for 
the exercise of the power that belongs to the national government 
and that can be effectively exercised by it alone. There is no ques- 
tion that a state, through its "police power," can take all necessary 
measures for the protection of the health of the people of other states. 
It alone has to do with the sanitary condition of its cities and towns, 
the purification of the water supply of its people, and the control of 
causes of disease and of the movements of traffic that promote its 
spread within the limits of the state. 

It is equally clear that the national government has no jurisdiction 
to interfere with questions of local sanitation or the protection of 
the public health within any state. It has no jurisdiction at all on 
the subject of public health as such. But when it comes to matters 
of quarantine and of dealing with epidemics and contagious 


which have no respect for state lines, a wholly different question of 
jurisdiction comes into view. The most prominent feature of quar- 
antine regulation is an interruption of commerce and an interference 
with travel. That is the essential feature of it in its relation to pub- 
lic authority and the exercise of official jurisdiction. It is a matter 
that pertains of necessity to the power to regulate commerce, rather 
than the power to protect public health. 

Now, in the regulation of commerce with foreign nations and be- 
tween the several states, the national jurisdiction is beyond question, 
and is exclusive because it is specially conferred upon Congress by 
the Constitution of the United States. No state board or officer has 
the slightest authority to detain a vessel coming from a foreign port, 
or to prevent or interfere with the landing of its cargo or passengers, 
except by the sufferance of the national government, while on the 
other hand the national government has full power to make and en- 
force any regulation affecting incoming vessels that may be required 
by the public interest, and no state authority can resist or interfere 
with the exercise of that power. When it comes to interrupting or 
interfering with transportation from one state to another, on any 
account whatever, it is a question pertaining to the regulation of 
commerce between the states, and the national jurisdiction is com- 
plete and unquestionable, while state jurisdiction does not exist, and 
state authority can only be exercised by sufferance of the national 

The only chance for doubt or question or for conflict of authority 
now existing is due to the failure of Congress to assume the jurisdic- 
tion that belongs to the national government and to provide for its 
exercise, and it is pretty clear that this will have to be done before 
the efforts of state boards of health in their own proper field can be 
fully supplemented and supported by effective regulations for exclud- 
ing foreign epidemics from the country and preventing the spread of 
contagion from state to state, whatever its source may be. — New 
York Times. 


AN AOT granting additional quarantine powers and impos- 
ing additional duties upon the Marine Hospital Service. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress Assembled : That 
it shall be unlawful for any merchant ship or other vessel 
from any foreign port or place to enter any port of the 
United States except in accordance with the provisions of 
this act and with such, rules and regulations of State and 



municipal health authorities as may be made in pursuance 
of, or consistent with, this act; and any such vessel which 
shall enter, or attempt to enter, a port of the United States 
in violation thereof shall forfeit to the United States a sum, 
to be awarded in the discretion of the court, not exceeding 
five thousand dollars; which shall be alien upon said vessel, 
to be recovered by proceedings in the proper district court 
of the United States. In all such proceedings the United 
States district attorney for such district shall appear in be- 
half of the United States, and all such proceedings shall be 
conducted in accordance with the rules and laws governing 
cases of seizure of vessels for violation of the revenue laws 
of the United States. 

Sec. 2. That any vessel at any foreign port clearing for 
any port or place in the United States shall be required to 
obtain from the consul, vice-consul, or other consular officer 
of the United States at the port of departure, or from the 
medical officer where such officer has been detailed by the 
President for that purpose, a bill of health, in duplicate, in 
the form prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, set- 
ting forth the sanitary history and condition of said vessels 
and that it has in all respects complied with the rules and 
regulations in such cases prescribed for securing the best 
sanitary condition of the said vessel, its cargo, passengers 
and crew; and said consular or medical officer is required, 
before granting such duplicate bills of health, to be satisfied 
that the matters and things therein stated are true; and for 
his services in that behalf he shall be entitled to demand 
and receive such fees as shall by lawful regulation be al- 
lowed, to be accounted for as is required in other cases. 

The President, in his discretion, is authorized to detail 
any medical officer of the government to serve in the office 
of the consul at any foreign port for the purpose of furnish- 
ing information and making the inspection and giving the 
bill of health heretofore mentioned. Any vessel clearing 
and sailing from any such port without such bill of health 
and entering any port of the United States, shall forfeit to 
the United States not more than five thousand dollars, the 


amount to be determined by the court, which shall be a lien 
on the same, to be recovered by proceedings in the proper 
district court of the United States. In all such proceedings 
the United States district attorney for such district shall 
appear in behalf of the United States; and all such pro- 
ceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the rules 
and laws governing cases of seizure of vessels for violations 
of the revenue laws of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That the Supervising Surgeon General of the 
Marine Hospital Service shall, immediately after this act 
takes effect, examine the quarantine regulations of all State 
and municipal boards of health, and shall, under the direc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, co-operate with and 
aid State and municipal boards of health in the execution 
and enforcements of the rules and regulations of such 
boards and in the executions and enforcement of the rules 
and regulations made by the Secretary of the Treasury to 
prevent the introduction of contagious or infectious diseases 
into the United States from foreign countries, and into one 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia from another 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia; and all rules 
and regulations made by the Secretary of the Treasury 
shall operate uniformly and in no manner discriminate 
against any port or place; and at such ports and places 
within the United States as have no quarantine regulations 
under State or municipal authority, where such regulations 
are, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury, neces- 
sary to prevent the introduction of contagious or infectious 
diseases into the United States from foreign countries, or 
into one State or Territory or the District of Columbia from 
another State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and 
at such ports and places within the United States where 
quarantine regulations exist under the authority of the 
State or municipality which, in the opinion of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, are not sufficient to prevent the intro- 
duction of such diseases into the United States, or into one 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia from another 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia, the Secre- 


tary of the Treasury shall, if in his judgment it is necessary 
and proper, make such additional rules and regulations as 
are necessary to prevent the introduction of such diseases 
into the United States from foreign countries, or into one 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia from another 
State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and when 
said rules and regulations have been made they shall be 
promulgated by the Secretary of the Treasury and enforced 
by the sanitary authorities of the States and municipalities, 
where the State or municipal health authorities will under- 
take to execute and enforce them ; but if the State or mu- 
nicipal authorities shall fail or refuse such rules and regu- 
lations the President shall execute and enforce the same and 
adopt such measures as in his judgment shall be necessary 
to prevent the introduction or spread of such diseases, and 
may detail or appoint officers for that purpose. 

The Secretary of the treasury shall make such rules and 
regulations as are necessary to be observed by vessels at 
the port of departure and on the voyage, where such vessels 
sail from any foreign port or place to any port or place in 
the United States, to secure the best sanitary condition of 
such vessel, her cargo, passengers and crew; which shall be 
published and communicated to and enforced by the con- 
sular officers of the United States. None of the penalties 
herein imposed shall attach to any vessel or owner or officer 
thereof until a copy of this act, with the rules and regula- 
tions made in pursuance thereof, has been posted up in the 
office of the consul or other consular officer of the United 
States for ten days, in the port from which said vessel 
sailed; and the certificate of such consul or consular officer 
over his official signature shall be competent evidence of 
such posting in any court of the United States. 

Sec. 4. That it shall be the duty of the Supervising Sur- 
geon General of the Marine Hospital Service, under the 
direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, to perform all 
the duties in respect to quarantine and quarantine regula_ 
latdohs which are provided for by this act, and to obtain in. 
formation of the sanitary condition of foreign ports and 


places from which contagious and infections diseases are or 
may be imported into the United States, and to this end the 
consular officer of the United States at such ports and 
places as shall be designated by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury shall make to the Secretary of the Treasury weekly re- 
ports of the sanitary condition of the ports and places at 
which they are respectively stationed, according to such 
forms as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe; and 
the Secretary of the Treasury shall also obtain, through all 
sources accessible, including State and municipal sanitary 
authorities throughout the United States, weekly reports of 
the sanitary condition of ports and places within the United 
States, and shall prepare, publish and transmit to collectors 
of customs and to State and municipal health officers and 
other sanitarians weekly abstracts of the consular sanitary 
reports and other pertinent information received by him, 
and shall also, as far as he may be able, by means of the 
voluntary co-operation of State and municipal authorities; of 
public associations and private persons, procure informa- 
tion relating to the climatic and other conditions affecting 
the public health, and shall make an annual report of his 
operations to Congress, with such recommendations as he 
may deem important to the public interests. 

Sec. 5. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall, from 
time to time, issue to the consular officers of the United 
States and to the medical officers serving at any foreign 
port, and otherwise make publicly known, the rules and 
regulations made by him, to be used and complied with by 
vessels in foreign ports, for securing the best sanitary con- 
dition of such vessels, their cargoes, passengers and crew, 
before their departure for any port in the United States, 
and in the course of the voyage; and all such other rules 
and regulations as shall be observed in the inspection of the 
same on the arrival thereof at any quarantine station at the 
port of destination, and for the disinfection and isolation of 
the same, and the treatment of cargo and persons on board, 
so as to prevent the introduction of cholera, yellow fever, 


or other contagions or infections diseases; and it shall not 
be lawful for any vessel to enter said port to discharge its 
cargo, or land its passengers, except upon a certificate of the 
health officer at such quarantine station certifying that said 
rules and regulations have in all respects been observed and 
complied with; as well on his part as on the part of the said 
vessel and its master, in respect to the same and to its cargo, 
passengers and crew; and the master of every such vessel 
shall produce and deliver to the collector of customs at said 
port of entry, together with the other papers of the vessel, 
the said bills of health required to be obtained at the port 
of departure and the certificate herein required to be ob- 
tained from the health officer at the port of entry; and that 
the bills of health herein prescribed shall Jbe considered as 
part of the ship's papers, and when duly certified to by the 
proper consular or other officer of the United States, over 
his official signature^and seal, shall be accepted as evidence 
of the statements therein contained in any court of the 
United States. 

Sec. 6. That on the arrival of an infected vessel at any 
port not provided with proper facilities for treatment of the 
same, the Secretary of the Treasury may remand said vessel, 
at its own expense, to the nearest national or other quaran- 
tine station, where accommodations and appliances are pro- 
vided for the necessary disinfection and treatment of the 
vessel, passengers and cargo; and after treatment of any in- 
fected vessel at a national quarantine station, and after cer- 
tificate shall have been given by the United States quaran- 
tine officer at said station that the vessel, cargo and passen- 
gers are each and all free from infectious disease, or danger 
of conveying the same, said vessel shall be admitted to entry 
to any port of the United States named within the certifi- 
cate. But at any ports where sufficient quarantine provision 
has been made by State or local authorities, the Secretary 
of the Treasury may direct vessels bound for said ports to 
undergo quarantine at said State or local station. 

Sec. 7. That whenever it shall be shown to the satisfac- 
tion of the President that by reason of the existence of 


cholera or other infections or contagions diseases in a 
foreign country there is serious danger of the introduction 
of the same into the United States, and that notwithstand- 
ing the quarantine defense this danger is so increased by 
the introduction of persons or property from such country 
that a suspension of the right to introduce the same is de- 
manded in the interest of the public health, the President 
shall have power to prohibit, in whole or in part, the intro- 
duction of persons and property from such countries or 
places as he shall designate, and for such period of time as 
he may deem necessary. 

Sec. 8. That whenever the proper authorities of a State 
shall surrender to the United States the use of the buildings 
and disinfecting apparatus at a State quarantine station, the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall be authorized to receive 
them and to pay a reasonable compensation to the State for 
their use, if in his opinion, they are necessary to the United 

Sec. 9. That the act entitled "An act to prevent the intro- 
duction of infectious or contagious diseases into the United 
States, and to establish a national board of health," ap- 
proved March 3, 1879, be, and the same is hereby repealed. 
And the Secretary of the Treasury is directed to obtain 
possession of any property, furniture, books, papers or 
records belonging to the United States which are not in the 
possession of an officer of the United States under the 
Treasury Department which were formerly in the use of 
the National Board of Health or any officer or employee 




The senior censor read the report of the board of censors 
and committee of public health by the several sections 
separately for the consideration of the association. In this 
way the following votes were taken : 

(1) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the president's message, mentioning five 
recommendations (see ante pages 90 to 93) and moved the 
approval of said sections of the report 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(2) The senior censor called special attention to the third 
recommendation contained in the president's message (see 
ante page 92) as committing the association to a very im- 
portant policy, and moved the separate approval of said 
section of the report 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(3) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the reports of the vice-presidents of the 
association (see ante pages 93 to 94), and moved the ap- 
proval of said section of the report 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(4) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the report of the secretary of the associa- 
tion and the Book of the Rolls (see ante page 94), and moved 
the approval of said section of the report and of the report 
of said secretary. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(5) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the report of the publishing committee 
(see ante page 95), and moved the approval of said section 
of the report and of the report of the publishing committee. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 


(5) The senior censor read the report of the board of oen- 
sors in regard to the report of the treasurer of the associa- 
tion and of the Book of Accounts (see ante page 95), and 
moved the approval of said section of the report and of the 
report of the treasurer. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(7) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the Boll of the Correspondents (see ante 
page 95), and moved the approval of said section of the re- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(8) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the amendment proposed to article 47 of 
the constitution of the association (see ante page 96), and 
moved the adoption by the association of said proposed 

The amendment was unanimously adopted. 

(9) The senior censor read the report of the board of cen- 
sors in regard to the amendment proposed to article 48 of 
the constitution of the association (see ante page 1)6), and 
moved the adoption by the association of said proposed 

The amendment was unanimously adopted. 

(10) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the delinquent county societies (see 
ante page 96), and moved the approval of the recommenda- 
tions contained in said section. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(11) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the creation of a Historian for the as- 
sociation with an ordinance (see ante page 100), and moved 
the adoption of said ordinance. 

The ordinance was unanimously adopted. 

(12) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the appeal case of Dr. W. C. Wheeler 
of the Madison county society (see ante page 101), and 
moved the approval of the recommendation therein con- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 


(13) The senior censor read the recommendations of the 
board of censors in regard to banquets and receptions (see 
ante page 102), and moved the approval of said recommenda- 

The motion was passed with one or two adverse votes. 

(14) The senior censor read the recommendation of the 
board of censors in regard to the use of money derived 
from the sale of the Book of Rules for the printing of an 
Appendix to said book (see ante page 103), and moved the 
adoption of said recommendation. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(15) The senior censor read the recommendation of the 
board of censors in regard to the use of certain money de- 
rived from the dollar dues for examination papers (see ante 
page 104), and moved the adoption of said recommendation. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(16) The senior censor read the section of the report of 
the board of censors in regard to important suggestions for 
the medical examining boards (see ante pages 104 to 106), 
and moved that these suggestions be approved by the asso- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(17) The senior censor read the section of the report of 
the board of censors in regard to new rules for the examin- 
ing boards (see ante pages 106 to 107), and moved the adop- 
tion of said new rules by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(18) The senior censor read the suggestions of the board 
of censors in regard to beneficiary scholarships in the 
Medical College of Alabama (see ante pages 108 to 111), and 
moved the approval of said suggestions by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 






The committee on the revision of the rolls, composed of 
the senior censor, the secretary and the treasurer, reported 
three schedules of county societies, as follows : 

(1). Societies not Delinquent. 

That is to say, societies with all their constitutional obli- 
gations fulfilled — delegates in attendance, reports made and 
dues paid: Barbour,' Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, 
Cherokee, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coosa, Crenshaw, Dallas, 
Elmore, Etowah, Franklin, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, 
Lamar, Lowndes, Macon, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, 
Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Russell, Shelby, St 
Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Wilcox, Win- 
ston. Thirty-nine societies. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this 
schedule, the president ordered these thirty-nine societies 
to be passed as clear of the books. 

(2). Societies Partially Delinquent. 

Autauga, delinquent in delegates. 
Baldwin, delinquent in delegates. 
Bibb, delinquent in dues. 
Chambers, delinquent in dues and report 
Chilton, delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Choctaw, delinquent in delegates. 
Coffee, delinquent in delegates. 
Colbert, delinquent in delegates. 
Conecuh, delinquent in delegates. 
Cullman, delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Dale, delinquent in delegates. 


DeKalb, delinquent in dues and delegates. 

Escambia, delinquent in delegates. 

Fayette, delinquent in dues and delegates. 

Geneva, delinquent in dues and delegates. 

Henry, delinquent in delegates. 

Lauderdale, delinquent in dues and delegates. 

Lawrence, delinquent in delegates. 

Lee, delinquent in dues and report 

Limestone, delinquent in dues and delegates. 

Madison, delinquent in delegates. 

Marengo, delinquent in delegates. 

Randolph, delinquent in delegates. 

Tallapoosa, delinquent in delegates — twenty-four societies. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this 
schedule, the president ordered that these twenty-four socie- 
ties be passed, with the understanding that the secretary 
and the treasurer look after the missing reports and dues. 

(3). Delinquent Societies. 

That is to say, societies delinquent in all their constitu- 
tional obligations — delegates, dues and reports : 

Covington, Pickens, Washington — three societies. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this 
schedule, the president ordered these three societies to be 
referred to the board of censors for investigation. 

The revision of the first roll, the roll of the county socie- 
ties, was here ended, the said roll to stand closed until the 
next annual session of the association. 



The Committee on the Revision of the Bolls reported the 
seven schedules of counsellors as follows : 

(1). Counsellors Clear of the Books. 

Chrand Seniors. — William Henry Abernethy, Milton Co- 
lumbus Baldridge, Dudley Samuel Brockway, Pugh H. 
Brown, Davis Elmore Cason, Jerome Cochran, Benjamin 


Franklin Cross, Wilds Scott DuBose, Richard Mathew 
Fletcher, Charles Higgs Franklin, John Perkins Furniss, 
Vivian Pendleton Gaines, John Brown Gaston, Joseph 
Anderson Goodwin, Robert Hughes Hayes, Gustavus Hen- 
drick, Samuel Mardis Hogan, Daniel Stiles Hopping, Robert 
Dandridge Jackson, Walter Clark Jackson, Andrew Jay, 
William Henry Johnston, Capers Capehart Jones, Joel 
Cloud Kendrick, William Toulmin Kendrick, George Au- 
gustus Ketchum, James Buchner Luckie, John Alexander 
McKinnon, Adam Alexander McKittrick, Richard Fraser 
Michel, Joseph Moody, Francis Marion Peterson, Francis 
Marion Prince, John Albert Pritchett, Thaddeus Lindlay 
Robertson, William Henry Sanders, John William Sears, 
Samuel Dibble Seelye, Edward Henry Sholl, William Henry 
Sledge, Lucius Ernest Starr, Andrew McAdams Stovall, 
William Fletcher Thetford, Job Thigpen, James Grey 
Thomas, Conrad Wall, Robert Dickens Webb— Total, 47. 

Seniors. — Benjamin James Baldwin, Shirley Bragg, James 
Adrian Goggans, Albert Goodwin, Jacob Huggins, Henry 
Tutwiler Inge, Joel Beder Kendrick, Samuel Hickman 
Lowry, Abner Jackson Nolen, Robert James Redden, James 
Thomas Searcy, Powhatan Green Trent, Lewis Whaley, 
Charles Whelan, Wooten Moore Wilkerson, James Anthony 
Wilkinson— Total, 16. 

Juniors. — Peter Binford, Erasmus Taylor Camp, Andrew 
Jackson Coley, William Preston Copeland, John Martin 
Crook, Thomas Peters Deweese, Oscar Dowling, Rhett 
Goode, James Benton Hatchett, John Jefferson Harlan, 
John William Heacock, Luther Leonidas Hill, John Cal- 
houn LeGrand, Edwin Lesley Marechal, George Tilghman 
McWhorter, John Edward Purdon, Edgar Rand, Christopher 
Americus Robinson, John Pope Stewart, William Levi 
Thomason, Barckley Wallace Toole, William Camp Wheeler, 
Charles A Wilkerson— Total, 23 ; Grand Total, 86. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president ordered that the counsellors, eighty-five 
in number, whose names had been read, should be duly 
passed as clear of the books. 


(2). Delinquent Counsellors. 

Benjamin Shields Barnes, (junior counsellor, 1890) de- 
linquent in dues. 

Samuel Henry Hill, (grand senior counsellor of 1882) de- 
linquent in dues. 

Francis Marion Bushing, (senior counsellor of 1886) de- 
linquent in dues — total, 3. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, three in number, whose names had been read as de- 
linquents, should be stricken from the roll of the college of 
counsellors; and that of this action they should be duly 
notified by the Secretary. 

(3). Misodlaneous Counsellors. 

Moved out of the State : 

John Isaac Darby, senior counsellor of 1887. 

Loss of membership in county medical society : 

Thomas Alexander Means, grand senior counsellor of 

Died during the year : 

Peter Bryce, grand senior counsellor of 1873 and member 
of the board of censors. 

Daniel Edgarly Smith, grand senior counsellor of 1892. 

Declined to accept the election : 

Edward Fierson Nicholson, counsellor-elect of 1892. 

Allen Love Warren, counsellor-elect of 1892. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that these names 
should be stricken from the roll of the college of counsel- 
lors; and that the usual notices should be served by the 

(4). Grand Senior Counsellors of Ten Years Standing. 

Jerome Cochran, Mobile; Robert Dandridge Jackson, 
Summerfield; Walter Clark Jackson, Montgomery; George 
Augustus Ketchum, Mobile; Adam Alexander McKittrick, 


Evergreen; Richard Fraser Michel, Montgomery; Robert 
Pickens Webb, Birmingham — Total, 7. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the roles, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, seven in number, whose names had been read as 
having served for ten successive years as grand senior coun- 
sellors, should be transferred to the roll of grand senior 
life counsellors; and that of this transfer they should be 
duly notified by the Secretary. 

(5). Senior Counsellors of Five Years Standing. 

James Adrian Goggans, Wooten Moore Wilkerson — 
Total, 2. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, two in number, whose names had been read as hav- 
ing served for five successive "years as senior counsellors, 
should be transferred to the roll of the grand senior coun- 
sellors; and that of this transfer they should be duly noti- 
fied by the Secretary. 

(6). Junior Counsellors of Five Years Standing. 

John Jefferson Harlan, Luther Leonidas Bill, William 
Camp Wheeler— Total, 3. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, three in number, whose names had been read as 
having served for five successive years as junior counsellors, 
should be transferred to the roll of the senior counsellors; 
and that of this transfer they should be duly notified by the 

(7). Counsellors Elect. 

Wyatt Heflin Blake, Beuben Henry Duggar, James Beid 
Jordan, Bryan Watkins Whitfield, John Edward Wilkin- 
son — Total, 5. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the counsel- 
lors! five in number, whose names had been read as having 


signed the counsellor's pledge and paid their dues, should 
be transferred to the roll of the junior counsellors; and that 
of this transfer they should be notified by the Secretary. 

The revision of the second roll, the roll of the college of 
counsellors, was here ended, the said roll to stand closed 
until the next annual session of the association. 

The Election of CotmseUors. 

The Committee on the Revision of the Bolls reported 
that there were seventeen (17) vacancies in the college of 
counsellors. Whereupon the president ordered that the 
ballot be taken, which resulted in the election of the fol- 

Glenn Andrews, Montgomery county. 

Andrew Boyd, Jackson county. 

Shelby Chadwick Carson, Jefferson county. 

Mathew Bunyan Cameron, Sumter county. 

Russell McWhorter Cunningham, Jefferson county. 

Louis Willoughby Desprez, Franklin county. 

Samuel Gilbert Gay, Dallas county. 

Wyatt Heflin, Jefferson county. 

Henry Mitchell Hunter, Bullock county. 

Goldsby King, Dallas county. 

Robert Bell McCants, Marengo county. 

William Henry Moore, Coosa county. 

Thomas Northen, Clay county. 

Thomas Duke Parke, Jefferson county. 

Isaac LaFayette Watkins, Montgomery county. 

Thomas Noel White, Cherokee county. 

Note. — By a misunderstanding there were only sixteen 
(16) counsellors elected instead of seventeen (17). 



The Committee on the Revision of the Rolls reported that 
the board of censors had made no recommendation for any 
change by way of either addition or subtraction in the roll 
of the correspondents. 


The revision of the third roll, the roll of the corre- 
spondents, was here ended, the said roll to stand closed 
until the next annual session of the association. 



The Committee on the Revision of the Bolls reported the 
following vacancies in the roll of the officers, namely : 

One president for one year. 

One vice-president for the southern division for two years. 

One secretary for five years. 

One treasurer for five years. 

One censor for three years to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Dr. Peter Bryce, which term has been filled 
since the death of Dr. Bryce by Dr. Chas. EL Franklin, act- 
ing under appointment of the president 

Two censors for five years to fill the vacancies caused by 
the expiration of the terms of Dr. Jerome Cochran and Dr. 
John B. Gaston. 

One orator. 

One alternate orator. 

Thereupon the president ordered the necessary ballots, 
which were taken with the following results : 

For president — Thomas Lindlay Robertson, M. D., of 

For vice-president of the southern division — John Alex- 
ander McKinnon, M. D., of Selma. 

For secretary — James Beid Jordan, M. D., of Montgomery. 

For treasurer — Walter Clark Jackson, M. D., of Mont- 

For censors for five years — Jerome Cochran, M. D., of 
Mobile ; and James Thomas Searcy, M. D., of Tuscaloosa. 

For censor for three years — Charles Higgs Franklin, M. 
D., of Union Springs. 

For orator — Wyatt Heflin Blake, M. D., of Lineville. 


For alternate orator — William Wade Harper, M. D., of 

The revision of the fourth roll, the roll of the officers, was 
here ended, the said roll to stand closed until the next an- 
nual session of the association. 

Then the president said : "The four rolls have been duly 
revised according to our rules and usages; the Book of the 
Soils will stand closed until the next annual session of the 

The newly elected officers were all present and were then 
duly installed in their respective offices, in accordance with 
the usual formalities of the association. 

Upon taking the chair, the newly elected president made 
the following remarks : 

president's acceptance of office. 

Gentlemen of the Medical Association 

of the State.qf Alabama: 

I thank you for this expression of your confidence. I 
esteem it a high honor, and an expression of your marked 
confidence of which I may well feel proud, especially so, 
when I consider the character of the men composing this 

I also esteem it a distinguished privilege and a high mark 
of preferment, that my name shall be associated in the hon- 
ored roll with my distinguished predecessors. 

While I accept all this with pride and pleasure, and most 
sincerely thank you, I am not unmindful of the duties and 
responsibilities incident to this honorable position; but 
having every assurance of your confidence and esteem, I 
confidently expect your sympathy and co-operation in every 
way necessary to the support and upbuilding of our noble 
association. With this assurance and confidence on your 
part, I shall enter upon the duties of the office with hope 
and confidence, and in all things endeavor to act wisely and 


well, begging your charitable forbearance in all things amiss 
in my conduct of the office. 

Birmingham was selected as the place for holding the 
next annual session of the association. 

At 1 P. m., on motion of the senior censor, the association 
adjourned sine die. 


or THK 


or THB 



Introduction. — In the Transactions of last year the publishing com- 
mittee prefaced the rolls of county societies with instructions to sec- 
retaries as to their records and the best method of obtaining informa- 
tion concerning them that would pass criticism, but the reports of 
this year come in all sorts of shapes, with errors so glaring, excuses 
could not be found for them. If secretaries would only place their 
reports in the volume of the year in which they are made, find out 
the full names, dates and colleges of graduation, dates of county 
certificates and addresses, and arrange these names in alphabetical 
order, all trouble of correcting errors by the secretary would be 

Explanation. — The letters mc stand for medical college ; the letters 
cb for county board ; when the certificate is issued by the examining 
board of the county in the register of which it occurs, the name of the 
county is omitted ; when the certificate was issued by the examining 
board of some other county, the name of such county succeeds the 
abbreviation. The first name in every board of censors is that of the 
president of the board. 


Revision of 1893. 



President, Charles A. Edwards ; Vice-President, John W. Davis ; 
Secretary, Eugene A. King ; Treasurer, Eugene A. King ; Health Offi- 
cer, Robert Lee Huddleston. Censors—Charles A. Edwards, John E. 
Wilkinson, John W. Davis, Eugene A. King, Wyatt W. Grolson. 



Bell, Walter Jay, mo univ Tulane 91, cb. 91, Prattville. 

Davis, John Wilson, mc Atlanta 59, cb 80, Prattville. 

Edwards, Charles Alva, mc Memphis 59, cb 80, Prattville. 

Golson, Wyatt Washington, mc South Carolina 54, cb Autauga ville. 

Huddleston, Robert Lee, mc Atlanta 90, cb 92 Wadsworth. 

Jackson, Stonewall, mc Atlanta 87, cb 89, Wadsworth. 

King, Eugene Asbury, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Autaugaville. 

McKeithen, Archibald Smith, mc univ Virginia 60, cb 80, Autauga- 

Saddler, William Thomas, mc phy and surg Baltimore 91, cb 91, Pratt- 

Wilkinson, John Edward, mc univ Tulane 08, cb 80, Prattville. 
Total, 10. 


Howard, Charles Campbell, mc Georgia 41, cb 80, Autaugaville. 
Par n ell, Charles Nicholas, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Mulberry. 
Sherrell, James Lewis, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 80,,Vineton. 
Total, 8. 



President, Phillip M. Hodgson ; Vice-President, Malachy Coughlan ; 
Secretary, William M. Lovelady ; Treasurer, William M. Lovelady ; 
Health Officer, William M. Lovelady. Censors —William M. Lovelady, 
Phillip M. Hodgson, Malachy Coughlan. 


Coughlan, Malachy, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Tensaw. 
Hodgson, Phillip Melanchthon, mc Alabama 88, cb 89, Stockton. 
Lovelady, William Marshall, cb 82, Bon Secour. 
Showalter, Volner McReynolds, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Point Clear. 
Total, 4. 


Reynolds, Samuel Kirkpatrick, mc Jefferson 57, cb Mobile 78, Battle's 

Moved out of the county— John E. Tomkins, M. D., from Bon Secour 
to Mobile, Ala. 

Examinations.— Malachy Coughlan, M. D., mc Alabama 92, Tensaw. 
Certificate awarded. 




President, James Wallace Drewry ; Vice-President, William Henry 
Robertson ; Secretary, Le Roy Johnston Simpson ; Treasurer, Le Roy 
Johnston Simpson; Health Officer, Charles W. Lee. Censors- 
William Preston Copeland, Simon Augustas Holt, Albert Goodwin, 
Junius Xincade Battle, William Henry Robertson. 


Battle, Joseph Thomas, mc Georgia 67, cb 87, Hawkinsville. 
Battle, Junius Kincade, mc univ Louisiana 83 cb 83, Eufaula. 
Brannon, Hugh Lee, mc univ Yanderbilt 85, cb 85, Harris. 
Copeland, William Preston, mc Bellevue 70, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Davie, Judson, mc Georgia 72, cb 81, Cowikee. 
Drewry, James Wallace, mc Jefferson 49, cb 81, Eufaula. 
Huey, George Washington, mc Alabama 90, cb 97, Belcher. 
Gibson, William Beatty, mc Bellevue 89, state board 92, Eufaula. 
Goodwin, Albert, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Fleming, James Alexander, Clayton. 

Holt, Simon Augustus, mc univ New York 58, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Lee, Charles W., mc Alabama 93, cb Henry 93, Clayton. 
Mitchell, William Augustus, mc univ Louisiana 68, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Patterson, Thomas, mc Atlanta 69, cb 82, Louisville. 
Pruett, Jacob Henry, mc univ New York 68, cb 79, Harris. 
Robertson, William Henry, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Clayton. 
Simpson, Le Roy Johnston, mc Bellevue 83, cb 83, Eufaula. 
Warren, Benjamin Smart, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Clayton. 
Winn, Joseph Julius, mc Atlanta 68, cb 81, Clayton. 
Total, 19. 

Honorary Members, 

Bledsoe, Francis Marion, mc Jefferson 59, cb Georgia 81, Georgetown, 

Herron, Edward Marion, mc South Carolina 82, cb"81, Eufaula. 

Total, 2. 


Belcher, William R., mc Atlanta, 89, cb 89, Bush, 

Blair, William Henry, mc Atlanta 80, cb 87, Louisville. 

Borden, James Thomas, mc Atlanta Southern 85, cb 85, Louisville. 

Crews, Joseph Emmett, mc Georgia 53, cb 79, Clayton. 

Faulk, Daniel Winston, one course Atlanta, Blue Springs. 

Grubbs, Walter William, mc Atlanta Southern, one course, Clayton. 

Herron, Darrell Jefferson, mc Atlanta 83, Mt. Andrew. 

Jay, John. 


Lingo, James Henry, Alls ton. 

Mayes, William Robert, mc National 59, cb 82, Clayton. 
Reynolds, James Augustus, mc Ohio 45, cb 82, Pea River. 
Russell, William Arnold, mc Ohio 45, cb 82, Batesville. 
Smart, William Alexander, mc univ Louisville 85, cb 86, Clayton. 
Turner, Alexander, mc South Carolina 57, cb 79, White Oak. 
Total, 14. 

Moved into the county— Gibson, William Beatty, from Austin, Tex., 
to Eufaula. 

Examinations — Gibson, William Beatty, Bellevue 89. Certificate 



President, James W. Brand ; Vice-President, William J. Nicholson ; 

Secretary, Milton C. Schoolar ; Treasurer, ; Health Officer, 

William Frederick Black. Censors— James Walker Brand, William 
John Nicholson, Oscar Whitfield, Milton C. Schoolar. 


Black, William Frederick, mc univ Yanderbilt 90, cb Morgan 90, 

Brand, James Walker, mc univ Yirginia 56, cb 78, Randolph. 
Nicholson, William John, mc univ Yanderbilt 84, cb 85, Centre ville. 
Schoolar, Milton Carson, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Cent re ville. 
Whitfield, Oscar, mc univ Yanderbilt 81, cb 81, Briarfield. 
Wool ley, Charles Lewis, old law, Randolph. 

Total. 6. 


Hill, Allen Green, old law 55, Tuscaloosa 88, Green Pond. 
James, Frederick Marshall, non -graduate, Centre ville. 
Jones, Benjamin Franklin, mc Miami 85, cb Jefferson 80, Blocton. 
Jones, Robert Samuel, (Eclectic), cb 82, Six Mile. 
Meadow, Albert Eli, Hahnneman 88, cb Jefferson 83, Blocton. 
Meadow, John M., mc Pulte univ., Blocton. 
Ray, Jacob Uriah, (non -graduate), cb 82, Woodstock. 
Sessions, Alexander Hamilton, (non-graduate , Affonee. 
Taylor, John F., cb 90, Blocton. 

Williams, James Milford, mc Georgia 89, cb 79, River Bend. 
Total, 10. 

Moved into the county— John M. Meadow, to Blocton ; Dr. John F. 
Taylor, to Blocton. 

Moved out of the county— W. N. McGee from Blocton to Texas. 




President, Frank N. Hudson ; Vice-Presidents, 1st, W. M. Cole, 2d, 
John L. Rains ; Secretary, Joseph F. Hendricks ; Treasurer, Joseph F. 
Hendricks; Health Officer, William M. Cole. Censors— Frank N. 
Hudson, John L. Rains, William T. Bains, George W. Self, Joseph F. 


Allgood, William Barnett, mc Atlanta Southern 81, cb 81, Chepul- 

Berrier, John Henry, mc univ Vanderbilt (one course), cb Cullman 85, 

Bains, William Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 91, Cleveland. 

Baird, Robert Henry, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Bangor. 

Clapp, William King, non-graduate, cb Marshall 86, Gum Spring. 

Cole, William Manson, mc Atlanta Southern 86, cb 86, Blountsville. 

Davidson, Alvin Steele, non-graduate, cb 77, Selfville. 

Erwin, Andrew Benton, Bangor.' 

Findley, William Marshall, mc Vanderbilt 82, cb 83, Blountsville. 

Hendricks, Joseph Franklin, mc Atlanta 83, cb 83, Clarence. 

Hudson, Frank Norton, univ Nashville 74, cb Madison 78, Blounts- 

Martin, Henry Bailey, univ Nashville 88, cb 88, Arkadelphia. 

Moore, David Sanders, mc Atlanta 80, cb 81, Clarence. 

Rains, John Leander, univ Nashville 91, cb Marshall 91, Liberty. 

Self, George William, univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 89, Selfville. 

Wiggins, Wesley Davis, univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Oneonta. 

Wikle, Luther LaFayette, univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 89, Village Spring. 
Total, 17. 


Alldridge, Patrick George, Atlanta 79, cb 79, Brookville. 

Armstrong, , cb — , Blount Springs. 

Bradley, , cb — , Hanceville. 

Byars, , cb — , Blount Springs. 

Donehoo, Floyd George, mc Georgia Southern 81, cb 81, Murphree's 


Haden, Andrew Wade, univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Summit. 

Haden, Henry Hughes, univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 86, Summit. 

Harwell, James Thomas, Georgia Southern 83, cb 83, Compton. 

Holcomb, T. D., irregular, Arkadelphia. 

Ingram, M. S., cb — , Blount Springs. 

Whaley, James Peter, cb 84, Bangor. 

Total, 11. 


Moved into the county — Andrew B. Erwin to Bangor. 

Examinations — Baird, Robert Henry, mc Alabama 92. Certificate 

Deaths — Estell, Samuel Hardeman, Blount Springs. 



President, S. M. Hogan ; Vice-President, Groves Caldwell ; Secre- 
tary, R. H. Hayes ; Treasurer, H. M. Hunter ; Health Officer, 8. C. 
Cowan. Censors— 8. M. Hogan, R. H. Hayes, C. H Franklin, N. M. 
Bledsoe, W. A. Walker. 


Ay res, Charles James, mc univ Virginia 86, cb Dallas 86, Fitzpatrick's. 
Bledsoe, Nathaniel Macon, mc univ Nashville 57, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Butt, Richard Lemuel, mc univ New York 46, cb 80, Midway. 
Caldwell, Groves, mc univ Pennsylvania 45, cb 80, James. 
Colvin, James Pickett, mc univ Louisville 91, cb Macon 91, Hector. 
Cowan, Samuel Calvin, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Union Springs. 
Crymes, Augustus Clayton, mc Jefferson 56, cb 80, Midway. 
Darnell, Benjamin Franklin, mc Atlanta 55, cb 83, Post Oak. 
Franklin, Charles Higgs, mc univ Louisiana 66, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Grimes, Erasmus Darwin, mc univ Louisville 66, cb Montgomery 77, 

Hayes, Robert Hughes, mc St. Louis 79, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Hogan, Samuel Mardis, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Hunter, Henry Mitchell, mc phy and surg Baltimore 86, cb Barbour 

87, Union Springs. 
Leitner, Charles Bacus, mc univ Maryland 47, cb Russell 85, Flora. 
Reynolds, William Anderson, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Mt. Hilliard. 
Sessions, Lie well en, mc Georgia 48, cb 87, Union Springs. 
Thomason, William Bartlett, mc Georgia 54, cb 80, Aberfoil. 
Walker, William Austin, mc Jefferson 54, cb 85, Perote. 
Zeigler, John Olin, mc Atlanta (one course) 80, cb 80, Perote. 

Total, 19. 

Honorary Member. 
Banks, Newton Paley, mc univ Louisville 49, Columbus, Ga. 


Rumph, James David, mc South Carolina (retired) 36, cb 80, Perote. 
8wanson, William Schley, mc Atlanta (retired* 57, cb 80, James. 
Total, 2. 


Moved out of the county— Powell, William Clifton, from Hector to 
Pine Level, Montgomery county. Harris, William Sanford, from Dick's 
Creek to Kinham, Macon county. 

Deaths— Dr. J. H. Reynolds, mc univ Nashville, 54, cb 80, Mt. 
Hilliard. Died February 23, 1893, of Bright's Disease. 



President, Job Thigpen ; Vice-President, Curtis B. Herbert ; Secre- 
tary, Francis M. Thigpen ; Treasurer, ; Health Officer, Joel C. 

Kendrick. Censors — Curtis B. Herbert, Job Thigpen, Joel C. Ken- 
drick, Conrad Wall, Henry G. Perry. 


Allman, James Edward, mc Savannah, Ga., 69, cb 79, Georgiana. 

B rough ton, John Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 79, Greenville. 

Brown, William Abner, cb Tuscaloosa, Garland. 

Donald, James Glenn, mc univ Louisiana 54, cb 78, Monterey. 

Garrett, James Jefferson, mc Georgia Reform 82, cb 82, Forest Home. 

Green, Henry, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Georgiana. 

Grissett, William Paners, mc Alabama 72, cb Monroe and Butler 84> 

Herbert, Curtis Burke, state board 79, cb 78, Greenville. 
Kendrick, Joel Cloud, mc univ Nashville 52, cb 78, Greenville. 
Knight, Comer James, mc univ Tulane 58, cb 78, Greenville. 
Lloyd, Cary Chappelle, mc Atlanta 58, cb 78, Greenville. 
Man gum, William Washington, mc Atlanta 93, cb 93, Dunham. 
McCane, James Jordan, mc Louisiana 82, cb 82, Greenville. 
Owens, Jared Douglas, mc Alabama 79, cb 79, Manningham. 
Perry, Henry Gaither, mc Georgia Reform 88, cb 89, Boiling. 
Scott, Harvey Edward, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb Dallas 80, Georgiana. 
Simmons, William Cleveland, cb 79, Manningham. 
Smith, Robert Edward, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Greenville. 
Smith, William Robert, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Oakey Streak. 
Thigpen, Francis Marion, mc Louisiana 91, cb 91, Greenville. 
Thigpen, Job, mc Georgia 56, cb 78, Greenville. 
Wall, Conrad, mc univ Nashville 59, cb 78, Greenville. 
Wright, William Pendleton, cb 78, Boiling. 
Total, 28. 


Elim James, mc unknown, Oakey Streak. 
Harrison, Joseph, mc South Carolina 52, cb 84, Greenville. 
Kendrick, Joel Beder, mc Alabama 82, ob 82, Greenville. 
Perdue, James Lewis, mc Alabuma 75, cb 79, Greenville. 


Steiner, Samuel Jackson, mc univ Vanderbilt 79, cb 79, Greenville. 

Stewart, Arthur, mc univ Louisville 82, cb — , . 

Total, 6. 

Moved into the county — Henry Green, to Georgiana ; Joel Beder 
Kendrick, from Birmingham to Greenville. 

Examinations— For the practice of medicine, John Po telle Buchanan, 
mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Fort Deposit ; William Peter Knight, mc At- 
lanta 92, cb 92, Honoraville. Certificates granted. For the study of 
medicine — Hamp Luckie, Monterey ; Robert H. Stanley, Greenville ; 
Albert Haggard, Greenville. Certificates granted. 



President, John C. Le Grand ; Vice-President, John M. Whiteside ; 
Secretary, Benjamin D. Williams ; Treasurer, Edmunds C. Anderson ; 
Health Officer, Thomas W. Ayers. Censors— John M. Whiteside, John 
M. Crook, William B. Arberry, John H. Murfee, William J. Warren. 


Anderson, Edmunds Clark, s of m Kentucky 77, cb 88, Anniston. 

Arberry, William Buchanan, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb Macon 82, An- 

Ayers, Thomas Willborn, mc phy and surg Baltimore 82, cb 86, Jack- 

Bowcock, Robert Lee, mc univ Virginia 86, cb 88, Anniston. 

Brothers, Phillip Houston (old law) 41, cb 86, Cane Creek. 

Buckalew, Ansel Milbran, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 86, DeArmanville. 

Bullard, Aurelius Francis, mc Jefferson (one course) 76, cb 81, Oxford. 

Crook, John Martin, mc phy and surg Baltimore 85, cb 86, Jackson- 

Davis, John Francis Marion, mc Atlanta 60, cb 81, Choccolocco. 

Douth it, Andrew Jackson, cb 81, Alexandria. 

Freeman, Clarence, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Oxford. 

Gordon, Frederick Elliott, mc Alabama 82, cb Marengo 82, Anniston. 

Hughes, John Leander, mc Georgia 51, cb 88, Piedmont. 

Hughes, Robert Lee, mc Atlanta 92, cb Cherokee 92, Choccolocco. 

Jamison, Lewis, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 90, Anniston. 

Kelly, John Baker, mc Jefferson 59, cb Coosa 84, Anniston. 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, mc Atlanta 80, cb 81, Anniston. 

Ligon, Arthur Wellington, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 84, Oxford. 

Matthews, George Andrew, mc univ Michigan 66, cb 90, Anniston. 

Murfee, John Howard, mc phy and surg New York 67, cb 91, An- 

Simpson, John Lee, mc Atlanta 80, cb Coosa 83, Anniston. 

Smith, William Armistead, mc Alabama 81, cb Monroe 81, Anniston. 


Walker, James Fleming, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 92, Anniston. 
Warren, William James, mc Atlanta 89, cb Tallapoosa 89, Anniston. 
Whiteside, John Mclntyre, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Oxford. 
Williams, Benjamin Dudley, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 83, Oxford. 
Wood, Hiram Alexander, mo Atlanta 88, cb Cleburne 89, Anniston. 
Total, 27. 


Baker, Joseph Lorenzo, mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb Cleburne 84, Pied- 

Boiling, William Ellsberry, cb 81, Iron City. 

Crook, James Edward, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Alexandria. 

Davis, Thomas Asbury, mc univ Louisiana 59, cb 84, Anniston. 

Evans, Benjamin Shumate, cb 81, White Plains. 

Harvey, Lewis Clay, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb Fayette 88, Weaver's 

Huger, Richard Proctor, mc South Carolina" 71, cb 81, Anniston. 

Linder, Pleasant Phillips, cb 81, Jacksonville. 

McDairmid, John Calvin, mc Georgia (one course) 55, cb Clay 83, Ox- 

McRae, Francis Marion, cb Cleburne 81, Ohatchee. 

Montgomery, Charles Henry, univ Washington 68, Jacksonville. 

Teague, Francis Bowden, univ Tennessee 80, cb Etowah 80, Piedmont. 

Teague, Robert George, cb Clay 81, Piedmont. 

Thomas, Charles Edward (colored), Long Island Hospital 90, cb 90, 

Wikle, Jesse Lane, mc Georgia 79, cb 81, Anniston. 

Williamson, Thomas, cb 84, Peek's Hill. 
Total, 16. 

Moved out of the county — J. M. Meadows, from Anniston to Blocton ; 
M. T. W. Christian, from Oxford to Ocala, Fla. ; T. C. Hill, from An- 
niston to Perry county ; S. J. McCurry, from Anniston to Houston, 
Texas ; J. H. McDuffie, from Anniston to Columbus, Ga. 



President, W. H. Hudson ; Vice-President, W. M. Gay ; Secretary, 
Benjamin F. Rea, Jr.; Treasurer, B. F. Rea, Jr.; Health Officer, 
John B. Rutland. Censors— Robert L. Cater, W. J. Love, W. D. 
Gaines, Zachary T. Grady, B. F. Rea, 8r. 


Beasley, James Albert, mc Atlanta 72, cb 82, West Point, Ga. 
Bonner, Thomas Harrison, mc Atlanta 82, cb Randolph 82, Hickory 


Cater, Robert Lee, mc Jefferson 88, cb 89, LaFayette. 
Cooper, John William, mc South Carolina 45, cb 84, Mill Town. 
DeVaughn, John Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Five Points. 
Gaines, W. D. mc Alabama 92, cb 93, LaFayette. 
Gay, William McCurry, mc Atlanta 81, cb 82, Mill Town. 
Grady, Zachary Taylor, mc Atlanta 76, cb 86, Fredonia. 
Griggs, Asa Wesley, mc univ Nashville 55, cb 82, West Point, Ga. 
Hudson, William Henry, mc Atlanta 86, cb 86, LaFayette. 
Kirby, Charles Windham, mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, LaFayette. 
Love, William Joseph, mc Atlanta 82, cb Lee 85, LaFayette. 
Rea, Benjamin Franklin, Sr., mc Jefferson 42, cb 82, LaFayette. 
Rea, Benjamin Franklin, Jr., mc Alabama 85, cb 86, LaFayette. 
Rutland, John Blake, mc Atlanta 80, cb 82, Fredonia. 
Total, 15. 


Bruce, Homer S., mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Waverly. 
Carmichael, Lawrence Green, mc Graffenburg 57, cb 82, Hickory Flat. 
Davis, James Lawson,mc Alabama 76, cb 82, LaFayette. 
Hamner, Lovick Pierce, cb Randolph 82, LaFayette. 
Smith, Lawrence, mc Georgia 54, cb 82, Cusseta. 
Stodhill, Robert James, mc Atlanta 81, cb 86, Five Points. 
Total, 6. 

•Note. — As no report was received from Chambers county this 
year, the report of 1892 is here reproduced. 



President, Thomas N. White ; Vice-President, William C. Darnall ; 
Secretary, Robert L. McWhorter; Treasurer, Edward A. Cook; 
Health Officer, George D. W. Lawrence. Censors — Norman F. Cabott, 
Thomas N. White, James L. Sutherlin, William C. Darnall, Hugh L- 


Appleton, Hugh Lounze, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Cedar Bluff. 
Cabott, Norman Franklin, mc Vanderbilt and univ N. 7. 78, cb 87» 

Cook, Edward Augustus, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Kirk's Grove. 
Darnall, William Clement, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 90, Centre. 
Farill, John Paul, mc Atlanta 81, cb 87, Farill. 
Lawrence, George Dougherty Washington, mc Georgia 66, cb 87, 

Cedar Bluff. 
McWhorter, Robert Lee, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Gaylesville. 
8mith, Leonidas Franklin, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Alexis. 
Sutherlin, James Lamar, mc Alabama 90, ob 90, Centre. 


White, Barnabas Pace, mc Georgia 56, eb 87, Centre. 
White, Thomas Noel, mc Georgia 58, cb 87, Spring Garden. 
Total, 11. 


Barge, Josiah Littleton, mc Atlanta 87, cb 88, Rock Run. 

Bell, Thomas Bailey, mc Philadelphia, Esom Hill, Ga. 

Bomar, Richard Ritter, mc Atlanta Southern 85, cb 87, Bomar. 

Brown, Alexander M., non graduate, cb 87, Round Mountain. 

Brown, Gendy, mc Georgia Eclectic 90, Round Mountain. 

Bruce, Green Thomas, Blanche. 

Carr, Robert Columbus, non graduate, cb 90, Rock Run. 

Kchols, Edward D. J., mc Jefferson — , cb 87, Cedar Bluff. 

Elliott, Theodoric Miles, s of m Kentucky 76, cb 87, Grassland. 

Farill, John Washington, non graduate, cb 87, Farill. 

Mathews, John Patrick, mc univ Nashville 86, cb 87, Maple Grove. 

McGhee, Joseph D., mc Chattanooga 92, cb DeKalb 92, Leesburg. 

McGhee, Robert . Hallens, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 87, Round 

Miller, Thomas Gideon, s of m Kentucky 86, cb 87, Gaylesville. 
Shamblin, Alexander, non graduate, cb 87, Broomtown. 
Shamblin, John Levi, mc Atlanta 87, cb 88, Broomtown. 
Tate, Charles Nathaniel, non graduate, cb 87, Alexis. 
Tatum, Samuel Carter, mc univ Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Centre. 
Weaver, Thomas Fletcher, mc univ Nashville 71, ob DeKalb 85, 

White, William Yancey, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 87, Spring Garden. 
Total, 20. 

Moved into the county — Weaver, Thomas Fletcher, mc univ Nash- 
ville 71, cb DeKalb 85, Centre. 

Moved out of the county— Atkinson, Thomas Carlisle, from Ball 
Flat to Texas ; Camp, Ellis James, from Tecumseh to Texas. 

Examinations— For the practice of medicine, Bankson, John Co- 
lumbus, certificate refused. Sharpe, George B., certificate granted. 
Tatum, Samuel Carter, certificate granted. 



President, Hugh W. Caffey ; Vice-President, John A. McNeil ; Sec- 
retary, W. E. Stewart ; Treasurer, W. E. Stewart ; I lealth Officer, 

. Censors — William £. Stewart, Emmet A. Matthews, Albert E. 




Bivings, Albert Eugene, mo South Carolina 74, cb 82, Clan ton. 
Caffey, Hugh William, mc South Carolina 55, cb Lowndes 83, Ver- 
Dawson, James Jefferson, (old law) 56, cb 82, Kincheon. 
Givhan, Joseph Phillip, mo Alabama 73, cb Dallas 78, Jemison. 
Johnson, Joseph Samuel, Sr., mc Georgia 59, cb Dallas 79, Lily. 
Matthews, Emmet Abram, mc Alabama 87, state board 87, Clanton. 
McNeil, John Archibald, mc Vermont 53, cb 79, Jemison. 
Stewart, William Eugene, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 79, Clanton. 
Williamson, William Thomas, mo South Carolina 58, cb 79, Verbena. 
Total, 9. 


Dennis, Andrew Jackson L., mc Georgia Southern 90, cb 90, Cooper. 
Johnson, Joseph Samuel, Jr., mc Baltimore 76, cb 79, Clanton. 
Little, Wilson Worth, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 80, Stanton. 
Marlar, A. J., mc Memphis 91, Ruddick. 
Pitts, John Spate, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 79, Verbena. 
Wise, John F. t mc Graffenburg 56, cb 79, Cooper. 
Wise, Willie, mc Atlanta 90, Cooper. 

Wooley, Alexander S., (retired) mc Philadelphia 51, cb Dallas 84, 
Total, 8. 

Moved out of the county — Greene, Augustus A., from Verbena to 
Montgomery ; Parnell, C. N., from Dixie to parts unknown ; Caffee, 
Hugh T., from Verbena to Shelby county. 



President, W. W. Johnston ; Vice-President, E. W. Needham ; Sec- 
retary, J. P. Phillips ; Treasurer, J. P. Phillips ; Health Officer, Thomas 
A. Knighton. Censors — Robert L. Young, J. P. Phillips, J. L. Gran- 
berry, F. P. Clarke, Thomas A. Knighton. 

names of members with their colleges and post-officks. 

Clarke, Ferdinand P., mc Alabama 84, cb 84, BevilPs Store. 
Coleman, Walter Jackson, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Ismey. 
Granberry, Joseph L., univ Louisville 91, cb 91, Pushmataha. 
Johnston, William Wesley, mc Alabama 72, cb 72, Melvin. 
Knighton, Thomas A., univ Louisville 88, cb 88, Pushmataha. 


McCall, Daniel, mc Atlanta 59, cb 79, DeSotoville. 
Moody, Robert Franklin, univ Louisiana 60, cb 79, Butler. 
Needham, Eli W., univ Louisiana 58, cb 79, Lusk. 
Phillips, Jacob Parker, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Yantley Creek. 
Young, Robert L. } mc Alabama 86, cb 83, Mt. Sterling. 
Total, 10. 


Anderson, Alexander W., univ Louisiana, 53, cb 87, Burgamot, 
Brown, Collin Balsam, univ Nashville 80, cb 83, Melvin. 
Cunningham, William Henry, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Butler. 
Lewis, Thomas R., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Womack Hill. 

Shoal water, K., mc , . 

Total, 5. 

Moved out of the county — E. P. Harris, from Rosser to parts 

unknown ; W. F. Kimbrough, from Mt. Sterling to parts unknown ; 
Louis Shoemaker, from Womack Hill to parts unknown. 

Deaths— R. B. Carr, mc univ Louisville 82, cb Sumter 82, Pushma- 



President, Jas. W. Armistead ; Vice-President, Jas. 6. Jeffrey ; Sec- 
retary, C. E. Pugh ; Treasurer, C. E. Pugh ; Health Officer, Jas. W. 
Armistead. Censors— Gross S. Chapman, Jno. A. Gilmore, Henry G. 
Davis, Jno. W. Fleming. 


Armistead, James West wood, mc Alabama 88, cb 84, Grove Hill. 
Barefield, Henry Litman, mc Alabama 72, cb Cherokee 87, Gosport. 
Barnes, Benjamin Shields, mc univ Pennsylvania 59, cb 84, Suggsville. 
Burroughs, Bryan, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 84, Yashti. 
Chapman, Gross Scruggs, mc Alabama 79, cb Conecuh 83, Jackson. 
Davis, Henry George, mc Alabama 72, cb 84, Gainestown . 
Durden, Henry Jefferson, mc South Carolina 83, cb 84, Choctaw 

Fleming, John William, mc Alabama 79, cb 83, Salitpa. 
Gilmore, John Arcade, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 86, Thomasville. 
Jeffrey, James Grey, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Whatley. 
Jones, Green Erwin, mc Atlanta 82, cb 84, Coffee ville. 
Pugh, Clement Eugene, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Green Hill. 
Total, 12. 



Armistead, Lee, non-graduate (one year), Marvin. 

Bush f Boaz Whitfield, mc South Carolina 58, cb 84, Choctaw Corner. 

Cobb, Jesse M., mc univ Tulane 93, cb — , Grove Hill. 

Dahlberg, Charles James, mc Alabama 87, cb Choctaw 88, Suggsville. 

Davis, James Madison, mc univ Louisville 61, cb 84, Bashi. 

Harwood, Thomas Broadnax, mc univ Tulane 00, cb 84, Tallahatta 

Hicks, Lamartine Orlando, mc Alabama 78, cb 84, Suggsville. 
Kimbrough, William Floyd, mc Alabama 88, cb 83, Thomasville. 
Prince, Thomas Jefferson, non-graduate, cb 84, Salitpa. 
Robinson, A. N., mc Alabama — , cb — , Jackson. 
Threadgill, James, non-graduate, cb — , Thomasville. 
Webb, Sidney Vaughn, mc Jefferson 68, cb 84, West Bend. 
White, Thos. B., mc univ Virginia 58, cb 84, Millersville. 

Total, 18. 

Moved into the county — Jesse M. Cobb, from mc Tulane 93, to Grove 
Hill ; A. N. Robinson, from mc Alabama to Jackson ; W. F. Kimbrough, 
from Choctaw county to Thomasville. 



President, Thomas Northen ; Vice-President, Wyatt H. Blake ; Sec- 
retary, Charles S. Northen; Treasurer, Doras L. Stephens; Health 
Officer, Thomas Northen. Censors— Wyatt H. Blake, Doras L. Ste- 
phens, John T. Manning, Angus K. McDairmid, William F. Irvin. 


Bartlett, George Washington, non-graduate, cb 87, Lineville. 

Blake, Wyatt Heflin, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb Randolph 85, Lineville. 

Callaway, George McDaniel, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Pinckneyville. 

Darby, Cunningham Wilson, non-graduate, cb 87, Hatchett Creek. 

Garrett, John H., mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 92, Delta. 

Gray, Jesse O., mc Atlanta Southern 93, cb 98, Black's Store. 

Irvin, William Fletcher, mc univ Louisville 87, cb 87, Millerville. 

Jenkins, William Oliver, mc Graff enburg 60, cb 87, Lineville. 

Jordan, John Wiley, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Idaho. 

Manning, John Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 87, Wheelerville. 

McDairmid, Angus Kelly, mc Alabama 72, cb 87, Hollins. 

Northen, Charles Stephen, mc Atlanta 89, cb 91, Ashland. 

Northen, Thomas, mc Atlanta 78, cb 87, Ashland. 

Owens, Seaborn Wesley, mc Louisville 83, cb 87, Bluff Springs. 


Sims, George Nelson, mc Graffenburg 56, cb 87, Ashland. 
Stephens, Albert Russell, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Delta. 
Stephens, Burrell A., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Lineville. 
Stephens, Doras Lee, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Millersville. 
Waits, Owen Kenyan, mc Graffenburg 56, cb 87, Lineville. 
Total, 19. 


Harris, David C, non-graduate, Delta. 
Total, 1. 

Moved out of the county — Coker, Martin James, from Hollins to 
Sylacauga, Talladega county ; Liles, Marion DeKalb, from Lineville 
to Dingier, Randolph county. 

Examinations — For practice of medicine —John H. Garrett, mc At- 
lanta Southern 92, Delta; Jesse 0. Gray, mc Atlanta Southern 92, 
Black's Store ; Burrell A. Stephens, mc Alabama 92, Lineville. Cer- 
tificates awarded. 



President, Walter Howard Bell; Vice-President, James P. Hurt; 
Secretary, L. E. Ray ; Treasurer, R. T. Reid ; Health Officer, Thos. J. 
Johns. Censors— Lewis W. Pitchford, Wm. A. Neal, Orlando W. 
Sheppard, R. T. Reid, Wm. L. Pounds. 


Baker, James Lewis, mc Atlanta Southern 83, cb 84, Oak Level. 

Bell, Walter Howard, mc Atlanta 88, cb Calhoun 88, Belltown. 

Hobgood, Samuel P., mc Atlanta 57, cb 84, Bowden, Ga. 

Howie, Morgan M., mc Atlanta Southern 91, cb 93, Arbachoochee. 

Hudgeons, N. C, mc Georgia 45, cb 84, Oak Level. 

Hurt, James P., non-graduate, cb 84, Edwardsville. 

Johns, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Edwardsville. 

Ligon, James H, mc univ Yanderbilt 91, cb 91, Oakfuskee. 

Ligon, William Milton, mc Georgia 61, cb 84, Oakfuskee. 

McClintock, James L., non-graduate, cb 84, Heflin. 

Neal, Robert L, mc Atlanta Southern 86, cb 89, Heflin. 

Neal, William Alexander, mc Georgia 81, cb 84, Heflin. 

Pitchford, Lewis W., mc South Carolina 88, cb 89, Arbachoochee. 

Pounds, William Lawrence, mc Atlanta Reform —, cb 84, Muscadine. 


Ray, L. E., s of m Kentucky 89, cb Clay 89, Heflin. 
Reid, Jesse Thomas, non-graduate, cb 84, Edwardsville. 
Roberts, Charles B., non-graduate, cb 84, Oak Level. 
Sheppard, Orlando Waters, mc Graffenburg 56, cb 84, Edwardsville. 
Total, 18. 


Cremer, James, Abernathy. 
Harrison, J. M., cb 93, Heflin. 
Martin, Hicks, Sr., cb 86, Heflin. 

Powers, R. L M non-graduate, . 

Simpson, John L., non-graduate, . 

Total, 5. 

Examinations — Johns, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 88, Edwards- 
ville; Howie, Morgan M, mc Atlanta Southern 91, Arbachoochee ; 
Harrison, J. M., Heflin. Certificates awarded. 



President, William Westford Grubbs ; Vice-President, Francis Ma- 
rion Rushing; Secretary, Benjamin Augustus Hill; Treasurer, 
Joseph us Dickson Blue; Health Officer, Benjamin Augustus Hill. 
Censors— Francis M. Rushing, Benjamin A. Hill, Josephus D. Blue, 
William W. Grubbs, William H. Chapman. 


Blue, Josephus Dickson, mc New Orleans 61, cb 85, Elba. 

Chapman, William Henry, mc Alabama 72, cb 85, Elba. 

Crook, William Henry, mc Alabama 84, cb 85, Victoria. 

Garrett, John Wilkerson, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 85, Clin ton vi lie. 

Grubbs, William Westford, mc univ Louisville 89, cb Covington 90, 

Hill, Benjamin Augustus mc Richmond 00, cb 85, Elba. 
Howell, David Dickson, mc South Carolina 58, cb Geneva 88, Clin ton - 

Rushing, Francis Marion, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 85, Elba. 

Total, 8. 


Carter, James Peterson, cb 88, Damascus. 
Cowart, William Augustus, cb 86, Frisco. 
Steed, John Wesley, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 85, Haw Ridge. 
Wilson, William Augustus, mc Georgia Southern 56, cb 85, Elizabeth. 
Total, 4. 




President, Samuel J. Cooper ; Vice-Preident, James M. Pinkston ; 
Secretary, David H. Walker; Treasurer, David H.Walker; Health 
Officer, Charles R. Palmer. Censors— Hugh W. Blair, Samuel J. Coo- 
per, Charles R. Palmer, James M. Pinkston, David H. Walker. 


Blair, Hugh Allen, mc univ Nashville 57, cb Montgomery 90, Sheffield. 
Blair, Hugh Walter, mc univ Nashville 88, cb 88, Sheffield. 
Cooper, Samuel Jackson, mc Memphis 71, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 
McWhorter, George Tighlman, cb Madison 81, Riverton. 
Morris, Charles Thomas, mc univ Louisville 75, cb Henry 80, Sheffield. 
Palmer, Charles Richard, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Tuscumbia. 
Pinkston, James Madison, mc phy and surg Baltimore 78, cb Marengo 

80, Sheffield. 
Smith, James Clark, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb Elmore 85, Tuscumbia. 
Walker, David Harris, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Spring Valley. 

Total, 9. 


Abernathy, Robert Towns, mc univ New York 49, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 

Boyd, Philander Sumner, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb — , Sheffield. 

Gilmore, Frank T., mc univ Louisville, — , cb — , Barton. 

Johnston, Beverly, Tuscumbia. 

McCloskey, James A., Dug. 

Moore, Riley Jackson, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 90, Riverton. 

O'Reily, John Edmund, mc Alabama 74, cb 84, Cherokee. 

Pride, Joseph Peebles (retired), mc univ New York 55, cb 81, Pride's 

Rand, Edward Pearsall, mc univ Louisville 72, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 

Smith, Frank E., mc univ New York 91, cb 93, Tuscumbia. 

Thompson, Humphrey Bate, mc univ Louisville 93, cb 93, Tuscumbia. 

Wall, Alexander Alfred, mc univ Pennsylvania 49, cb Madison 78, Tus- 
Total, 12. 

Moved out of the county — Julius Tilman Wesley Haney, from Bar- 
ton to Madison county. William Hill Stanley, from Tuscumbia to 
Jefferson county. 


Retired from practice — Joseph Peebles Pride, Pride's Station. 
Death — James Marshall Houston, mc Jefferson 51, cb 81, Dickson. 




President, Thomas M. McMillan ; Vice-President, Richard T. Hol- 
land ; Secretary, Adam A. McKittrick ; Treasurer, Adam A. McKit- 
trick ; Health Officer, Andrew Jay. Censors —Thomas M. McMillan, 
Hugh T. Fountain, Richard T. Holland, Robert A. Lee, Andrew Jay. 


Fountain, Hugh Thomas, mc Alabama 72, cb Monroe 79, Burnt Corn. 
Fountain, William Raymond, mc Louisville 92, cb 92, Bellville. 
Holland, Richard Thomas, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Castleberry. 
Jay, Andrew, mc Alabama 72, cb 84, Evergreen. 
Lee, Robert Augustus, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 84, Evergreen. 
McKittrick, Adam Alexander, mc Georgia 60, cb 84, Evergreen. 
McMillan, Thomas Morton, mc univ Tulane 91, cb Monroe 91, Brooklyn. 
Shaver, William Benjamin, mc Georgia Reform 60, cb 84, Herbert. 
Taliaferro, Charles Thomas, mc Atlanta 59, cb 84, Evergreen. 
Total. 9. 


Bradley, Ely, mc Jefferson 59, cb 84, Bellville. 
Bruner, Pinckney McDonald, mc Alabama 79, cb 79, Evergreen. 
McCreary, John Absalom, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 84, Evergreen. 
Total, 3. 



President, W. H. Moon ; Vice-President, W. T. White ; Secretary, 
Julius Jones ; Treasurer, Eugene Argo ; Health Officer, A. J. Peter- 
son. Censors — W. H. Moon, Julius Jones, A. J. Peterson, W. J. Peddy, 
C. K. Maxwell, J. C. Cousins. 


Argo, Eugene, mc univ Yanderbilt 91, cb 91, Goodwater. 
Bailey, William, non -graduate, cb 83, Equality. 
Cousins, James Columbus, mc univ Maryland 91, cb 91, Equality. 
Hollo way, William Alphonzo, mc Alabama 89, cb Tallapoosa 89, Lau- 
Jones, Julius, mc univ Yanderbilt 84, cb 84, Rockford. 
Mathews, John Thomas, mc New Orleans 73, cb 84, Hanover. 
Maxwell, Cecil Kelly, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Kellyton. 
Moon, William Henry, mc Alabama 79, cb 88, Goodwater. 
Nolen, Richard Spencer, mc s of m Kentucky 89, cb Clay 89, Equality. 


Peddy, William Jeremiah, mc Graffenburg 55, cb 83, Rockford. 
Peterson, Albert James, mc univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 89, Hanover. 
Pruett, James W., mc Alabama 92, cb Talladega 98, Weogufka. 
Smith, Malcolm Duncan, mc univ of New York 91, cb 91, Nixburg. 
White, William Tanner, mc univ Tennessee 86, cb 86, White's Mill. 
Total, 14. 


Dollar, Henry Clay, mc Atlanta 75, cb 83, Marble Valley. 

Goggans, Phillip Peterson, mc univ New York 80, cb Elmore 80, Trav- 
eller's Rest. 

Parker, Eli, non-graduate, cb 83, Sylacauga. 

Pope, Chandler Mathews, mc Jefferson 57, cb 83, Goodwater. 

Salter, Paschal Preston, non-graduate, cb — , Goodwater. 
Total, 5. 

Moved into the county — James W. Pruett, from Talladega county, 
to Weogufka. 


Moved out of the county — A. T. Bryant, from Goodwater to Texas. 
J. J. Coker, from Weogufka, to parts unknown. 



President, William N. McNair ; Vice-President, William T. Stenson ; 
Secretary, John F. Penary ; Treasurer, James R. Ealum ; Health Offi- 
cer, Wilbur E. Sentell. Censors— William N. McNair, Wilbur E. Sen- 
tell, John F. Pen dry, James R. Ealum. 


Bozeman, T. Compton, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Shirley. 
Ealum, James R., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Oakey Streak. 
McNair, William N., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, River Falls. 
Pendry, John F., mc Alabama 81, cb Crenshaw 82, Rose Hill. 
Rush ton, R C, college not given, Andalusia. 
Sentell, Wilbur Eugene, mc Alabama 80, cb 89, Red Level. 
Stenson, William T., mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Rose Hill. 
Street, William N., college not given, Hallton. 
Total, 8. 


Atkinson, Alexander G., non-graduate, Red Level. 
Cawthorn, Samuel J. S., non-graduate, cb 90, Andalusia. 
Patrick, Thomas, non -graduate, Green Bay. 
Roberts, James M., non-graduate, Beda. 


Sellers, Thomas L., non-graduate, Andalusia. 
Whaley, James A., non-graduate, Green Bay. 

Williams, , . 

Total, 7. 

*Note. — As no report was received from Covington county this year, 
the report of 1892 is here reproduced. 



President, Joseph R. Horn ; Vice-President, F. M. T. Tankersly, 
Secretary, James E. Kendrick; Treasurer, W. R. Belcher; Health 
Officer, A. J. Jones. Censors — James E. Kendrick, Joseph R. Horn 
R. K. Horn, F. M. T. Tankersly, W. H. Coston. 


Belcher, William Ree, mc Atlanta 89, cb Barbour 89, Brantley. 
Burgamy, William Thomas, mc Atlanta 59, cb 88, Rutledge. 
Coston, William Henry, mc Atlanta 88, cb 89, Leon. 
Horn, Joseph Robert, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Luverne. 
Horn, Richard Kersey, mc Electic of Georgia 81, cb 84, Luverne. 
Jones, Andrew Jackson, s of m Kentucky 86, cb 86, Highland Home. 
Kendrick, James Evans, mc Alabama 69, cb 82, Luverne. 
May, Samuel Williams, mc p and s Baltimore 82, cb 83, Bullock. 
Pendry, John Fortunatus, mc Alabama 81, cb 82, Dozier. 
Rush ton, Christopher Reid, mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 93, Rutledge. 
Sheppard, Charles Webb, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Honoraville. 
Tankersly, Felix Marcus Tullis, mc univ Tennessee 85, cb 85, High- 
land Home. 
Thrower, Stephen Leon, non-graduate, cb 84, Bradley ton. 

Total, 13. 


Dryer, Edward Fox, cb 84, Rutledge. 
Moxley, David Newton, cb Pike 78, New Providence. 
Pryor, William Dayton, mc univ Nashville 79, cb Butler 81, Aiken. 
Stough, Daniel Bluford, s of m Kentucky 87, no certificate, Helicon. 
Total, 4. 

Moved into the county — Christopher Reid Rush ton, from Covington 
county to Rutledge; John Fortunatus Pendry, from Covington 
county to Dozier. 

Moved out of the county — Thomas Lamar Quillian, from Honora- 
ville to Butler county ; Wilbur E. Williams, to Texas. 

Examinations — Thomas Stough, and George W. Williamson, college 
not given. Certificates granted. 




President, Gottloeb Hartung; Vice-President, John H. Walling; 
Secretary, Francis B.Burnum ; Treasurer, Francis B. Burnum ; Health 
Officer, Marquis L. Johnson. Censors — Marquis L. Johnson, John E. 
Purdon, Gottloeb Hartung, Francis B. Burnum, John H. Walling. 


Burnum, Francis Bynum, me univ Vanderbilt 79, cb 86, Cullman, 

Hartung, Gottloeb, mc Wurtemburg, Germany, 88, cb 92, Cullman. 

Johnson, Marquis LaFayette, mc Alabama 75, cb Marshall 86, Cull- 

Keller, Louis M., mc Atlanta 88, cb 89, Etha. 

Martin, William Henry, mc Atlanta 88, cb 89, Ruby. 

McLarty, George Washington, mc Atlanta 68, cb 89, Joppa. 

Purdon, John Edward, mc univ Dublin, Ireland, 68, cb DeKalb 85, 

Reid, William Jasper, cb 89 Trimble. 

Walling, John Henry, cb 89, Pinnacle. 
Total. 9. 


Beck, Enos M., under graduate, Logan. 

Brindley, Bethea Pace, mc Georgia Electic 92, cb 92, Lincoln. 

Geiger, Marion Capers, mc Georgia Electic 86, cb 86, Bailey ton. 

Harris, William R., non-graduate, cb 92, Garrison Point, Blount 

Hayes, Ebenezer, mc univ U. S. Grant, Chattanooga 92, retired, Cull- 

Mangum, William L., mc Atlanta, retired, Cullman. 

Martin, William Henderson, mc Atlanta 88, cb Cleburne 89, Cullman. 

Martin, William, Bremen. 

Musgrove, Phillip M., mc Memphis, retired, Cullman. 

Terrell, Early Wesley, mc univ Nashville 88, cb Elmore 89, Cullman. 

Watts, George Washington, mc Georgia Electic 88, cb 88, Holly Pond. 
Total, 11. 

Moved into the county— W. H. Martin, from Heflin, Cleburne county, 
to Cullman ; W. Martin, from Arkadelphia, Blount county, to Bremen ; 
E. M. Beck, from Lawrence county to Logan; G. Hartung, from 
Nebraska to Cullman. 

Moved out of the county— Peter C. Bradley, from Cullman to 
Falkville, Morgan county; George Washington McPherson, from 


Bremen to Bangor, Blount county ; E. A. H. Purdon, from Cullman to 

Examinations— B. P. Brindley, mc Georgia Electic 92 ; G. Hartung, 
mc Wurtemburg, Germany 68. Certificates awarded. 



President, William B. Sanders ; Vice-President, Samuel L. Weed ; 
Secretary, Robert F. Harper; Treasurer, Alexander G. McLeod; 
Health Officer, Robert F. Harper. Censors— Erastus B. Ard, Sam- 
uel L. Weed, Rboert F. Harper, James W. Reynolds, Mercer S. Davie. 


Ard, Erastus Byron, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 87, Haw Ridge. 
Byrd, Benjamin L, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Daleville. 
Davie, Mercer Stilwell, mc Jefferson 67, cb 87, Pinckard. 
Harper, Robert Franklin, mc Alabama 88, cb Coffee 88, Ozark. 
Howell, Samuel Matbew Crawford, mc Southern 91, cb 91, Midland 

Jones, Washington LaFayette, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 87, Ozark. 
McLeod, Alexander Gillis, mc univ Louisiana 59, cb 87, Daleville. 
Reynolds, James Wilson, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Skipperville. 
Reynolds, Robert Davis, mc Alabama 80, cb 87, Ozark. 
Sanders, William Bryan, mc Southern 85, cb Pike 85, Ozark. 
Steagall, Albert Sidney, mc Alabama 88, cb 89, Clop ton. 
Steagall, William Collinsworth, mc South Carolina 60, cb 87, Ozark. 
Weed, Samuel LaFayette, mc Alabama 85, cb 87, Ariosta. 

Total, 13. 

Honorary Member, 

Bottoms, James C, mc Atlanta 83, cb 87, Ozark. 


Baxter, Hugh C, mc Atlanta 86, cb 87, Midland City. 
Bell, Seaborn B., mc Georgia Reform 92, illegal. Echo. 
Campbell, Terrell Taylor, mc Georgia Reform 83, cb 87, Echo. 
Cowart, William Augustus, cb Coffee 85, Charlton. 
Glover, Theophilus T., mc univ Louisville 91, Charlton. 
Holman, John Clinton, mc Jefferson 56, cb 87, Ozark. 
Morris, Andrew Jackson, mc Southern 87, cb Geneva 87, Newton. 
Ravenback, Oscar Lee, mc Georgia Reform 93, illegal, Wicksburg. 
Rice, John R., mc Alabama (one course) 85, cb 87, Wicksburg. 
Spears, Phillip Benton, mc Georgia Reform 91, cb 91, Pinckard. 
Stokes, James E., mc Georgia Reform 92, illegal, Clopton. 
Total, 11. 


Moved out of the county— C. C. Dalton, from Wicksburg to Geneva, 
Geneva county; Walter B. Hendrick, from Daleville to Russell 
county ; James Martin Hollis, from Midland City to Henry county ; 
William R. King, from Ozark to Georgia. 

Examinations— For the practice of medicine, Benjamin L. Byrd, mc 
Alabama 92; Charles L. Guice, Mt. Andrew, Barbour county, mc 
U. S. Grant, Chattanooga. Certificates awarded. James E. Stokes, 
mc Georgia Reform 92, Clopton. Certificate refused. 

For the study of medicine, James W. Robertson and H. P. Calhoun. 
Certificates awarded. 



President, Samuel G. Gay ; Vice-President, Clement Ritter ; Secre- 
tary, William W. Harper; Treasurer, Thomas G. Howard; Health 
Officer, William W. Harper. Censors— John P. Furniss, John A. 
McK in non, Thomas. G. Howard, Robert D. Jackson, Samuel Kirk- 


Adams, Benjamin Clarence, mc Alabama 72, cb 78, Adams. 
Clarke, Courtney James, mc Jefferson 44, cb 78, Selma. 
Cochrane, Robert Miller, mc univ Virginia 65, cb 78, Eleanor. 
Donald, James Marion, mc Alabama 84, cb Marengo 84, Bridges. 
Donald, Joseph Marion, mc univ Louisiana 64, cb 78, Harrell's. 
Furniss, John Perkins, mc s of m New Orleans 66, cb 78, Selma. 
Garber, James R., mc univ Louisiana 67, cb 78, Selma. 
Gay, Samuel Gilbert, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Selma. 
Groves, Joseph Asbury, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Orrville. 
Hardy, William Robinson, mc South Carolina 61, cb 78, Pleasant Hill. 
Harper, William Wade, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Selma. 
Howard, Thomas Greenwood, mc univ Washington 68, cb Autauga 87, 

Jackson, Robert Dandridge, mc South Carolina 57, cb 78, Summerfleld. 
Kendall, William Quinton, mc phy & surg Baltimore 80, cb 80, Berlin. 
King, Goldsby, mc South Carolina 80, cb 80, Selma. 
Kirkpatrick, Samuel, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Selma. 
Lockhart, Thomas Ernest, mc univ Tulane 90, ob Perry 90, Selma. 
McK in non, John Alexander, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb 78, Selma. 
Moore, John Thomas, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Orrville. 
Phillips, William Crawford, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb 78, Selma. 
Ritter, Clement, mc Jefferson 90, cb DeKalb 90, Selma. 
Sutton, Robert Lee, mc univ Washington 89, cb Lee 89, Orrville. 
Taylor, William Henry, mc Alabama 87, cb Marengo 87, Central 



Tipton, William Joseph, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb Montgomery 89, 

Weisinger, John Alonzo, mc univ Louisiana 75, cb 78, Talmage, Perry 
Total, 25. 


Allison, Joseph D., mc South Carolina 50, cb 78, Carlowville. 

Boykin, James Owen, mc univ Transylvania 48, cb 78, Tilden. 

Burr ell, Lincoln Laconia, col'd, mc Leonard, North Carolina 89, cb 89, 

Dansby, John Quincy, mc Alabama 74, cb Wilcox 78, Selma. 
Graddick, John North, mc Memphis 47, Selma. 
Hall, John James, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb 78, Mitchell's. 
Hudson, Henry Sidney, mc univ Maryland 09, cb 78, Summerfield. 
Kyser, George Washington, mc univ Virginia 65, cb 78, Richmond. 
McKinnon, Kenneth, mc univ Louisville 52, cb 78, Pleasant Hill. 
Mixon, William S., mc univ Louisiana 49, cb 78, Plan tors ville. 
Moore, Clement Clay, mc South Carolina 89, cb 78, Summerfield. 
Moseley, Elijah Bucklee, mc univ Louisiana 57, cb 78, Boguechitto. 
Pugh, Braxton Bragg, mc Alabama 89, cb Clarke 89, Brown's. 
Smyly, Daniel C, mc South Carolina 88, cb 78, Pleasant Hill. 
Stewart, William Champney, mc South Carolina 58, cb 78, Soap Stone. 
Ward, Edward Burton, mc univ New York 82, cb Hale 82, Selma. 
Total, 16. 

Moved out of the county— John James Hunter, from Selma to 
Hamburg, Hale county ; John William Pratt, from Burnsville to 
Scottsville, Bibb county. 

Deaths — Lemuel Lovatt Alston, mc South Carolina 57, cb 78, 
Orrville, from pneumonia; Francis Octavius Lockwood, mc North 
Carolina 44, cb 78, Carlowville, from cancer of the lip ; Frank Tipton, 
mc univ Louisiana 70, cb 78, Selma, from narcosis. 



President, Samuel P. Smith ; Vice-President, William E. Moore ; 
Secretary, William E. Quin; Treasurer, Horace P. McWhorter; 
Health Officer, Horace P. McWhorter. Censors— William E. Quin, 
Frederick P. Gayle, Horace P. McWhorter, William 8. Duff, Edward 
P. Nicholson. 


Appleton, Thomas Hayne, mc Chattanooga 92, cb 92, Collinsville. 
Duff, William Samuel, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Fort Payne. 
Elrod, William Addison, non-graduate, ob 85, South Hill. 


Gale, Frederick Penniman, mc oniv Vermont 80, cb 90, Fort Payne 
Killian, Henry Elliott, non-graduate, cb 89, Portersville. 
McCormack, William F., mc Chattanooga 92, cb 92, Lebanon. 
Miller, James Taylor, mc univ Vanderbilt 78, cb 85, Collinsville. 
Moore, William Evans, mc Atlanta 80, cb Shelby 80, Collinsville. 
McWhorter, Horace Puckett, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 86, Collins- 
Nicholson, Edward Pierson, mc univ Nashville 61, cb 85, Valley Head 
Quin, William Everett, mc s of m Kentucky 81, cb 85, Fort Payne. 
Smith, Samuel Parish, mc s of m Kentucky 89, cb 89, Sand Mountain. 
Vann, Andrew Jackson, mc Georgia 58, cb 85, Portersville. 
Wright, William James, mo univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 91, Skirum. 
Total, 14. 


Bailey, Alexander Henry, non-graduate, cb 85, Musgrove* 

Cain, Richard Wynn, mc univ Nashville 59, cb 85, Sand Mountain. 

Green, Anthony Buel, mc univ Transylvania 46, cb 85, Fort Payne. 

Green, Philamon Buel, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb 85, Fort Payne. 

Green, William Mastin, mc univ Vanderbilt 77, cb 85, Fort Payne. 

McGuffy, William Charles, non-graduate, cb 85, Sulphur Springs. 

Patty, Robert James, Vitapathist, cb 89, Dawson. 

Roden, William, non-graduate, cb 85, Sand Mountain. 

Sherman, James Richard, mo Georgia Reform 89, cb Marshall 89> 

Sand Mountain. 
Sibert, James Dolphus, non-graduate, ob 89, Grove Oak. 
Smith, William Henry, mc Cincinnati 86, cb 92, Fort Payne. 
Winston, John Nelson, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 85, Valley Head* 
Wooten, William James, non-graduate, cb 89, Musgrove. 

Total, 18. 

Moved into the county — William F. McCormack, from Chattanooga 
to Lebanon ; William Henry Smith, from Michigan to Fort Payne. 

Moved out of the county — Thomas Fletcher Weaver, from Collins- 
ville to Centre ; James Richardson label, from Lot to parts unknown ; 
William Fletcher Berry, from Fort Payne to Montgomery ; N. W. 
Blalock, from Fort Payne to Tennessee; Joseph Dal ton McGehee, 
from Collinsville to Leesburg. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, William F. Mc- 
Cormack, mc Chattanooga 92, Lebanon ; William Henry Smith, mc 
Cincinnati 86, Fort Payne. Certificates granted. William Fletcher 
Berry, Fort Payne; J. D. Hall, mc Georgia Reform — , Musgrove; 
James E. Howard, mc univ Nashville — , Henegar. Certificates 




President, Phillip Fitzpatrick ; Vice-President, William A. Warren ; 
Secretary, James A. Howie ; Treasurer, William A. Warren ; Health 
Officer, Oscar S. Justice. Censors— William A. Huddleston, James T. 
Rushin, William A. Warren, Oscar S. Justice, William A. Norton. 


Campbell, Archibald Graham, cb 84, Tallassee. 

Fitzpatrick, Phillip, mc univ Louisiana 68, cb 84, Wetumpka. 

Howe, Richard Daniel, mc univ Tennessee 90, cb Walker 91, Elmore. 

Howie, James Augustus, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Jordan. 

Judkins, George Bernard, mc Jefferson 59, cb Macon 79, Wetumpka. 

Justice, Oscar Suttle, mc Alabama 86, cb 85, Central Institute. 

Lamar, James Isaac, Georgia 52, cb 84, Deatsville. 

Nix, James Ringold, mc South Carolina 67, cb 84, Deatsville. 

Norton, William Abner, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Eclectic. 

Robinson, Dudley, mc Alabama 62, cb Montgomery 78, Robinson 

Robinson, Elias Hunt, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 84, Robinson 

Rushin, James Knox, mc univ New York 55, cb 84, Tallassee. 
Rushin, James Thomas, mc univ Tennessee 83, cb 84, Tallassee. 
Sewell, Jabez Wesley, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Titus. 
Sewell, Neal B., mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 84, Buyck. 
Warren, Allen Love, mc Jefferson 59, cb 84, Kowaliga. 
Warren, William Allen, mc Alabama 85, cb 84, Wetumpka. 
Total, 17. 


Beckett, Thomas Francis, mc univ Louisiana 56, cb 84, Titus. 
Fielder, Martin Lucius, mc Graffenberg 56, cb 84, Eclectic. 
Hall, Thomas Dixon, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 84, Coosada. 
Lett, Harris Temple ton, mc univ Louisiana 75, cb 84, Good Hope. 
Powell, Joseph B., mc Graffenberg — , cb 84, Tallassee. 
Total, 5. 

Moved out of the county— Humphries, S. 0., from Wetumpka to 
Jenifer. Jowers, S. F., from Central Institute to Texas. 

Examinations— Powell, A. A., mc Atlanta 92, certificate refused; 
Garrett, Allen J., mc Alabama, undergoing examination. 




President, Stephen C. Henderson ; Vice-President, Walter R.Thomp- 
son ; Secretary, Edwin T. Parker ; Treasurer, Edwin T. Parker ; Health 
Officer, Edwin T. Parker. Censors—John E. Martin, Henry H. Ma- 
lone, George P. Henry, Walter R. Thompson, Edwin T. Parker. 


Douglas, S. William, mc , cb 87, Mason. 

Henderson, Stephen Cary, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Brewton. 
Henry, George Patrick, mc univ Nashville 70, cb 89, Wallace. 
Malone, Eugene Y., mo Alabama 92, cb 92, Pollard. 
Malone, Henry Holcomb, mc univ New York 60, cb 86, Brewton. 
Martin, John Elijah, mo Alabama 75, ob Bullock 79, Brewton. 
MoAdory, William Robert, mc Alabama 79, cb 87, Pollard. 
Parker, Edwin Theodore, mc univ Tulane 91, ob 91, Brewton. 
Thompson, Walter Robert, mc univ Louisville 91, cb 91, Brewton. 
Trammell, Joseph D., mo univ Nashville 57, cb Baldwin 89, Williams 9 . 
Wilkeraon, James Anthony, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 86, Flomaton. 
Total, 11. 

Moved out of the county— James Loraine Bass, from Brewton to 
Yaldosta, Ga. A. C. Hundley, to Milton, Fla. 

Examinations— For practice of medicine, Eugene Y. Malone "mo 
Alabama 92, Pollard. Certificate granted. 



President, Edward Jones ; Vice-President, J. W. D. Lawrence ; Sec- 
retary, Robert F. McConnell; Treasurer, Hiram M. Bloodsworth; 
Health Officer, Daniel H. Baker. Censors— Erasmus T. Camp, James 
H. Wood, John B. Lidell. 


Baker, Daniel Harris, mc univ Nashville 82, cb Macon 88, Gadsden. 
Bloodsworth, Hiram Monroe, mc Atlanta 58, cb Chambers 82, Gadsden. 
Camp, Erasmus Taylor, mc Alabama 86, cb Cleburne 86, Gadsden. 
Jones, Edward Spears, mc Alabama 88, cb Jefferson 88, Gadsden. 
Knox, William, mo univ Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Attalla. 
Lawrence, J. W. D., mc univ Nashville 86, cb Cherokee 87, Turkey- 
Lidell, John Benson, mc Atlanta 82, cb 82, Gadsden,. 


MdConnell, Robert Franklin, mc Atlanta Southern 81, cb St. Clair 81, 

Pollard, Madison B., mc New Orleans 60, cb 91, Gadsden. 
8tewart, John Pope, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Attalla. 
Wood, James Hudson, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Attalla. 
Total, 11. 


Anderson, Robert Bailey, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Walnut 

Bevans, Edward Gandy, mc Alabama — , cb 78, Gadsden. 
Bevans, Joseph, cb 78, Gadsden. 
Cogging, William Thomas, cb 87, Keener. 
Dowdy, Edgar Lee, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb 78, Keener. 
Dozier, Marshall Elias, mc Atlanta 61, cb 78, Attalla. 
Edwards, William Sterling, mc s of m Kentucky 85, cb 85, Gadsden. 
Ellison, John Henry, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Blount 80, Walnut 

Funderberg, William Lewis, mc Atlanta Southern 82, cb DeKalb 86, 

Gilliland, Henry Forney, mc univ Louisville 90, cb 90, Hill. 
Johnson, James Knox, mc univ Nashville 84, cb 86, Seaborn. 
Morgan, George Washington, mc univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 89, Keener. 

Sampler, Robert James, mc , cb St. Clair 84, Gadsden. 

Slack, John Calhoun, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 78, Gadsden. 

Slaughter, Charles Jefferson, mo , cb 81, Aurora. 

Wright, Milton Royal, mc Alabama 73, cb 78, Gadsden. 
Total, 16. 

Moved into the county — William Knox, from Tennessee to Attalla. 
Madison B. Pollard, from Mississippi to Gadsden. 

Moved out of the county— J. W. Miller, from Attalla to Jefferson 
county. Walter C. Jack, from Rock Springs to DeKalb county. James 
G. Fields, from Gadsden to parts unknown. Franklin P. Landers, 
from Hoke's Bluff to parts unknown. Alexander Sliding Riddle, from 
Etowahton to Georgia. 

Examinations— William Knox, mc univ Vanderbilt 93. Certificate 



President, Alex. W. Agnew ; Vice-President, Jonathan S. Hollis ; 
Secretary, Thos. G. Morton ; Treasurer, John G. Smith ; Health Offi- 
cer, Thos. M. Peters. Censors — Jonathan S. Hollis, Alex. W. Agnew # 
Thos. C. Morton, Thos. B. Wood, Thos. M. Peters. 



Agnew, Alexander Washington, mc univ Transylvania 44, cb 84, Fay- 
ette C. H. 

Collins, Alonzo Kennedy, me univ Louisville 00, cb 90, Pilgrim. 

Hollis, Jonathan Shelton, mc Alabama 84, cb 84, Brockton. 

Jones, William Wilber, old law 68, cb 84, Newtonville. 

Morton, Thomas Clark, mc univ TJ. S. Grant, Chattanooga 91, cb 84, 
Fayette C. H. 

Peters, Thomas Marion, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Fayette C. H. 

Seay, Mark Rollins, old law 76, cb Lamar 83. Berry. 

Smith, John Gardner, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Bankston. 

Wood, Thomas Bailey, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 89, Wayside. 
Total, 9. 


Hocutt, Lucius Henry, mc Georgia 58, cb — , Davis Creek. 
Lane, Jesse Washington, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 86, New River. 
Linn, Jesse Washington, mc Georgia 58, cb 88, Spencer. 
Wright, Alexander W., mc univ New York 86, cb 88, Cave Spring. 
Total, 4. 

Moved out of the county— Alexander Eilby Newton, from Berry 
Station to Texas. 



President, John M. Clarke; Vice-President, William W. White; 
Secretary, John E. Clarke; Treasurer, John E. Clarke; Health 
Officer, Louis W. Desprez. Censors— William W. Cleere, William W. 
White, Nimrod T. Underwood, Oscar Sargent, Thomas B. Barnes. 


Banks, Charles Peters, mc univ Nashville 55, cb 88, Newberg. 
Barnes, Thomas Benton, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 88, Burleston. 
Clarke, John King, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 88, Russellville. 
Clarke, John King, Jr., mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 88, Newberg. 
Clarke, John Marshal), mc univ Louisville 50, cb 88, Russellville. 
Cleere, William. Watkins, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 88, Bel Green. 
Desprez, Louis Willoughby, mc Alabama 71, cb 88, Russellville. 
Gill, Charles, cb 88, Darlington. 
Harris, John C, cb 88, Russellville. 

Hollinger, John Calhoun, mc p and s Baltimore 86, cb 91, Russell- 
Johnston, Taylor P., mc univ Nashville 89, cb Marion 86, Frankfort. 


Jones, Thomas Speck, cb 88, Russellville. 

Sargent, Oscar, mc univ Yanderbilt 86, cb Marion 86, Darlington. 
Underwood, Nimrod T., mc Alabama 86, cb 88, Russellville. 
White, Robert Josiah, mc Macon 67, cb 88, Burleston. 
White, William Wyatt, mc univ Yanderbilt 86, cb Marion 86,Newberg. 
Total, 16. 


Agee, William A., non-graduate, Russellville. 
Burroughs, A. A., cb 02, Bel Green. 
Famed, Abner, non-graduate, Bel Green. 
Hughes, Wm. P., Burleston. 
Sevier, Daniel P., cb 88, Russellville. 
Shaw, W. J., cb 92, Pleasant Site. 
Waldrip, Allen C, non-graduate, cb 02, Red Bay. 
Total, 7. 

Examinations— A. A. Burroughs, W. J. Shaw, A. 0. Waldrip. Cer- 
tificates granted. 



President, Benjamin W. Finney ; Vice-President, Sidney P. Lati- 
mer ; Secretary, James H. Ard ; Treasurer, James H. Ard ; Health 
Officer, Millard F. Fleming. Censors— Thomas J. Ward, Millard F. 
Fleming, Benjamin W. Finney. 


Ard, James Henry, cb 88, Geneva. 

Chapman, Abner Richard, mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb Coffee 88, Ge- 

Clements, John N., cb Greene — , Marl. 

Finney, Benjamin W., mc univ New York 64, cb 88, Coffee Springs. 

Fleming, Millard Filmore, mc univ Louisville — , cb 88, Geneva. 

Latimer, Sidney F., cb 88, Geneva. 

Treadwell, Hardy P., cb 88, Geneva. 

Ward, Thomas Jefferson, cb 88, Watford. 
Total, 8. 


Boiling, William, cb 88, Martha. 

Coleman, William Christian, mc Alabama 92, cb 98, Eunola. 

Cox, William, cb 88, Dundee. 

Dalton, C. C, cb 83, Sanders. 

Jernigan, A. B., ob 88, Dundee, 


Mathews, James A., cb 88, Dundee. 
Powell, James B., cb 88, Dundee. 
Sheets, Joseph V., cb 88, Dundee. 

Smith, , mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Sanders. 

Truesdale, J. S., cb 88, Marl. 
Total, 10. 



President, Augustus M. Duncan ; Vice-President, Le Vert Snoddy ; 
Secretary, William R. Hatter ; Treasurer, William R. Hatter; Health 
Officer, George A. Moore. Censors— Augustus M. Duncan, Dabney 
O. McGehee, Armand P. Smith, Samuel S. Murphy, Thomas W. 


Barclay, James Pax ton, mc univ New York 71, cb 79, Eutaw. 
Byrd, Alexander Hamilton, mc univ New York 69, cb 80, Eutaw. 
Duncan, Augustus Meek, mc Alabama 74, cb 79, West Greene. 
Hatter, William Reuben, mc univ Tulane 89, cb 89, Boligee. 
Legare, Henry, mc univ New York K6, cb 87, Forkland. 
McGehee, Dabney Oswell, mc Alabama 72, cb 79, Knoxville. 
Moore, George Augustus, mc Alabama 90, cb 91, Clinton. 
Murphy, Elmore, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Pleasant Ridge. 
Murphy, Samuel Silenus, mc Alabama 81, cb 84, Pleasant Ridge. 
Pierce, Thomas William, mc univ Virginia 57, cb 79, Knoxville. 
Smith, Armand Pfister, mc s of m Kentucky 75, cb 79, Knoxville. 
Snoddy, Le Vert, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Forkland. 
Snoddy, Virgil, mc Alabama 78, cb 79, Mantua. 
Total, 18. 


Byrd, Robert Taylor, mc univ New York 89, cb 80, Eutaw. 
Henegan, Davis, mc Alabama 91, cb — , Burton's Hill. 
Morgan, Isaac DuBose, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 79, Eutaw. 
Pearson, Edward Pallen, mc univ Louisville 78, cb 84, Watsonia. 
Purnell, James Knox, cb Pickens 88, Lewis ton. 
Smith, John Alexander, mc Atlanta 58, cb 79, Union. 
Snoddy, Samuel, mc univ Transylvania 81, cb 79, Mantua. 
Total, 7. 

Moved into the county— Robert Taylor Byrd, mc univ New York 
69, cb 80, to Eutaw. 

Moved out of the county— John McElroy White, mc univ Vander- 
bilt 78, cb 82, from Pleasant Ridge to Mississippi. 



For the practice of medicine— Elmore Murphy, mo Alabama 92; 
LeVert Snoddy, mc Alabama 92. Certificates granted. 

Deaths — Henry Young Webb, mc Jefferson 46, cb 79, Eutaw. 


President, Francis M. Peterson ; Vice-President, Jacob Huggins ; 
Secretary, Richard Inge; Treasurer, Richard Inge; Health Officer, 
Jacob Huggins. Censors— Francis M. Peterson, Elisha Young, Jacob 
Huggins, Thomas R. Ward, Richard Inge. 


Borden, James Pennington, mc univ Southern 73, cb 78, Greensboro. 

Browder, William Monroe, mc univ New York 88, cb 88, Gallion. 

Cross, William Cyprian, mc univ Yanderbilt 80, cb 81, Newborn. 

Duggar, Reuben Henry, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 78, Gallion. 

Griffin, Rufus Jackson, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Carthage. 

Huggins, Jacob, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 78, Newbern. 

Inge, Richard, mc univ Virginia 70, and univ New York 71, cb 78, 

Owens, William Harrison, mc univ of Nashville 80, cb 81, Havana. 
Peterson, Francis Marion, mc univ New York 68, cb 73, Greensboro. 
Pickett, Joseph Martin, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Cedarville. 
Ward, Thomas Robert, mc univ South Carolina 58, cb 78, Greens- 
Young, Elisha, mc Jefferson 59, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Total, 12. 


Anderson, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 78, Evans. 
Avery, William Cushmau, mc univ Pennsylvania 57, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Browder, Joseph D., mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Gallion. 
Davis, Andrew R., mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Five Mile. 
Gewin, William Christopher, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb 78, Akron. 
Turk, William Luther, mc univ Nashville 82, cb Sumter 83, Gallion. 
Wilburn, John Calhoun, mc Jefferson 78, cb 78, Carthage. 
Total, 7. 

Moved out of the county— James Adams Tidmore, mc univ Kansas 
City 84, cb 89, from Havana to Powderly, Jefferson county. 




President, Fleming I. Moody ; Vice-President, William J. Lee ; Sec- 
retary, Bernard Phillips; Treasurer, James R. G. Howell; Health 
Officer, John W. Payne. Censors— Fleming I. Moody, William J. Lee, 
George A. Hammond, John H. Stovall, James R. G. Howell. 


Crawford, John Peter, mc univ Louisville 51, cb 88, Columbia. 
Dowling, Oscar, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Columbia. 
Hammond, George Abner, mc univ Maryland 84, cb 84, Dothan. 
Hardwick, William Pleasant, mc Alabama 87, cb 86, Headland. 
Howell, James Robert Graves, mc Atlanta 90, cb Dale 88, Dothan. 
Lee, William Joseph, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 83, Abbeville. 
Moody, Fleming Isaac, mc phy and surg Baltimore 76, cb 88, Dothan. 
Oates, Wyatt Stephen, cb 91, Headland. 
Payne, John Walter, mc Alabama 86, cb 87, Dothan. 
Phillips, Bernard, mc univ Heidleburg, Germany, 74, cb 91, Dothan. 
Staple ton, Robert B., mc Memphis Hospital 85, cb 91, Cowart's. 
Stovall, John Henry, mc Atlanta 60, cb 89, Columbia. 
Vaughn, David Horatio, mc Atlanta 88, cb 89, Ashford. 
Williams, William Henry, mc Memphis Hospital 89, cb 91, Headland. 
Yarborough, J. F., mc Atlanta 92, cb 92, Ashford. 
Total, 15. 


Barnes, Philon Banks, mc , cb — , Cottonwood. 

Blackledge, John Richard, mc Alabama 89, cb 91, Abbeville. 

Fleming, , mc , cb — Lawrence ville. 

Fowler, James Thomas, mc South Carolina 81, cb 84, Shortersville. 
Fowler, John Lindsey, mc South Carolina 51, cb 83, Shortersville. 
Granger, John Wesley, mc Georgia Reform 59, cb 85, Granger. 
Lewis, James Langs ton, mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, Bush. 
Long, James Benjamin, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 88, Abbeville. 
Smisson, Henry James, mc South Carolina 60, cb Dale 87, Dothan. 
Watkins, W. B., mc Atlanta Southern 90, cb 93, Pansy. 

Weems, J. S., mc , cb — , Lawrence ville, 

Total, 11. 

Moved into the county — Henry James Smisson, from Newton, Dale 
county, to Dothan ; W. B. Watkins, from Thomas county, Ga., to Pansy. 

Moved out of the county — Idus Park Allred, from Dothan to parts 
unknown; John Isaac Darby, from Columbia to Americus, Ga. ; 
Amon 8. Hill, from Granger to Florida. 




President, James P. Rorex ; Vice-President, Eugene R. Smith ; Sec- 
retary, Andrew Boyd ; Treasurer, William C. Maples ; Health Officer, 
Alexander N. Blakemore. Censors— William C. Maples, Andrew 
Boyd, John D. Freeman, Alexander N. Blakemore, Eugene R. Smith. 


Blakemore, Alexander N., mc univ Tennessee 80, cb 82, Dodsonville. 

Boyd, Andrew, mc phy and surg Baltimore 88, cb 88, Scottsboro. 

Boyd, James Harvey, mc univ Nashville 60, cb 82, Larkinsville. 

Foster, George Whitfield, mc univ Nashville 82, cb 82, Stevenson. 

Freeman, John Delightful, mc univ St. Louis 01, cb 91, Bridgeport. 

Haralson, Jefferson Bennett, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Marshall 88, 

Knowlton, John Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Paint Rock. 

Maples, William Caswell, mc univ Nashville 81, cb Madison 82, Scotts- 

Rorex, James Polk, mc Alabama 75, cb 82, Scottsboro. 

Smith, Eugene Robin ett, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 89, Fern Cliff. 

Smith, William Barton, mc , cb 82, Line Rock. 

Zumerhly, Samuel Lutz, mc Miami (Ohio) 90, cb 90, Bridgeport. 
Total, 12. 


Adkins, Charles William, mc univ Louisville 08, cb 84, Langston. 
Allen, James Beckerell, mc univ Tennessee 87, cb 87, Stevenson. 
Allen, William Henry, mc univ Louisville 67, cb 82, Langston. 
Arnold, T. M., mc Atlanta 91, illegal, Pisgah. 
Brewer, Joseph M., mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Trenton. 

Clarke, John Fletcher, , cb 82, Garth. 

Derrick, LaFayette, cb 82, Woodville. 

Gattis, Henry Franklin, cb 82, Trenton. 

Graham, Michael, cb *2, Stevenson. 

Grant, Felix Robertson, cb 82, Larkin's Fork. 

Hayes, George Thomas, mc Alabama — , cb DeKalb 87, Woodville. 

Helton, Pleasant H., cb 82, Caffey's Store. 

Hodden, William David, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Narrow's. 

Howard, C. E., illegal, Hennegan. 

James, William, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 90, Bolivar. 

Johnson, James Robert, cb DeKalb 82, Kerby's Creek. 

Lee, Elisha Lightfoot, mc univ Vanderbilt 73, cb 82, Bridgeport. 

Mason, William, mc univ Transylvania 46, cb 82, Fabius. 

McAfee, Terrell Pryor, mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb — , Line Rock. 


McCord, Joseph Harvey, (one course) cb 82, Scottsboro. 
Reed, James R., me Alabama 03, cb 08, Holly Tree. 
Robertson, James Osgood, (one course) cb 84, Larkin's Fork. 
Sanders, Walter C, mc univ Memphis 91, cb Madison 91, Fackler. 
Smith, Barton Brown, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 82, Larkinsville. 
Spiller, William Kingston, mc univ Louisville 74, cb 84, Bridgeport. 
Womack, Wiley Coker, (one course) cb 83, Larkinsville. 
Total, 26. 

Moved into the county — Walter C. Sanders, from St. Elmo, Tenn., 
to Fackler ; Joseph M. Brewer, from Texas to Trenton. 

Moved out of the county — James Madison Dicus, from Scottsboro to 
San Antonio, Texas ; James R. Tarrant, from Fackler to Texas. 

Examinations—For the study of medicine, LaFayette McLendon, 
certificate granted ; George Tate, certificate refused. For the prac- 
tice of medicine— James M. Horton, mc Alabama 92, certificate re- 
fused ; J. W. Bagges, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, certificate refused. 



President, Jones C. Abernethy ; Vice-President, Charles R. Sexton ; 
Secretary, Samuel L. Ledbetter; Treasurer, Samuel L. Ledbetter; 
Health Officer, Henry N. Rosser. Censors— Edward H. Sholl, Thad- 
deus L. Robertson", William H. Johnston, Benjamin L. Wyman, 
George S. Brown. 


Abernethy, Jones Cadwalader, mc univ of Louisiana, 50, cb Marengo 

78, Birmingham. 
Acton, Samuel Watson, mc Alabama 00, cb Marengo 78, Trussville. 
Alexander, Howard Augustus, mc s of m Kentucky 75, cb Marengo 78, 

Armstrong, James McLay, mc Jefferson 05, cb 87, Adger. 
Barclay, John Wyeth, mc Jefferson 60, cb Madison 78, Birmingham. 
Barrett, Nathaniel Aldridge, mc univ Yanderbilt 86, cb Lawrence 86, 

East Lake. 
Brown, George Summers, mc Jefferson 85, cb 87, Birmingham. 
Brown, George Washington, mc Atlanta 77, cb 78, Pratt City. 
Brown, James Anderson, mc univ Yanderbilt 71, cb Conecuh 87, 

Ensley City. 
Brown, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 85, Pratt City. 
Burke, Adalbert Bela, mc Yienna, Austria 87, cb 91, Birmingham. 
Caffee, Samuel Richmond, mc Miami, Ohio 81, cb Tuscaloosa 81, 



Carson, Shelby Chadwick, me univ Tulane74,cb Greene 79, Bessemer. 

Chapman, George Clarence, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb Monroe 90, 

Chapman, John Thomas, mc Alabama 86, cb Marengo 87, Bessemer. 

Copeland, Benjamin Grigsby, mc Jefferson 88, cb Limestone 83, Bir- 

Cotton, Robert, mc univ Tulane 67, cb 86, Birmingham. 

Coulbourne, John Thomas, mc univ Maryland 85, state board 86, Bir- 

Cowper, Junes Alexander, mc univ Toronto, Canada 92, cb 92, Bir- 

Cunningham, Russell McWhorter, mc Bellevue 79, cb 88, Ensley City. 

Davis, John Daniel Sinkler, mc Georgia 79, cb St. Clair 79, Birming- 

Davis, William Elias Brownlea, mc Bellevue 84, cb 84, Birmingham. 

Douglass, Albert Gallatin, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Birmingham. 

Dozier, John Calhoun, mc univ Nashville 58, cb Perry 79, Birming- 

Drennen, Charles, mc Alabama 72, cb Blount 78, Birmingham. 

Due, Malvern Nicholas, mc phy and surg New York 89, cb Mont- 
gomery 89, Birmingham. 

Duncan, Joseph Johnston, mc univ Louisville 86, state board 86, Bir- 

Finch, James Henry, mc univ Maryland 86, cb 87, East Lake. 

Forster, William Condie, mc univ Louisiana 82, cb Choctaw 84, Bir- 

Gamble, William Melvin, mc univ Louisville 87, cb 87, East Lake. 

Gillespie, John Sharpe, mc Miami, Ohio 83, cb 83, Birmingham. 

Glass, Edward Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 90, Birmingham. 

Griggs, John Gardner, mc univ Pennsylvania 63, cb Macon 86, Bir- 

Heflin, Wyatt, mc Jefferson 84, cb Randolph 85, Birmingham. 

Henley, Albert Thomas, mc univ New York 69, cb Hale 77, Birming- 

Huey, John Frederick, mc phy and surg Baltimore 87, cb 87, Adger. 

Jernigan, Charles Henry, mc Jefferson 84, cb Bullock 80, Birmingham. 

Johnston, William Henry, mc univ New York 67, cb Dallas 78, Bir- 

Jolly, Arnold, mc Alabama 85, cb Marengo 85, Birmingham. 

Jones, Capers Capehart, mc univ Pennsylvania 79, cb Wilcox 79, 
East Lake. 

Jones, Devotie Davis, mc univ Pennsylvania 70, cb Lowndes 79, Wood- 

Killen, William Jasper, mc Bellevue 90, cb Montgomery 90, Birming- 

Killough, James Monroe, mc s of m Kentucky 87, cb 87, Huffman. 


Klebs, Theodore Alexander, mc univ Tulane 76, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Lacy, Edward Parish, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Shelby 88, Bessemer. 

Ledbetter, Samuel Leonidas, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 79, Birming- 

Lewis, James Marshall, mc univ Vanderbilt 67, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Luckie, James Buckner, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 77, Birmingham. 

Luckie, William Richard, mc Bellevue 92, cb 92, Birmingham. 

Lusk, Percy Bradford, mc univ Tulane 88, cb 84, Lewisburg. 

Macy, Robert Charles, mc Alabama 87, cb Mobile 87, Bessemer. 

Martin, Henry Lewis, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Madison 81, Avon- 

Martin, James Phillips, mc Baltimore 83, cb Barbour 84, Birming- 

McCarty, James Henry, mc Atlanta 80, cb 83, Birmingham. 

Mobley, Richard Virgil, mc Alabama 86, cb Clarke 89, Birmingham. 

Moore, John Alexander, mc phy and surg Baltimore 85, cb Blount 
88, Birmingham. 

Morris, Edward Watts, mc univ Virginia 85, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Page, John Randolph, mc univ Virginia 86, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Parke, Thomas Duke, mc univ New York 79, cb Dallas 84, Birming- 

Payne, John, mc Jefferson 86, cb Shelby 86, Hilknan. 

Prince, Francis Marion, mc Jefferson 49, cb 78, Bessemer. 

Ramsey, Robert Neal, mc univ Pennsylvania 79, cb 90, Thomas. 

Ransom, William Walter, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Riggs, Edward Powell, mc phy and surg Baltimore 81, cb Dallas 81, 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, mc Jefferson 61, cb Calhoun 81, Bir- 

Robinson, Elisha Milton, mc univ Tulane 85, cb Blount 86, Bessemer. 

Robinson, Thomas Franklin, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 84, Bessemer. 

Rogers, McCarty, mc Alabama 89, cb Conecuh 89, Birmingham. 

Rosser, Henry Nollner, mc Atlanta 69, cb Dallas 89, Birmingham, 

Sear 8, John William, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 78, Birmingham. 

Sew ell, John Banks, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Morgan 86, Pratt City. 

Sexton, Charles Richard, mc univ Tulane 75, cb Tuscaloosa 78, Bir- 

Sholl, Edward Henry, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb Sumter 78, Bir- 

Smith, Reginald Knight, mc phy and surg Baltimore 92, cb 92, Pratt 

Statum, Job Nelson, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Blossburg. 

Steele, Allen Newton, mc Alabama 90, cb Pickens 90, Redding. 

Talley, Dyer Findley, mc univ Tulane 92, cb 92, Birmingham. 


Webb, Robert Dickens, mc univ Virginia 50, cb Sumter 78, Birming- 

Whaley, Lewis, mc Atlanta 73, cb Blount 79, Birmingham. 

W he Ian, Charles, mc univ Louisiana 66, cb Hale 78, Birmingham. 

Wilder, William Hinton, mc univ New York 91, cb 91, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Cunningham, mc univ Pennsylvania 84, cb 84, Birmingham. 

Wood, Winston Cass, mc Atlanta 81, cb Randolph 81, Woodward. 

Woodson, Lewis Greene, mc univ Maryland 86, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Wyman, Benjamin Leon, mc univ Virginia and New York 78-79, cb 
Tuscaloosa 82, Birmingham. 
Total, 85. 


Abercrombie, John Pat ti son, mc Alabama 80, cb 82, Cedar Grove. 

Acton, Samuel Watson, mc Alabama 60, cb Marengo 78, Trussville. 

Actqn, William Henser, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Lauderdale 88, 
Henry Ellen. 

Alexander, Howard Augustus, mc s of m Kentucky 75, cb Marengo 78, 

Ball, John Calhoun, mc Atlanta 59, cb Calhoun 87, Avondale. 

Ballard, Asa Nathaniel, mc Pulte 76, cb DeKalb 86, Birmingham. 

Berry, Robert Alford, mc univ Virginia 82, cb 85, Oxmoor. 

Bevans, John Madison, mc univ Louisiana 72, cb Marion 72, Warrior. 

Black, W S., Bessemer. 

Brewster, Andrew Jackson, mc Alabama 80, cb 80, Birmingham. 

Brown, Arthur McKimmon, mc Ann Arbor 91, cb 91, Bessemer. 

Carter, James Watkins, mc univ Nashville 75, cb Sumter 75, Bessemer. 

Clapp, William Wesley, mc Cleveland 90, cb DeKalb 90, Birmingham. 

Clayton, Benjamin Lawrence, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb St. Clair 88, 

Coleman, John William, old law 68, Birmingham. 

Collins, Milton Homer, mc univ Tennessee 84, cb Blount 84, Birming- 

Cook, William Alexander, mc univ Louisiana — , cb Marengo 80, Bir- 

Cooper, William Dudley, mc Jefferson 69, cb Lee 82, Birmingham. 

Cross, Samuel Mardis, mc Georgia 60, cb 78, Woodlawn. 

Cross, Thomas Winston, mc univ Nashville 87, cb 87, Warrior. 

Crow, Phillip Patterson, mc univ Nashville 77, cb St. Clair 77, Coalburg. 

Dabney, John Davis, mc univ Washington, Baltimore 72, cb 90, Bir- 

Davidson, James, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Dowsing, John Wesley, mc Jefferson 57, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Dozier, Oliver Thomas, mc Atlanta 74, cb — , Birmingham. 

Drennen, Charles Travis, mc Rush 85, cb Cullman 85, Birmingham. 


Dryer, Thomas Edmund, mc Atlanta 85, cb Macon 86, Birmingham. 

Earle, Thomas Transit, mc National 70, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Edwards, Robert Smith, mc Atlanta 71, cb 78, Trussville. 

Ellesberry, John Payne, mc univ Virginia 60, cb Montgomery 84, Bir- 

Farley, Andrew Jackson, mc Atlanta 90, cb Shelby 90, Irondale. 

Fielder, Francis Lewis, old law, cb Hale 85, Birmingham. 

Gamble, John Wesley, old law, cb 78, East Lake. 

Gibson, Jefferson Davis*, mc Alabama 87, cb Tuscaloosa 87, Birming- 

Groin, John Burt (colored), me Meharry 90, cb 90, Birmingham. 

Greene, Robert Smith, mc Atlanta 60,.cb 78, Greene's. 

Griffith, William, mc phy and surg Baltimore 57, cb 87, Pratt City. 

Hale, William Lewis, mc Alabama 78, cb 80, Bessemer. 

Hancock, James Francis, mc univ Louisville 88, cb — , Toadvine. 

Hawkins, Elijah Alexis, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb Walker 89, Little 

Hawkins, Richard Nathaniel, mc Miami 67, cb Shelby 87, Birmingham. 

H eddies ton, James Lawrence, mc South Carolina 55, cb Hale 87, Wood- 

Hill, Charles Lowry, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb 88, Elliott. 

Hollis, John Henry, mc , cb — , Robins. 

Holloway, Young Edwin, mc Miami 72, cb Cullman 85, Birmingham. 

Howard, John Wesley, mc Atlanta 91, cb Shelby 91, Irondale. 

Hudson, Norman Hyde (colored), mc Long Island 90, cb 91, Birming- 

Jansenius, Joseph Harding, mc , cb — , Birmingham. 

Jenkins, Lewis Allen, mc Alabama 89, cb Wilcox 89, Brookside. 

Jones, John Columbus, mc univ Tulane 85, cb 88, Johns. 

Jones, Richard Augustus, mc Jefferson 55, cb Marengo 78, Pratt City- 
Jones, Robert, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 86, Warrior. 

Jones, William Kennon, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb Bullock 80, Bir- 

Lewis, Francis Porcher, mc South Carolina 76, cb 80, Coalburg. 

McGehee, Benjamin Ellsberry, mc univ Louisville 72, cb Montgomery 
84, Birmingham. 

McGlathery, F. S., Woodlawn. 

Miller, James Melville, mc Alabama 84, cb Walker 84, Blossburg. 

Miller, James Whitfield, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Dolomite. 

Miller, Jesse Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Pickens 86, Dolomite. 

Naff, John Mortimer, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 85, Birmingham. 

Oates, David Dudley, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 79, Leeds. 

Ormand, John James, mc univ Tulane — , cb Greene 89, Birmingham. 

Owen, William Marmaduke, mc Alabama 72, cb Tuscaloosa 78, East 

Perry, Samuel, mc South Carolina 54, cb Perry 78, Birmingham. 


Pitts, William Sam ford, Bessemer. 

Posey, Marquis LaFayette, Wymond. 

Posey, William Felix, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Mt. Pinson. 

Pouncy, John Brown, mc univ New York 51, ob Bullock 81, Bir- 

Pruett, James Washington, mc Alabama 92, cb Talladega 92, Bir- 
mingham . 

Ragsdale, Milton Columbus, mc Georgia 78, cb 78, McCalla. 

Rawls, Edmund Socrates, mc Georgia — , cb Perry 78, Bessemer. 

Riley, Robert Lee, mc univ Tulane 84, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Bobbins, Jesse Albert, mc Atlanta 86, cb 86, Brookside. 

Roberts, Martin, non graduate (old law), cb 80, Warrior. 

Robinson, Jasper Bennett, mc univ Vanderbilt 69, cb St. Glair 78, 

Roper, William Elliott, mc univ Louisville 88, cb Shelby 78, Wood- 

Russell, Randolph Morgan, mc Bel lev ue 88, cb Etowah 89, Bir- 

Scott, Jeptha Newton, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Shepherd, Lewis (colored), mc phys and surg Baltimore 85, cb St. 
Clair 87, Bessemer. 

8hoemaker, Worcester Ney, mc Columbus, Ohio 78, cb 81, Bir- 

Smith, Robert Lee, mc univ Louisville 91, cb — , Quinton. 

8pencer, Lucien A., mc Miami 85, cb 85, East Lake. 

8taggs, John B., mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Blount 86, Pratt City. 

Steeves, Henry Fordyce, non-graduate, state board 87, Gate City. 

Stevens, William Hardy (colored), mc phys and surg Baltimore 89, cb 
89, Cardiff. 

Stone, T. J., Sandusky. 

Tidmore, J. A., mc Kansas City 84, cb Hale 89, Powderly. 

Trainer, Edward W., non-graduate, cb Marshall 85, Pratt City. 

Trammell, Robert Hardie, mc Alabama 87, no certificate, Bir- 

Tucker, William Robert, mc Georgia 60, cb Shelby 77, Belle Sumter. 

Turner, Mathew, mc univ Pennsylvania — ,cb Choctaw 79, Woodlawn. 

Wheeler, Samuel Harvey, mc Atlanta 78, cb Blount 78, Birmingham. 

Wheeler, William Jasper, mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, Dolomite. 

Whissenant, Lewis Daniel, non-graduate, cb 78, Morris. 

Williams, David Smith, mc univ Nashville 59, cb 92, Birmingham. 
Total, 95. 

Moved into the county — Milton McGrath Smith, from Walker 
county ; Edward P. Lacey , from Montevallo to Bessemer ; A. N. Steele, 
from Pickens county to Redding; David Smith Williams, from Arkan- 
sas to Birmingham ; James Alexander Cowper, from Canada to Bir- 


mingham ; James Washington Pruett, from Talladega county to Bir- 

Moved out of the county — Milton McGrath Smith, to Tuskegee; 
Hayes, from Powderly to Arkansas ; David Smith Wil- 

liams, from Birmingham to Arkansas ; H. F. Oliver, from Woodlawn 
to Shelby county ; W. J. Baird, from Birmingham to Marion county ; 
H. P. Cochrane, from Birmingham to Tennessee. 

Examinations — James Alexander Cowper, univ Toronto, Canada, 
92, Birmingham; William Richard Luckie, mc Bellevue 92, 
Birmingham ; James Whitfield Miller, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, Dol- 
omite ; Reginald Knight Smith (colored), mc phy and surg Baltimore 
92, Pratt City ; Dyer Findley Talley, mc univ Tulane 92, Birmingham ; 
David Smith Williams, mc univ Nashville 69, Birmingham. Certifi- 
cates granted. Robert Jefferson Hays, Knox ville, Tennessee, 92 ; 

Richardson (colored), mc Meharry, Nashville, 91. Certificates 




President, William L. Morton ; Vice-President, William F. Elliott ; 
Secretary, Martin W. Morton ; Treasurer, Martin W. Morton ; Health 
Officer, Daniel D. Hollis. Censors — William L. Morton, Robert J* 
Redden, William F. Elliott, William A. Burns, John B. Brock. 


Brock, John Beauregard, mc univ Nashville 91, cb Marion 91, 

Burns, George Caruthers, cb 78, Vernon. 
Burns, William Arthur, mc Memphis 91, cb 91, Vernon. 
Collins, George Jackson, mc Alabama 74, cb Fayette 84, Kennedy. 
Elliott, William Farris, mc univ Louisville 57, cb 77, Crews. 
Hollis, Daniel Dixie, mc phy and surg Baltimore 84, cb 84, Sulligent. 
Morton, Martin Watson*, mc Cincinnati 73, cb 77, Vernon. 
Morton, William Locke, mc univ Louisiana 74, cb 77, Vernon. 
Redden, Robert James, mc univ Maryland 73, cb 77, Sulligent. 
Total, 9. 


Armstrong, William, cb 80, Detroit. 

Barksdale, James Ira, mo univ Vanderbilt — , cb Tuscaloosa 86, 

Blakeney, Louis Columbus, mc Alabama 74, cb 77, Millport. 
Box, Daniel William, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Malloy. 


Bran y an, James A., mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Cody. 
Collier, Scott, cb 77, Detroit. 

Collins, Francis A„ mc Memphis 92, cb 92, Blow horn. 
Collins, James Peter, cb Fayette 84, Hightoga. 
Kennedy, John Oscar, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Kennedy. 
Kennedy, William Henderson, mc univ Nashville 51, cb 77, Kennedy. 
Phillips, James Richards, Millport. 
Seay, Thomas Jefferson, cb 77, Fernbank. 
Vaughan, George Washington, cb Marion 88, Wofford. 
Total, 18. 

Moved into the county — Francis A. Collins, mc Memphis 92, to 
Blowhorn ; James A. Branyan, mc univ Louisville 92, to Cody. 

Moved out of the county — Gilbert B. Wimberly, from Vernon to 
Reform, Pickens county. 

Examinations — Francis A. Collins, mc Memphis 92; James A. 
Branyan, mc univ Louisville 92 ; Gilbert B. Wimberly, mc Alabama 
92. Certificates granted. 



President, John M. Hayes; Vice-President, Hiram R. Kennedy; 
Secretary, James M. Pierson ; Treasurer, William E. Harraway ; 

Health Officer, , Censors—Hiram R. Kennedy, John M. 

Hayes, George B. Scott. 


Arnold, Leonard Waring, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 87, Florence. 

Carroll, G. W., Gravelly Springs. 

Douglass, James Albert, mc univ Nashville 08, cb 88, Centre Star. 

Duckett, Levi Fowler, mc Atlanta 56, cb 87, Florence. 

Harraway, William Epps, mc univ Nashville 66, cb 87, Florence. 

Hayes, John Monroe, mc univ Nashville 57, cb 86, Florence. 

Johnston, J. T., Cloverdale. 

Johnston, Stephen F., mc univ Louisville 57, cb 87, Cloverdale. 

Jones, John P., Lexington. 

Kennedy, Hiram Richard, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 89, Green Hill. 

Moody, Henry Altamont, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 87, Florence. 

Newton, G. S., Rogersville. 

Pate, Jesse Americus, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 87, Rogersville. 

Pierson, James M., cb 92, Florence. 

Powell, James, Pruitton. 

Powell, William Washington, mc univ Michigan 55, cb 88, Pruitton. 

Price, William Mason, mc univ New York 65, cb 87, Florence. 


Ray, Hugh Leonidas, mc univ New York 71, cb 87, Oakland. 
Richardson, Wiley William, mc univ Louisville 88, cb 89, Florence. 
Scott, George B., St. Florian. 
Stewart, Edmund Monroe, mc univ New York and Vanderbilt 68, cb 

87, Oakland. 
Sugg, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Louisville — , cb 92, Smithsonia. 
Watson, Charles McAlpine, mc univ Louisiana 81, cb Etowah 82, 

Williams, George, Covington. 
Total, 24. 


Bramlett, William M., mc univ Nashville 00, cb 87, Florence. 
Crow, Calvin Augustus, mc Jefferson 51, cb 78, Florence. 
Hannum, Anthony Butler, mc univ Nashville 60, cb 87, Pruitton. 
Henderson, Alexander Holmes, mc univ Nashville 76, cb 87, Bailey 

Kernachan, William Jones, mc univ Nashville 78, cb 88, Florence. 
Kyle, William Bailey, Florence. 
Lee, John, Waterloo. 

Morgan, James Thomas, mc univ Nashville 71, cb 87, Florence. 
Morris, D. J., Gravelly Springs. 
Morris, Wayne, Florence. 

Paulk, Samuel 0., mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb — , Cloverdale. 
Powers, Alexander Hamilton, mc univ Louisville 71, cb 87, Waterloo. 
Smith, Alexander, Florence. 

Sullivan, Oliver Brown, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 87, Waterloo. 
Total, 14. 

Moved out of the county— Emmett Lee Jones, from Florence to 
Chattanooga, Tennessee ; Percy Isaac Price, from Florence to Wara- 
hatchie, Texas. 

Examinations— For the practice of medicine, James M. Pierson, 
Florence ; Thomas Jefferson Sugg, mc univ Louisville. Certificates 

Deaths— James William Stewart, mc univ Louisiana 58, cb 87, 



President, Edgar Rand ; Vice-President, Leon W. Houston ; Secre- 
tary, William J. McMahon ; Treasurer, William J. McMahon ; Health 
Officer, William J. McMahon, Censors — Henry B. Burkett, John S 
Houston, Edgar Rand, John A. P. Robinson, Robert M. Simpson. 



Ashford, Edward Clinton, mc univ Louisiana 57, cb 78, Courtland. 

Burkett, Henry Bascom, mc phy and surg Baltimore 78, cb 78, Hills- 

Carter, Parkerson Patrick, mc univ Louisville 66, cb Lowndes 79, 

Etheridge, Benjamin Franklin, mc Memphis 86, cb 86, Hat ton. 

Fennell, Isham Watkins, mc univ Nashville 67, cb Madison 78, Court- 

Hill, John 8. (dentist), 84, cb — , Courtland. 

Hodges, John P., mc univ Nashville 72, cb 78, Oakville. 

Houston, John Swan, mc univ Louisville 77, cb Limestone 78, Lan- 

Houston, Leon Walton, mc univ Nashville 77, cb 78, Town Creek. 

Maaterson, John Thomas, mo phy and surg Philadelphia 72, cb 78, 

McDonald, John Robert, mc univ Nashville 67, cb Limestone 78, 

McMahon, William Jack, mc Long Island 60, cb 78, Courtland. 

Rand, Edgar, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Leigh ton. 

Robinson, John Abner Pruette, mc St. Louis 72, cb 78, Leigh ton. 

Simms, Edgar Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 69, cb 78, Hillsboro. 

Simpson, Robert Miles, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb 87, Moulton. 
Total, 16. 


Edwards, John W. mc univ Louisville 69, cb 78, Courtland. 

Fish, William Fletcher, mc univ New York 56, cb Limestone 78, Town 

Gibson, Fleming D., mc univ Nashville 90, Moulton. 
Howell, John Rufus, mc Memphis 88, cb 88, Hatton. 
Jones, Thomas'Crittenden, mc univ Louisville 76, cb 78, Mt. Hope. 
King, Benjamin Rush, mc univ Pennsylvania 66, cb 78, Leigh ton. 
Masterson, Albert Aaron, mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Leighton. 
Master son, John H., mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Ora. 
Pitt, James Thomas, mc univ Nashville 86, cb 92, Hillsboro. 
Shegogg, George, mc King's College, Dublin, 46, cb 78, Brickville. 
Total, 10. 

Moved into the county — John S. Hill (dentist), from Huntsville to 

Moved out of the county — W. H. Stanley, from Brickville to Tus- 




President, Abijah B. Bennett ; Vice-President, Andrew H. Read ; 

Secretary, Jesse G. Palmer ; Treasurer, ; Health Officer, Edgar 

J. Spratling. Censors — Aurelius G. Emory, Jesse G. Palmer, Abijah 
B. Bennett, Andrew H. Read, William C. Hanson. 


Bennett, Abijah Benjamin, mc phy and surg Baltimore 81, cb 81, 

Drake, John Hodges, mc Atlanta 67, cb 81, Auburn. 
Emory, Aurelius Grigsby, mc univ Louisiana 62, cb 81, Opelika. 
Griffin, William Henry Harrison, mc South Carolina 85, cb 81, Opelika. 
Hanson, William Calvin, mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, Marvin. 
Love, James Madison, mc South Carolina 64, cb 81, Opelika. 
McCoy, Charles Breckenridge, mc phy and surg Baltimore 82, cb 82, 

Palmer, Jesse Gary, mc phy and surg Baltimore 82, cb 82, Opelika. 
Read, Andrew H., Opelika. 
Shepherd, Levin Wilson, mc univ New York 51, cb 81, Opelika. 

Total, 10. 

Honorary Members. 

Floyd, James William Daniel, mc univ Pennsylvania 20, cb 81, Salem. 
McCoy, Amos Washington, mc univ New York 58, cb 81, Opelika. 


Bedell, Robert Bruce, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 81, Opelika. 
Bloodworth, Wiley Washington, mc Jefferson 58, cb 81, Lively. 
Drake, John Hodges, Jr., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Auburn. 
Foreman, Arthur Levin, mc univ Louisville 69, cb 91, Loachapoka. 
Fowler, Andrew Jackson, mc Atlanta 81, cb 85, Roxanna. 
Fuller, John Benjamin, non-graduate, Smith's Station. 
Johnson, Henry Harrison, mc South Carolina — , Loachapoka. 
Lamar, William Henry, mc Georgia Reform — , cb 81, Auburn. 
Shelton, Menzo David, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 81, Lively. 
Wheeler, David Mason, mc Atlanta — , Beulah. 
Wheeler, William Raleigh, mc Atlanta — , Beulah. 
Williams, John Walter Raleigh, mc Georgia Reform — , Opelika. 
Total, 12. 

* Not having received any returns from this county the report here 
given is that of last year.— Sec'y. 




President, Theophilus Westmoreland; Vice-President, Joseph A. 
PettuB ; Secretary, William J. Hagan ; Treasurer, William J. Hagan ; 
Health Officer, William J. Hagan. Censors— Theophilus Westmore- 
land, George R. Lewis, John R. Hoffman. 


Hagan, William James, mc Jefferson 84, cb $4, Athens. 

Hoffman, John Richardson, mc Jefferson 58, cb 77, Athens. 

Lewis, George Rowland, mc univ Yanderbilt 89, cb 89, Athens. 

Moore, Mack, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Petty. 

Pettus, Joseph Albert, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 77, Elkmont. 

Rankin, James Caffield Mitchell, mc univ Nashville 58, cb 78, Belle 

Westmoreland, Theophilus, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 79, Athens. 

Total, 7. 


Carter, James Jackson, mc , cb 78, Athens. 

Collins, James Marshall, mc , cb 78, Athens. 

Crutcher, John Sims, mc univ Yanderbilt 89, cb 89, Center Hill. 
Delaney, Isaac Fox, mc univ Louisiana 58, cb Madison 78, Rowland. 

Dupree, William Jefferson, mc , cb 79, Westmoreland. 

Gaston, Alfred Langdon, mc univ Yanderbilt 91, cb 91, Gilbertsboro. 
Hill, Henry Willis, mc univ New York 49, cb 84, Mooresville. 
Moebes, Otto, mc univ Halle — , cb 78, Athens. 
Moore, Elisha Dixon, old law 67, cb 78, Athens. 
Pettus, Benton Samuel, mc univ Yanderbilt 92, cb 92, Pettusville. 
Yance, John Madison, mc univ Yanderbilt 90, cb 90, Elkmont. 
Wallace, Nicholas Blackburn, mc Cincinnati 51, cb 78, Elkmont. 
Wilkinson, Milton Roil, mc univ Nashville 80, cb 78, Westmoreland. 
Williams, George Allen, mc univ Nashville 80, cb 81, Athens. 
Wilson, Felix Grundy, mc univ Nashville 65, cb 76, Elkmont. 
York, Seaborn Edward, mc univ Louisville 78, cb 84, Athens. 
Total, 16. 

Moved into the county— W. J. Hagan, from to Athens. 

Moved out of the county — James Benton Hatchett, from Athens to 
Marion, Perry county. 





President, John A. Pritchett ; Vice-President, Cyrus E. Marlette ; 
Secretary, Thomas D. Stallings ; Treasurer, John A. Pritchett ; Health 
Officer, Shirley 1-ragg. Censors — John A. Pritchett, Shirley Bragg, 
Phillip N. Cilley, William P. Russell, Thomas D. Stallings. 


Howie, Andrew, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Benton. 

Bragg, Shirley, mc Alabama 75, cb 79, Lowndesboro. 

Buchanan, J. P., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Judge's Siding. 

Buford, William Lewis, mc , cb 78, Mt. Willing. 

Carr, George Washington LaFayette, mc univ Pennsylvania 65, cb 78, 
Fort Deposit., 

Cilley, Phillip Noble, mc univ Louisiana 48, cb 78, Lowndesboro. 

Coleman, Aurelius Daniel, mc Alabama 80, cb 85, Mt. Willing. 

Crum, William Barton, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Farmersville. 

Dilburn, Samuel George, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Bragg's Store. 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles, mc Jefferson 52, cb 78, Letohatchie. 

Marlette, Cyrus Edward, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 91, Gordonsville. 

McQueen, Samuel Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, Fort De- 

McRee, Abraham Cruzer, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 78, Lowndes- 

Peake, John Samuel, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Farmersville. 

Powell, Charles William, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Lowndesboro. 

Pritchett, John Albert, mc univ Virginia 70, cb 78, Hayneville. 

Russell, John Hamilton, mc Georgia Reform 56, cb 78, Sandy Ridge. 

Russell, William Payne, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Hayneville. 

Sanderson, Edwin Lewis, mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Letohatchie. 

Snow, Charles Henry Clay, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb 86, Bragg's Store. 

Snow, James Lewis, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Collerine. 

Stallings, Thomas Daniel, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Hayneville. 

Weatherly, Charles Taliaferro, mc Atlanta 74, cb 85, Benton. 

Weaver, William Calvin, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb 88, Fort Deposit. 

Winnemore, Samuel Eggleston, mc univ New York 56, cb 78, Benton. 
Total, 25. 


Bruner, Oliver Glenn, mc Alabama 76, cb 78, Fort Deposit. 
Carter, Samuel Taylor, mc univ Tennessee 90, (illegal), Sandy Ridge. 
Peake, William, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Benton. 
Reese, Charles Edwin, mc Jefferson 56, cb 78, Lowndesboro. 
Total, 4. 


Moved out of the county— Albert Benton Couch, from Hayneville 
to Thomasville, Georgia. 



President, Louis W. Johnston ; Vice-President, John S. Lightfoot ; 
Secretary, George P. Wood; Treasurer, John S. Johnston; Health 
Officer, Clarence L. C. Atkeson. Censors — Louis W. Johnston, Francis 
M. Letcher, Thaddeus W. Branson, Charles L. Boyd, William 8. 


Atkeson, Clarence Lee Crawford, mc phy and surg Baltimore 81, cb 
Lee 82, Notasulga. 

Boyd, Charles LeRoy, mc South Carolina 59, cb 79, La Place. 

Branson, Thaddeus Warsaw, mc univ Pennsylvania 47, cb 79, Society 

Gautier, William James, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 79, Tuskegee. 

Harris, William Samuel, mc univ New York 51, cb Bullock 79, Kin- 

Johnston, John Samuel, mc Memphis 89, cb 90, Tuskegee. 

Johnston, Louis William, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Tuskegee. 

Letcher, Francis Marion, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Shorter's. 

Lightfoot, John Steele, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 79, Shorter's. 

Magruder, William Perry, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Tuskegee. 

May, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Notasulga. 

Wood, George Pierce, mc Memphis 89, cb 90, Tuskegee. 
Total, 12. 


Aikens, John Calhoun, mc Graffenburg 46, cb Tallapoosa 78 Nota- 

Breedlove, Benjamin Wilbur, mc Atlanta 93, cb 98, Tuskegee. 

Ellison, James Edwin, mc Georgia 48, cb 79, Creek Stand. 

Reynolds, William Abner, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 79, Warrior 

Si 8 trunk, John, mo univ New York 58, cb 79, Society Hill. 
Total, 5. 

Moved into the county — Benjamin Wilbur Breedlove, mc Atlanta 
98, cb 93, to Tuskegee ; Milton M. Smith, to Tuskegee. 

Moved out of the county —Milton M. Smith, to parts unknown. 


Examinations — Benjamin Wilbur Breedlove, mc Atlanta 08, Tus- 
kegee. Certificate awarded. 

Deaths — John Hosea Gautier, mc univ Louisville 88, cb 88, Tus- 
kegee. Died July 14th, 1892. 



President, Milton C. Baldridge ; Vice-President, Charles E.Blanton ; 
Secretary, Albert R. Erskine ; Treasurer, Albert R. Erskine ; Health 
Officer, James T. Johnson. Censors— Milton C. Baldridge, Richard 
M. Fletcher, Samuel H. Lowery, David H. McLain, Albert R. Erskine. 


Baldridge, Milton Columbus, mc Bellevue 74, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Blanton, Charles Edgar, mc univ Yanderbilt 82, cb 82, New Market. 
Brouillette, Pierre Lawrence, mc Ohio 71, cb 84, Huntsville. 
Burke, James Pickens, mc univ Pennsylvania 53, cb 78, Meridian ville. 
Burwell, Edward D., mc Kentucky — , cb 78, Rep. 
Darwin, James Lanier, mc Bellevue *8,cb 90, Huntsville. 
Erskine, Albert Russell, mc univ Pennsylvania 54, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Farley, John Benton, mc univ Yanderbilt 86, cb 86, Huntsville. 
Fletcher, Richard Matthew, mc univ Pennsylvania 54, cb 78, Madison. 
Haney, Julius Tillman, mc Alabama 91, cb Colbert 92, Madison. 
Johnson, Henry Ray burn, mc univ Nashville 87, cb Marshall 87, New 

Johnson, James Thomas, mc univ Maryland 48, cb Jefferson 88» 

Lipscomb, Elias DeKalb, state board 87, New Market. 
Lowry, Samuel Hickman, mc Bellevue 73, cb 78, Huntsville. 
McDonnell, Henry, mc Louisiana 68, cb 78, Huntsville. 
McLain, David Hubbard, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Gurley. 
Pettus, William David, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 78, Cluttsville. 
Robinson, Christopher Americus, mc Jefferson 71, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Slaughter, John Richard, mc univ New York 47, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Wheeler, William Camp, mc Bellevue 62, cb Colbert 81 , Huntsville. 
Total, 20. 

Honorary Member, 

Rice, Francisco, mc Memphis 57, cb 78, New Market. 


Blanton, James Conrad, mc univ Louisville 76, cb 78, New Market. 
Cochran, Robert E., mc Memphis (botanic) 86, cb 78, New Hope. 
Duffield, Alfred Manley, mc univ Boston (homeopatbist) 85, cb Mobile 
85, Huntsville. 


Flynt, James 0., mc univ Louisville — , cb 78, Gurley. 

Glover, Anthony Natalie, mc univ Nashville 87, cb 87, Owens Gross 

Haden, William Wright, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 92, Owens Gross 

Hatcher, Archie Wood, cb 82, Hazel Green. 
Hensley, William Thomas, mc univ Nashville — , cb 78, Triana. 
Hertzler, John (homeopathist), cb 78, Madison. 
Hinds, Byron William, mc univ Nashville 66, cb 78, New Hope. 
Layman, John Marion, mc univ Nashville 70, cb 87, Maysville. 
Macon, Joseph Sumter, mc Atlanta 80, cb 80, Belle Factory. 
McKelvey, William 0., cb 78, Oottonville. 
Pynchon, Lewis Charlton, mc Jefferson 52, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Ridley, James Lucas, mc univ Shelby 61, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Scruggs, Burgess E. (col'd), mc Union Nashville 79, cb 79, Huntsville. 
Shelby, Anthony Bowling, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Siddons, Lewis Mills, mc univ Nashville 69, cb — , Maysville. 
Sullivan, William Francis, cb 82, Owens Cross Roads. 
Watts, John Parke, mc univ Louisville 78, cb 78, Huntsville. 
Total, 20. 

Moved into the county— Julius Tillman Haney, from Colbert 
county to Madison. 

Moved out of the county— George Richard Sullivan, to New De- 
catur, Morgan county ; John Andrew Jones, to . 

Examinations — William Wright Haden. Certificate granted. 


President, C. B. Whitfield ; Vice-President, R. B. McCants ; Secre- 
tary, J. W. Todd ; Treasurer, J. B. Whitfield ; Health Officer, I. G. 
Wilson. Censors— B. W. Whitfield, E. H. C. Bailey, R. B. McCants, 
C. B. Thomas, C. B. Whitfield. 


Bailey, Edward Howe Corrie, mc univ Virginia 48, cb 78, Demopolis. 
Eaton, Benjamin Glover, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Dayton. 
George, James Hosea, mc South Carolina 67, cb 78, Mobile. 
Harris, Robert Joseph us, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Jefferson. 
Lockhart, William Crocheron, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Dayton. 
McCants, Robert Bell, mc Georgia Southern 82, cb Jefferson 82, Fauns- 
Ruffin, James Sterling, mc univ Pennsyvania 49, cb 78, Demopolis. 
Smith, Seth Davis, mc univ Louisiana 54, cb 78, Demopolis. 


Stradwick, Edmond, mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Dayton. 
Thomas, Charles Brooks, mc Atlanta Southern 83, cb 83, London. 
Todd, John William, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Linden. 
Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, mc univ Pennsylvania 53, cb 79, Demopolis. 
Whitfield, Charles Boaz, mc phy and surg New York 71, cb 79, De- 
Whitfield, George, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 78, Old Spring Hill. 
Whitfield, James Bryan, mo univ Pennsylvania 67, cb 82, McKinley. 
Wilson, Isham Griffin, mc univ Louisiana 68, cb Dallas 78, Demopolis. 
Total, 16. 


Allen, William Howard, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 82, Sweet Water. 
Bettis, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Louisville 61, cb 84, Nicholsville. 
Drummond, William Fletcher, mc univ Maryland 49, cb 78, Magnolia* 
Evans, Josiah Thomas, mc Jefferson 67, cb 79, Jefferson. 
Foscue, Francis Lewis, mc Jefferson 84, cb Perry 85, Demopolis. 
Gillespie, Robert Clanton, mc univ Pennsylvania 83, cb 83, Putnam. 
Harris, Evon P., mc univ Louisiana 68, cb — , Jefferson. 
Johnson, Charles Nathan, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Dixon's Mills. 
Jones, Wade Hampton, mc South Carolina 58, cb Dallas 84, Jefferson. 
Kimbrough, Francis Gildersleeve, mc Alabama 90, cb 92, Rembert. 
King, James Moore, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, McKinley. 
McCorkle, Thomas James, mc Alabama 83, cb 83, Dayton. 
Mosley, William Joseph, mc Alabama — , cb — , Faunsdale. 
Nichols, J. E., mc Alabama 91, cb — , Nicholsville. 
Nixon, William Goodwyn, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, London. 
Peacock, Lovick Edward, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Old Spring Hill. 
Pegram, William Edward, old law 44, cb 79, Dayton. 
Poellnitz, Benjamin Bruno, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 81, Rembert. 
Stone, Augustus Bos worth, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Linden. 
Tucker, William Sydney, mc Atlanta 90, cb 92, Luther's Store. 
Wood, John Hack worth, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Dixon's Mill. 
Total, 21. 

Moved into the county— Evon P. Harris, mc univ Louisiana 68, from 
Rosser, Choctaw county, to Jefferson. 

Moved out of the county— Edwin Strudwick Webb, mc Alabama 89, 
from Faunsdale to Laneville, Perry county. 



President, Achilles L. Moorman ; Vice-President, John C. Johnson ; 
Secretary, Simeon D. Bevill; Treasurer, Simeon D. Bevill; Health 
Officer, James F. Earnest. Censors — James F. Earnest, Simeon D. 
Bevill, William F. Clark, Warren Guy ton, Walter S. Halladay. 



Bevill, Simeon David, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb Walker 92, Guin. 
Clark, William Fielder, non-graduate, cb 88, Hamilton. 
Earnest, James Franklin, non-graduate, cb 88, Winfield. 
Guy ton, Warren, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 88, Hamilton. 
Halladay, Walter S., non-graduate, cb 88, Shottsville. 
Howell, James William, non-graduate, cb 88, Pearce's Mills. 
Johnson, John Carroll, mc univ Louisville 92, cb Fayette 92, Glenn 

Martin, M. C, non-graduate, cb 88, Hamilton. 
Moorman, Achilles Lucian, cb 88, Bexar. 
Palmer, Russell P., non-graduate, cb 38, Hamilton. 
Total, 10. 


Allen, Lanston C, non-graduate, cb 88, Allen's Factory. 
Collins, James William, non-graduate, cb Lamar 75, Guin. 
Cochran, William J., non-graduate, cb 88, Gold Mine. 
Graham, James W., mc univ Louisville 91, cb 92, Shottsville. 
McCrary, William Jefferson, mc Memphis 93, cb Fayette 93, Guin. 
Springfield, Thomas Jefferson, non -graduate, cb Lamar 80, Guin. 
Whitley, James Monroe, non-graduate, cb Tuscaloosa — , Winfield. 
Total, 7. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, James W. Graham, mc 
univ Louisville 91. Certificate granted. 



President, Thaddeus A. Casey ; Vice-President, John Lowery ; Sec- 
retary, Phocian B. Lusk ; Treasurer, Phocian B. Lusk ; Health Officer, 
Phocian B. Lusk. Censors — William L. Thomason, Kdward M. Jen- 
kins, Thaddeus A. Casey, William P. Hall, Phocian B. Lusk. 


Casey, Thaddeus Alonzo, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Albertville. 

Hall, William P., mc Atlanta Southern 86, cb 86, Hyatt. 

Jenkins, Edward Monroe, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Martling. 

Lusk, Lorenzo David (old law) cb Madison 59, cb 86, Guntersville. 

Lusk, Phocian B., mc Bellevue 91, cb 91, Guntersville. 

Lowery, John, cb Madison 86, Lumpkin. 

McGahey, Joseph Jefferson, cb 86, Henry ville. 

Thomason, William Levi, mc univ Nashville 71, cb Blount 78, Gun- 
Total, 8. 



Abels, William George, cb 88, Cottonyille. 

Barcliff, Thomas Mascoolin, mc univ Tennessee 86, cb 86, Red Hill. 

Brazzleton, John Houston, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb Madison 91, 

Burnum, Samuel Johnson, mc Alabama 87, cb Blount 87, Miltonsville. 
Dodd, J. H., Boaz. 

Hinds, Montgomery L., mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Arab. 
Hughes, William LaFayette, cb 86, Union Grove. 
May, George B., cb 86, Hi Man's Store. 
Nail, William Lewis, cb 86, Boaz. 

Jackson, James Monroe, mc South Carolina 49, cb 86, Guntersville. 
Johnston, Webster, mc univ Yanderbilt 92, cb 92, Kirby's. 
Jordan, David Carnes, Jr., mc Memphis 92, cb 92, Guntersville. 
Maples, J. H., Cottonville. 
Martin, mc Atlanta (eclectic) — , Albertville. 

Matchen, , Martling. 

McCorkle, J. H., Henryville. 

Moon, Emmet Knight, mc univ U. S. Grant, Chattanooga, 92, ob 92, 

Rains, John Leonidas, mc univ Yanderbilt 91, cb 91, Albertville. 
Scarborough, William Miles, mc — , cb Clay 87, Albertville. 
Scott, Agrippa, mc Atlanta 85, cb 86, Albertville. 
Slaughter, C. J., Albertville. 

Smith, William George, mc univ Nashville 54, cb 86, Warrenton. 
Stewart, Andrew Jackson, mc Alabama 85, cb 86, Cottonville. 

Total, 28. 

Moved out of the county— Thomas Sidney May, from Guntersville 
to Blount Springs. 

Examinations— David L. Kirby, mc Alabama 98, Kirby's ; John U. 
Baggus, mc univ Yanderbilt 98, Miltonsville ; Millard F. Patterson, 
mc univ Yanderbilt 93, Miltonsville. Certificates granted. 



President, Henry T. Inge ; Vice-President, William Paton ; Secre- 
tary, Tucker H. Frazer ; Treasurer, William R. Jackson ; Health 
Officer, (county) Dudley C. Randle; (city) Thomas S. Scales; Libra- 
rian, Joshua D. Terrell. Censors— George A. Ketchum, Samuel R. 
Olliphant, Goronway Owen, Rhett Goode, James G. Thomas. 




Beck, Frank King Kowalowski, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 

Cochran, Jerome, mc univ Nashville 61, cb 78, official residence, Mont- 

Crampton, Orson Lucius, mc Bellevue 55, cb 88, Mobile. 

Festorazzi, Angelo, mc Alabama 87, cb 88, Mobile. 

Fowler, George Huggins, mc univ Pennsylvania 61, cb 78, Herndon, 
Baldwin county. 

Frazer, Tucker Henderson, mc Alabama 85, cb Lee 88, Mobile. 

Gaines, Marion Toulmin, mc Alabama 90, cb 92, Mobile. 

Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, mc Alabama 72, phy and surg New York 
78, cb Choctaw 79, Mobile. 

Goode, Rhett, mc Alabama 71, cb 78, Mobile. 

Goodman, Duke W., mc univ Louisiana 91, cb 92, Mobile. 

Hendon, James Jefferson, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Mobile. 

Hirschfeld, Henry P., mc univ Pennsylvania 78, cb 78, Mobile. 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler, mc univ New York 83, cb 83, Mobile. 

Jackson, William Richard, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 

Ketchum, George Augustus, mc univ Pennsylvania 46, cb 78, Mobile. 

Lea, William J., mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Mobile. 

Marechal, Edwin Leslie, mc Alabama 70, cb Baldwin 86, Mobile. 

McArthur, Andrew Patterson, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Mobile. 

McEaig, F. T., mc Alabama 90, cb 92, Mobile. 

Mohr, Herman B., mc Alabama 91, cb 92, Mobile. 

Olliphant, Samuel Rutherford, mc univ Louisiana 55, cb 78, Mobile. 

Owen, Calvin Norris, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 

Owen, Goronway, mc univ Pennsylvania 57, cb 78, Mobile. 

Paton, William, mc Alabama 76, cb 78, Mobile. 

Pugh, Sidney Stewart, mc univ Louisiana 89, cb Clarke 89, Mobile. 

Randle, Dudley Crawford, mc Alabama 85, cb Pickens 89, Mobile. 

Sanders, William Henry, mc Jefferson 62, cb 78, Mobile. 

Sawyer, William Templeton, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 78, Whistler. 

Scales, Thomas Sidney, mc phy and surg New York 67, cb 78, Mobile. 

Sledge, William Henry, mc Alabama 80, cb Sumter 80, Mobile. 

Terrell, Joshua D., mc Ohio 85, cb 92, Mobile. 

Thomas, James Grey, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 78, Mobile. 
Total, 32. 


Abrams, James A., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Mobile. 
Acker, Paul J. M., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Mobile. 
Cooper, John Henry, mc Alabama 68, cb 86, Citronelle. 
Dancer, J. P., St. Elmo. 

Davis, Henry B., mc Royal, London — , Cedar. 
Edmunds, Samuel C, cb 92, Spring Hill. 


Hall, Alexander P., mc univ Louisiana 59, cb 78, Mobile. 
Johnston, David Elijah, mc Georgia 68, cb 78, Mobile. 
Kennedy, John M., mc Toronto — , Manville. 
LeBaron, Charles, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Mt. Vernon. 
Lyon, George G., mc univ Pulte 88 (homeopathist), Mobile. 
Malay, Ramsey P., mc Alabama 84, cb Elmore 84, Whistler. 
Marshall, John Benjamin, mc univ Nashville 72, cb Sumter. 78, Mobile. 
Mas tin, Claudius Henry, Sr., mc univ Pennsylvania 49, cb'78, Mobile. 
Mastin, Claudius Henry, Jr., mc univ Pennsylvania 84, cb 84, Mobile. 
Mastin, William McDowell, mc univ Pennsylvania 74, cb 78, Mobile. 
MeCarty, Miles Edward, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Whistler. 
Michael, Jacob G., mc univ Virginia 60, cb 78, Citronelle. 
Mohr, Charles A., mc Alabama 84, cb 92, Mobile. 
Moore, Hampton T., mc Alabama 90, cb — , Mobile. 
Moore, William, mc Alabama 90, cb — , Mobile. 
Murphy, R. N., mo Alabama 62, cb 84, Mobile. 
Myers, Augustus P., mc St. Louis 88 (homeopathist), cb — , Mobile. 
Pope, William Barnemore, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Mobile. 
Roemer, Francis J. B., mc univ Louisiana 86, cb 78, Spring Hill. 
Sheldon, George A., mc Alabama 92, cb 98, Mobile. 
Total, 26. 

Moved into the county — Duke W. Goodman, from Mississippi to 
Mobile ; Samuel C. Edmunds, from Jackson, Tennessee, to Mobile. 

Moved out of the county — Ira W. Porter, from Mobile to Florida ; 
Dillon J. Spottswood, from Mobile to Fairford, Washington county ; 

Walter Reed, from Mobile to ; Chester King Rae, from Mobile 

to Mississippi ; F. F. DeDurkey, from Mobile to Kansas City. 

Examinations— Isaac W. Bard, cb 92, Spring Hill ; Samuel 0. Ed- 
munds, cb 92, Spring Hill ; M. T. Gaines, cb 92, Mobile ; Duke W, 
Goodman, cb 92, Mobile ; Ohas. A. Mohr, cb 92, Mobile ; Herman B. 
Mohr, cb 92, Mobile ; Chas. H. Schwaemmle, cb 92, New Orleans, La. ; 
George A. Sheldon, cb 92, Mobile ; J. D. Terrell, cb 92, Mobile. Cer- 
tificates granted. 

Deaths— Thomas Henry Cox, mc univ New York 48, cb 78, Mobile, 
of septicaemia; Daniel Edgarly Smith, mo Alabama 61, cb 78, Mo- 
bile, of phlegmonous erysipelas. 



President, William M. Burroughs ; Vice-President, G. Walter Gail- 
lard ; Secretary, James M. Wiggins ; Treasurer, James M. Wigging ; 
Health Officer, Wm. W. McMillan. Censors— Wm. W. McMillan, Gla- 
den G. Scott, Wm. M. Hestle, G. Walter Gaillard. 



Abernethy, William Henry, mc univ Transylvania 48, cb 77, Tinela. 
Bradley, Hugh C, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 77, River Ridge. 
Burroughs, William Monroe, mc South Carolina 57, cb 77, Pineville. 
Chapman, William Robert, mc Georgia Reform 79, cb 79, Simpkins- 

Dailey, Fielding Straughn, mc Alabama 71, cb 71, Kempville. 
Gaillard, George Walter, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 83, Purdue Hill. 
Gaillard, Samuel Septimus, mc South Carolina 48, cb 77, Perdue Hill. 
Hestle, William Monroe, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Buena Vista. 
Jenkins, James Samuel, mc South Carolina 49, cb 77, Buena Vista. 
Mason, Francis Henry, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Tinela, 
McMillan, William Wallace, mc univ Louisiana 56, cb 79, Monroe ville. 
Scott, Gladen Gorin, mc univ Louisville 85, cb 85, Mt. Pleasant. 
Shomo, Joseph Weatherford, mc univ Transylvania 55, cb 77, Mt. 

So well, James Lawrence, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Perdue Hill. 
Wiggins, James Monroe, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Monroeville. 

Total, 15. 


Batts, William Franklin, mc univ Tulane 92, cb 92, Burnt Corn. 
Draughn, Robert Isaac, mc South Carolina 47, cb 79, Perdue Hill. 
Mason, William Joseph, mc Atlanta 84, cb Wilcox 84, Activity. 
Russell, James Thomas, mc Georgia Reform 55, cb 77, Monroeville. 
Whistenhant, William E., mc univ Nashville 81, cb 81, Buena Vista. 
Total. 5. 

Moved out of the county — Rosser Alexander Thompson, to parts 



President, James R. Jordan ; Vice-President, Milton L. Wood ; Sec- 
retary, Robert S. Hill ; Treasurer, George P. Waller ; Health Officer, 
Pascal H. Owen. Censors — John B. Gaston, Richard F. Michel, Sam- 
uel D. Seelye, Luther L. Hill, John H. Blue. 


Andrews, Glenn, mc univ New York 86, cb 86, Montgomery. 
Baldwin, Benjamin James, mc Bellevue 77, cb 88, Montgomery. 
Baker, Christopher Columbus, mc univ Tennessee 59, cb 84, Panther. 
Bibb, William George, mc univ Vanderbilt 78, cb 78, Montgomery. 
Blue, John Howard, mc univ Washington, Md., 70, cb 78, Montgomery. 


Chapman, Benjamin Sidney, mc univ New York 92, cb 92, Montgom- 

Douglass, James, me South Carolina 57, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Duncan, Charles Kane, mc univ New York 58, cb 85, Montgomery. 

Gaston, John Brown, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Gaston, Joseph Lucius, mc phy and Burg New York 85, cb 88, Mont- 

Henry, John Hazzard, mc Philadelphia (homeopathic) 51, cb Dallas 79 

Hill, Luther Leonidas, mc univ New York 81, cb Jefferson 81, Mont- 

Hill, Robert Marcus, mc univ New York 60, cb 78, Mt. Meigs. 

Hill, Robert Sommerville, mc univ New York 91, cb 91, Montgomery. 

Howell, William Henderson, mc Atlanta 80, cb 80, Ramer. 

Ivey, Barna Pitt, mc Alabama 88, cb Marion 88, Montgomery. 

Jackson, Walter Clark, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Jordan, James Reid, mc univ Maryland 84, cb 84, Montgomery. 

Kendrick, William Toulmin, mc Atlanta 76, cb Butler 78, Montgomery. 

Kirk, Eben Bell, mc Alabama 85, cb Mobile 85, Montgomery. 

Mason, John Crump, cb 81, Snowdotfn. 

McOrummin, Norman Henry, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 85, Raif 

McDade, George Wilkins, mc s of m New Orleans 61, cb 78, Montgom- 

Michel, Richard Frazer, mc South Carolina 47, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Naftel, Jesse Holmes, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Montgomery. 

Naftel, St. John, mc univ Yanderbilt 79, cb 80, Naftel. 

Owen, Pascal Harrison, mc univ New York 57, cb Lowndes 78, Mont- 

Pearson, Benjamin Rush, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Montgomery. 

Powell, Clifton William, mc Alabama 91, cb Lowndes 91, Colquitt. 

Rushing, Thomas Elbert, mc Alabama 90, cb 91, Pike Road. 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, mc univ New York 55, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Thigpen, Charles Alston, mc univ Tulane 88, cb Butler 88, Mont- 

Waller, George Piatt, mc univ New York 92, cb 92, Montgomery. 

Watkins, Isaac LaFayette, mc Bellevue 78, cb Bullock 86, Montgomery. 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, mc univ New York 80, cb 80, Montgomery. 

Williams, Robert Silas, mc Jefferson 48, cb 84, Mt. Meigs. 

Wood, Milton LeGrand, mc Bellevue 77, cb 84, Montgomery. 
Total, 87. 


Brown, — , 

Calloway, James Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 82, Snowdoun, 
Clutts, William Parson, — — , 


Davis, LeRoy, mc Georgia 57, cb 78, Morganville. 
Dixon, Thomas Arbury, mc univ Louisiana 92, cb 92, Ramer. 
Dorse tte, Charles Nathaniel (colored), mc univ Buffalo 88, cb 84, Mont- 
Duncan, Thomas, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Mount Oarmel. 

Dungee, (colored), cb 91, Montgomery. 

Harris, Andrew Jackson, Stoddard. 
Jackson, Edward Beatty, mc Alabama 86, cb 85, Ramer. 
McDade, James, mc Georgia 72, cb 78, Mt. Meigs. 
McLean, Frank, mc univ Louisiana 86, cb 78, Hope Hull. 
Nicholson, John Cogburn, mc Jefferson 55, cb 78, Mt. Meigs. 
Patton, George Robert, mc univ Vanderbilt 69, cb 78, Montgomery. 
Bives, George, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 78, Snowdoun. 
Sankey, George L., Tharin. 

Sellers, Anthony Hamilton, mc South Carolina 82, cb 84, Ramer. 
Stone, Henry Lie well en, mc univ Maryland 68 (retired), Montgomery. 
Townsend, James Barnett, mc univ Nashville 78 cb 78, Pine Level. 
Watson, Van Buren, mc a of m Kentucky 78, cb 78, Strata. 
Total, 20. 

Moved out of the county — Augustus A. Greene, from Montgomery 
to Opelika. 

Examinations— Benjamin Sidney Chapman, mc univ New York, 92; 
Thomas Arbury Dickson, mc univ Louisiana 92; Thomas Duncan, mc 
Alabama 92 ; George Piatt Waller, mc univ New York 92. Certifi- 
cates awarded. 

Death— Henry Lawrence Whipple, Hope Hull, of epithelioma ; died 
January 18th, 1898, aged 74. 




President, Abel R. Wilson ; Vice-President, John M. Kitchens ; Sec- 
retary, Willis A. Barclift ; Treasurer, Willis A. Barclift ; Health Offi- 
cer, Willis A. Barclift. Censors— Ben jamin F. Cross, Scott L. Round- 
tree, Walter C. Buckley, Marcus W. Murry, Peter Binford. 


Barclift, Willis Anderson, mc univ Tennessee 77, cb 79, Hartsell. 

Binford, Peter, mc New Orleans 61, cb 79, Somerville. 

Buckley, Water Colquitt, mc phy and surg New York 85, cb 85, De- 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, mc univ Louisville 57, cb 78, Decatur. 

Gaston, James Reeves, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb Limestone 78, New 


Hunter, Felix Burwell, me univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Lawrence 86, Falk- 

Kitchens, John Murry, mc Atlanta 86, cb Lawrence 85, Danville. 
Murry, Michael William, mc univ McGill, Montreal, Canada — ,cb — , 

New Decatur. 
Peck, Cicero Fain, mc Memphis 90, cb 90, Fort Bluff. 
Roundtree, Scott Louis, mc Jefferson 68, cb 78, Hartsell. 
Thomason, William Black, mc Memphis 86, cb 86, Cedar Plains. 
Turrey, Joseph Simpson, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Hartsell. 
Wilson, Abel Roberts, mc Alabama — , cb 87, Hartsell. 

Total, 18. 


Bradley, Peter Casada, mc univ Kentucky 91, cb 91, Falkville. 

Brindley, Asa Benton, mc , cb 92, Somerville. 

Cartwright, Oscar Bishop, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 80, Decatur. 

Cross, Shadrach Eugene, mc univ Louisville 72, cb Lauderdale 87, De- 

Dinsmore, William Louis, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 82, Decatur. 

Erwin, Andrew Benton, mc — — , cb Cullman 86, Grady's Cove. 

Gill, Jordan Lawson, mc univ Louisville (one course) 69, cb 78, Som- 

Gillespie, James Clarke, mo univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Madison 81, New 

Haguebaum, Charles Ellis, mc , cb — , Valhermosa Springs. 

Hodges, John Patrick, mc , cb — , Danville. 

Miner, Lucian, mc South Carolina 49, cb 78, Trinity Station. 

Oden, Alexander Hamilton, mc , cb Cullman 78, Lawrence Cove. 

Ponder, Abram Virgil, mc , cb — , Decatur. 

Ponder, M. D., mc , cb — , Decatur. 

Byan, Thomas LaFayette, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 84, Hartsell. 

Sherrell, Bobert Browning, mc Alabama — , cb — , Basham's Gap. 

Smith, John, mc , cb — , Valhermosa Springs. 

Smith, John Stanhope, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 79, Woodland Mills. 

Steers, Willis Wood (colored), mc univ Michigan 88, cb Montgomery 
88, Decatur. 

Stephenson, Edison David, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 76, Danville. 

Stephenson, Richard Lewis, mc univ Tennessee (one course) 76, cb 76, 
New Decatur. 

Stringer, William Morton, mc univ Tennessee 98, cb — , Lawrence 

Sullivan, George Richard, mc univ Shelby 60, cb Madison 78, New 

Sullivan, William F., mc Alabama 91, cb — , Trinity Station. 

Vest, David Walter, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Hartsell. 

Wilhite, Simeon Madison, mc Memphis 91, ob 91, Cedar Plains. 


Winston, David Mason, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Valhermosa Springs. 
Total, 27. 

Moved into the county — Simeon Madison Wilhite, from Texas to 
Cedar Plains. 

Moved out of the county— David Finley Dinsmore, from Decatur to 

Virginia ; Dean Taylor Smith, from Decatur to ; John Elisha 

Smith, from New Decatur to . 



President, John M. Sadler; Vice-President, William B. Jeffries; 
Secretary, Gaius R. Johnson ; Treasurer, Elias B. Thompson ; Health 
Officer, Gaius R. Johnson. Censors— Off a L. Shivers, Gratton B. Crowe. 
John M. Sadler, William B. Jeffries, James H. Houston. 


Barron, William Rowan, mc univ Virginia 61, cb 78, Scott's Station. 
Byars, Henry Haden, mc s of m Kentucky 92, cb 92, Perry ville. 
Crowe, Gratton Bradley, mc Alabama 87, cb Bibb 87, Marion. 
Downey, William Thomas, non-graduate, cb 78, Folsom. 
Hatchett, James Benton, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb Limestone 90, 

Houston, James Hiram, mc univ Pennsylvania 48, cb 78, TJniontown. 
Jeffries, William Bennett, mc univ Washington, Md., 75, cb 78, Marion. 
Johnson, Gaius Rowan, mc s of m Kentucky 92, cb 92, Marion. 
Mosley, David Orion, mc univ Washington, Md., 72, cb 78, Perryville. 
Pettey, Frank P., mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb Limestone 92, Marion. 
Pou, James Ruf us, mc univ South Carolina 54, cb 78, TJniontown. 
Sadler, John Milton, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb 78, TJniontown. 
Shivers, Offa Lunsford, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb Hale 78, Marion. 
Thompson, Elias Benson, mc univ Louisiana 69, cb 78, Marion. 
Vaughan, Frederick Barber, mc Alabama 71, cb 78, Marion. 
Wilkerson, Charles A., mc univ New York 75, cb 78, Marion. 

Total, 16. 


Bradfleld, John, mc South Carolina 45, cb 78, TJniontown. 
Bradfleld, John W., mc s of m Kentucky 78, cb 78, TJniontown. 
Caine, Vaughn Holmes, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Central Mills. 
Collier, A. M., non-graduate, cb 78, Chadwick. 
Evans, Charles Albert, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Bethlehem. 
Hill, Thomas Calhoun, mc South Carolina 60, cb 84, TJniontown. 
Hunter, John James, mc Alabama 81, cb Talladega 88, Hamburg. 


Langhorne, John Miller, mc univ Pennsylvania 48, cb 78, Uniontown. 
McCauley, Herbert H., mc univ Louisville, no certificate, Marion. 
Mears, John Wesley Nathan, mc univ New York 77, cb 78, Hamburg. 
Schoolar,Thornley Edward, mc univ Yanderbilt 92, cb Bibb 92, Sprotts. 
Sellers, William Thomas, mc Alabama 92, cb Bibb 92, Uniontown. 
Stewart, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Jerico. 
Tucker, James Burwell, mc univ Yanderbilt 78, cb 79, Jerico. 
Webb, Lucius DeYampert, mc univ New York 69, cb Hale 78, Scott's. 
Total, 15. 

Moved into the county — H. H. Byars,from Blount Springs to Perry - 
ville ; Frank P. Petty, from Athens to Marion ; William T. Sellers, 
from Randolph to Uniontown ; Herbert H. McCauley, from Mobile to 
Marion ; Peter H. Dilliard, from Blocton to Marion ; John James 
Hunter, from Dallas county to Hamburg. 

Moved out of the county — H. H. Byars, from Perryville to Blount 
Springs ; Peter 11. Dilliard, from Marion to Dallas county. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine : Gaius R. Johnson, 
s of m Kentucky 92, certificate granted ; Henry H. Byars, s of m Ken- 
tucky 92, certificate granted ; Elisha N. Driver, mc univ Louisville 98, 
certificate granted ; Herbert H. McCauley, mc univ Louisville, cer- 
tificate granted ; Edward P. McCallum, mc Alabama 93, certificate 
granted ; Yaughn H. Caine, mc Alabama 92, certificate granted. 

Death — William Washington Wilkerson, mc Jefferson 55, cb 78, Ma- 
rion, (of chronic Blight's Disease), on March 9th, 1893, aged 59. 



President, Henry L. Williams ; Vice-President, Thomas H. G. Cook ; 
Secretary, Samuel H. Hill ; Treasurer, Samuel H. Hill ; Health Offi- 
cer, Rufus R. Wyatt. Censors— Samuel H. Hill, Thomas H. G. Cook, 
Victor Savage, Joseph Moody. 


Agnew, James Alexander, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Providence. 
Clear, Christopher Columbus, mc Alabama 85, cb 86, Carroll ton. 
Cook, Thomas Henry George, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Stone. 
Hill, Newton, mc Alabama 76, cb 86, Pickensville. 
Hill, Samuel Feuilleteau, mc South Carolina 52, cb 78, Carrollton. 
Hill, Samuel Henry, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 78, Carrollton. 
Hinton, William Gaines, mc Georgia 50, cb 79, Carrollton. 
Moody, Joseph, mc univ Louisville 71, cb 79, Franconia. 
Morehead, Henry Clay, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 79, Pickensville. 
Peebles, Jesse, mc New Orleans 48, eb 84, Stone. 


Quinn, James Madison, mo , cb 80, Beard's. 

Savage, Victor, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Fayette 89, Gordo. 
Sterling, Samuel Johnston, mc Alabama 61, cb 78, Olney. 
Story, Frank, mc Alabama 00, cb 90, Sharp. 
Williams, Henry Lawrence, mc Jefferson 58, cb 78, Dunbar, Miss. 
Wyatt, Rufus Roland, mc univ Nashville 84, cb 89, Memphis. 
Total, 16. 


Baird, Duke Orleans, cb 78, Coal Fire. 

Barnett, J. T., . 

Brandon, Richard Clifton, cb 88, Gordo. 

Duncan, John Francis, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Beard's. 

Gunter, Peter Tittle, mc Memphis 50, cb 79, Coal Fire. 

Hancock, Jesse, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Stafford. 

Murphy, Elmore, mo Alabama — , Bethany. 

Price, Robert Thomas, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Lubbub. 

Reid, J. H. G. f mo univ Louisville 90, cb 92, Stone. 

Reid, T. E. f . 

Rickman, John W., cb 78, Stafford. 

Sanders, Thomas Henry, cb 79, Garden. 

TJpchurch, Harvey B., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Carrollton. 

Wimberly, Gilbert Beebe, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Gordo. 

Total, 14. 

_ • 

* Not having received any report from this county, the report here 
given is that of last year.— Beo'y. 



President, Pugh H. Brown ; Vice-President, John A. McEachern ; 
Secretary, Charles W. Hilliard; Treasurer, William A. Crossley; 
Health Officer, Charles W. Hilliard. Censors — Josephus S. Beard, 
Edward H. Johnson, John A. McEachern, Leonidas Hendrick, Pugh 
H. Brown. 


Bean. James Madison, mc Bellevue 79, cb Bullock 88, Monticello. 
Beard, Josephus Simmons, mc univ New York 76, cb 79, Troy. 
Boyd, LeRoy, mc Alabama 87, cb Macon 87, Orion. 
Broach, Francis Marion, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Ansley . 
Brown, Pugh H., mc univ New York 64, cb 78, Troy. 
Crossley, William Andrew, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Troy. 
Dewberry, John Hunter, mc Jefferson 56, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Ford, Elchana Gardner (old law) 56, cb 78, Troy. 


Hendrick, Gustavus, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 78, Brandidge. 
Hendrick, Leonidas, mo Atlanta 90, cb 00, Fresco. 
Hilliard, Charles Wesley, mc Georgia Reform 61, cb 78, Troy. 
Johnson, Edward Harris, mc univ Washington, Md., 69, cb Crenshaw 

82, Troy. 
McEachern, John Adolphus, mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Brundidge. 
McSwean, Charles, mc South Carolina 52, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Mullins, James Thomas, mc Georgia 72, cb Montgomery 82, Troy. 
Sanders, William Shelby, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Milo. 
Total, 16. 

Honorary Member. 

Collins, James Marshall, mc univ Virginia 60, cb 78, Troy. 


Albritton, George Allen, mc univ Louisville 72, cb Crenshaw 82, Hen- 

Allen, W. Aaron, mc Atlanta 92, Brundidge. 

Allred, John Parke, state board 78, cb 78, Troy. 

Carlisle, Charles Mallory, cb 84, Milo. 

Davis, Thomas Jefferson, non-graduate, cb 84, Goshen Hill. 

Dennis, Thomas S., mc univ Graffenburg 58, cb 78, Olustee Creek. 

Dismuke, Benjamin James, mc Georgia 57, cb 84, China Grove. 

Eiland, William Anderson, mc Atlanta 81, cb 84, Henderson. 

Foreman, Henry Jefferson, mc Jefferson 58, cb 78, Brundidge. 

Hamil, Irby Watson, mc univ Louisville 76, cb 78, Goshen Hill. 

Hanson, , Banks. 

Moore, Thomas F., Linwood. 

Townsend, A. 0., China Grove. 

Wagner, John Troupe, non-graduate, cb Montgomery 78, Shady 
Total. 14. 

Moved into the county — — — ^— Hanson, from Auburn to 
Banks; William Shelby Sanders, from Texas to Milo; W. Aaron 
Allen, from Georgia to Brundidge. 

Moved out of the county— James Thomas Borden, from Milo to 
Louisville, Barbour county ; N. J. Dawkins, from Banks to Barbour 



President, Henry B. Disharoon ; Vice-President, Joseph C. Swann ; 
Secretary, Powhatan G. Trent; Treasurer, Powhatan G. Trent; 

Health Officer, . Censors— Powhatan G. Trent, Stonewall 

J. Gay, Jasper D. Liles, Joseph 0. Swann, Francis G. Thomason. 



Clegg, James, mc Georgia Reform 49, cb 89, Almond. 
Davis, Samuel John, mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, Rock Mills. 
Disharoon, Henry Beauregard, mc phy and surg Baltimore 86, cb 85, 

Duke, Anderson Welcome, mc Graff en burg 49, cb 79, Graham. 
Duke, Jefferson Davis, mc Atlanta Southern 87, cb 88, Graham. 
Floyd, William G., mc phy and surg Baltimore 76, cb 92, Roanoke. 
Gauntt, Elbert Tilman, mc Atlanta 76, cb 84, Wedowee. 
Gay, Stonewall Jackson, mo Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Almond. 
Heflin, Wilson Lumpkin, mc Georgia 48, cb 85, Roanoke. 
Jordan, Charles Alexander, mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb 87, Wheeler- 

Liles, Jasper David, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 85, Roanoke. 
McClendon, Edward Henry, mc Graff enburg 59, cb 79, Rock Mills. 
McManus, Michael, non-graduate, cb 79, Wedowee. 
Pool, Wyatt Heflin, mc Georgia 67, cb 79, Roanoke. 
Swann, Joseph Charles, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Wedowee. 
Thomason, Francis G., mc Atlanta 81, cb 81, Almond. 
Trent, Powhatan Glover, mc Atlanta 88, cb 88, Rock Mills. 
Trent, Powhatan Green, mc Jefferson 67, cb 85, Rock Mills. 
Welch, James Madison, mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 98, Truett. 
White, Luther Leonidas, non-graduate, cb 79, Roanoke. 

Total, 20. 


Overby, Edward P., mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb — , Truett. 
Vineyard, James L., mc Georgia Reform 49, cb 79, Rock Mills'. 
Total, 2. 

Moved into the county — Francis G. Thomason, from Georgia to Al- 
mond ; James L. Vineyard, from Texas to Rock Mills. 

Moved out of the county— Charles M. Mickle, from Roanoke to 
Texas, Ga. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, James Madison, 
Welch, mc Southern 92, Truett. Certificate awarded. 

Death— William Elbert White, mc univ Transylvania 40, cb 79, 
Roanoke, aged 78, of cystitis. 



President, William B. Prather; Vice-President, Walter B. Hen- 
dricks ; Secretary, William T. Joiner ; Treasurer, William T. Joiner ; 


Health Officer, Henry H. Allen. Censors— William B. Prather 
Reuben A. Smith, Thomas A. Johnson, Henry H. Allen, Benjamin W. 


Allen, Benjamin Washburn, mc Atlanta 84, cb 87, Hurtsboro. 

Allen, Henry Homer, mc Georgia 83, cb 88, Oswichee. 

Hendricks, Walter Branhan, mc univ Louisville 90, cb Pike 00, Hatch- 

Johnson, Thomas Abner, mc univ Tennessee 80, cb Florida (?) 86, 

Joiner, William Thomas, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Loflin. 
N orris, John Pinkney, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, TJhland. 
Paschal, George Dennis, mc univ New York 72, cb 87, Hurtsboro. 
Pitts. Robert Newton, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Fittsboro. 
Prather, William Butler, mc Atlanta 74, cb 88, Seale. 
Smith, Reuben Arnold, mc univ New York 52, cb 87, Hatchechubbee. 
Williams, Zachary Walton, mc phys and surg Baltimore 82, cb87, 

Total, 11. 


Black, Nathaniel Spragins, mc univ New York 81, cb 87, Uchee. 
Gilbert, Andrew Jackson, mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, Jernigan. 
Howard, Thomas Watson, non-graduate, cb 88, Girard. 
Jemison, William Washington, mc Georgia — , cb 88, Girard. 
Total, 4. 

Moved out of the county — John Wesley Brooks, from Crawford to 



President, Christopher C. Oliver ; Vice-President, John H. Wil- 
liams; Secretary, Hugh T. Caffey; Treasurer, Joseph R. Morgan; 

Health Officer, . Censors — Joseph R. Morgan, Wilds S. 

DuBose, Hartwell I. Williams, John H. Williams, James H. Gunn. 


Acker, James Wilson (old law*, 63, cb Tuscaloosa 77, Montevallo. 

Backus, Henry (old law), 58, cb 77, Montevallo. 

Blevens, John Richardson, Calera. 

Caffey, Hugh Thomas, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb Lowndes 88, Calera. 

Davis, Jefferson, mc Georgia 90, cb 91, Montevallo. 

Davis, Ralph, mo Georgia 60, cb Bibb 76, Montevallo. 


DuBose, Wilds Scott, mc Atlanta 58, cb 77, Columbiana. 
Edwards, David, mo Atlanta 60, cb 77, Wilsonville. 
Fields, James G., cb 77, Galera. 
Gunn, James Hamlin, mc Belle vue 69, cb 77, Calera. 
Mc Adams, Henry Clay, mc Alabama 83, cb Mobile 83, Shelby. 
Morgan, Joseph Reid, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 77, Shelby Springs. 
Oliver, Christopher Carleton, mc Atlanta 69, cb 77, Shelby. 
Smith, Garland Henry, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Pelham. 
Williams, Hartwell Isaac, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Columbiana. 
Williams, John Harford, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 75, Calera. 
Total, 16. 


Black, Frederick A., mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb Bibb — , Shelby. 
Boyer, John Calhoun, mc s of m Kentucky — , cb 92, Wilsonville. 
Den son, Eli Forest, mc univ Vanderbilt 79, cb 79, Pelham. 
DuBose, T. D., Shelby. 

DuBose, , Shelby. 

Chandler, E. P., Vincent. 

Goodson, Jasper (old law), cb Tuscaloosa — , Siluria. 
Griffin, Alpheus J., cb 77, Lawley. 

Johnson, Joseph Madison, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 83, Pelham. 
Johnson, William Rufus Enight, mo Atlanta 80, cb 80, Pelham. 
Kinnett, John F., mc Eclectic, Atlanta, 92, cb 92, Weldon. 
McGraw, Allen Edward, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb 77, Vincent. 
O'Harrow, William, Vincent. 

Taylor, James Franklin, mc univ Pennsylvania 85, ob 87, Montevallo. 
Tucker, Milton Robert, mc Georgia 60, cb 87, Helena. 
Total, 15. 

Moved into the county — Frederick A. Black, from Block ton, Bibb 
county,* to Shelby ; T. D. DuBose, from Fayetteville, Talladega county, 

to Shelby ; DuBose, from Fayetteville, Talladega county, 

to Shelby . 

Moved out of the county— Andrew Thomas Rowe, from Columbiana 
to Atlanta, Ga. 

Examinations— J. F. Kinnett, mc Eclectic, Atlanta — . Certificate 

Deaths — James Andrew Simmons, Harpersville ; William Robert 
Singleton, cb Tuscaloosa (old law), Harpersville. 



President, John W. Ash ; Vice-President, Oliver M. Steadham ; Sec- 
retary, Henry S. Garlington ; Treasurer, Henry S. Garlington ; Health 


Officer, Eugene P. Cason. Censors — Davis E. Cason, James M. Mc- 
Laughlin, John W. Ash. 


Ash, John Winston, mc univ Louisiana 80, cb 80, Springville. 
Bass, John Burrell, mc phy and surg Baltimore 70, cb 79, Ashville. 
Cason, Davis Elmore, mc univ Nashville 70, cb 79, Ashville. 
Cason, Eugene Presley, mc Alabama 90, cb 90,- Ashville. 
Cason, James Calvin, mc Memphis 71, cb 79, Coal City. 
Crump, James Wells, mc Atlanta 75, cb 80, Steel's Depot. 
Dunlap, Perry Gabriel, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Eden. 
Garlington, Henry Speight, mc Alabama 87, cb Etowah 87, Ashville. 
Jones, George Marshall, mc Jefferson 74, cb 79, Springville. 
McLaughlin, James Madison, state board 80, cb 79, Springville. 
Steadham, Oliver Marshall, mc Alabama 86, cb Clay 87, Esonville. 
Vandegrift, Washington Franklin, mc univ Louisiana 80, cb 80, 
Total, 12. 


Abercrombie, John Patterson, mc Alabama 80, cb Jefferson 82, Cook 

Brewster, Henry Harrison (old law) 67, cb 79, Ragland. 
Crump, Henry Green (old law) 79, cb 79, Seddon. 
Embry, James Carl, mc Georgia 89, cb 90, Seddon. 
Evans, Richard Proctor (old law) 67, cb 79, Coal City. 
Hamilton, Charles Henry (old law) 79, Eden. 
Jones, James Hunter, mc Atlanta 56, cb 78, Ragland. 
Turner, William M., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Eden. 
Ware, John Blassingame, cb Clay 79, Kelly's Creek. 
Total, 9. 

Moved out of the county — Barnett Linton Embry, from Seddon to 
Villa Rica, Ga. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, William M. Turner, 
mc Alabama 92, Eden ; Certificate granted. For the study of medi- 
cine, D. F. Funderburg, Cropwell. Certificate granted. 



President, William T. Hearn ; Vice-President, William J. McCain ; 
Secretary, Dudley 8. Brock way; Treasurer, Dudley S. Brock way; 
Health Officer, Dudley S. Brockway. Censors — Jesse C. Houston, 
Thomas J. Bickley, Mathew B. Cameron, Dudley S. Brockway, John 
N. Gilmore. 



Bickley, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Gainesville. 
Brockway, Dudley Samuel, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Livingston. 
Cameron, Mathew Bunyan, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Sumterville. 
Gilmore, John Neil, cb 77, Gaston. 

Hand, Samuel Patton, mc univ Louisiana 88, cb 83, Coatopa. 
Hearn, William Thomas, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 82, York. 
Henegan, Darby, mc South Carolina 58, cb 77, Epes. 
Houston, Jesse Crawford, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 77, Belmont. 
McCain, William Jasper, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Livingston. 
Mooney, Jefferson Beri, mc univ Louisville f-9, cb 89, York. 
Parham, John Calhoun, mc s of m Kentucky 77, cb 77, Gainesville. 
Randall, Newton Fox, mc univ NaBhville 78, cb 83, Sumterville. 
Vaughan, Amos Lemuel, mc univ Louisville 84, cb 84, Cuba. 
Ward, Henry Bascom, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Cuba. 
Young, Oliver Cromwell, mc Northwestern, Mo., 85, cb 85, Almuchee. 
Total, 15. 

Honorary Members. 

Giles, James Hamilton, mc univ Louisville 57, cb 77, Cuba. 
James, William Hamilton, cb 78, York. 

Sholl, Edward Henry, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 78, Birmingham. 
Smith, Carlos Green, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 77, Palatka, Fla. 
Webb, Robert Dickens, mc univ Virginia 50, cb 78, Birmingham. 
Total, 5. 


Adams, Solomon Charles, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 80, Sherman. 
Allison, John Francis, mc South Carolina 60, cb 77, York. 
Carr, Paul Ellington, mc univ Louisville 91, cb 91, Warsaw. 
Hale, Robert Hadden, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 80, York. 
Henson, John McKenzie, mc univ Pennsylvania 54, cb 80, Coatopa. 
Nash, James Toney, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 80, Livingston. 
Perkins, Joseph Bolivar, mc univ Yanderbilt 88, cb 93, Belmont. 

Shamberger, , Rosser. 

Total, 8. 

Moved into the county — Joseph Bolivar Perkins, from Mississippi 
to Belmont ; Shamberger from Mississippi to Rosser. 

Moved out of the county — Joseph L. Granberry, from Intercourse 
to Choctaw county. 

Examinations— Joseph B. Perkins, mc univ Yanderbilt 88. Certifi- 
cate awarded. 

Death— Robert Henry Arrington, mc univ Louisiana 50, Living- 
ston, of chronic cystitis. 




President, Barckley W. Toole ; Vice-President, John W. Heacock ; 
Secretary, Harry R. Boswell ; Treasurer, Benjamin B. Simms ; Health 
Officer, William F. Thetford. Censors— John T. Harrison, Barckley 
W. Toole, George A. Hill, John Dixon, Harry R. Boswell. 


Boswell, Harry Rivers, mc univ Louisville 74, cb 86, Talladega. 

Brooks, Alpheus Olin, mc Atlanta Southern 87, cb Clay 87, Lincoln. 

Caldwell, William Drayton, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Lauderdale 89, 

Castleberry, William Trice, mc Georgia 72, cb 86, Lincoln. 

Dixon, John, mc Jefferson 56, cb 86, Fayetteville. 

Donaldson, John Thaddeus, mc South Carolina 67, cb 86, Eastaboga. 

Gorman, Claiborn Harrison, mc Georgia 66, cb 86, Alpine. 

Hamilton, William Thomas, mc Alabama 80, cb Coosa 80, Ironaton. 

Harrison, John Tinsley, mc Atlanta 81, cb 86, Munford. 

Heacock, John William, mc univ Louisiana 66, cb 86, Alpine. 

Heacock, Joseph Davis, mc univ Tulane 92, cb 02, Alpine. 

Hill, George Armstrong, mc Jefferson 70, cb 86, Sylacauga. 

McCants, Jason Samuel, mc Atlanta 66, cb 86, Talladega. 

Morton, Hartwell Fisk, mc , cb Fayette 84, Childersburg. 

Rhodes, Edward Davis, mc Georgia 60, cb 86, Alpine. 

Sims, Albert Gallatin, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 86, Renfroe. 

Simms, Benjamin Brit, mc Jefferson 85, cb Coosa 86, Talladega. 

Thetford, William Fletcher, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb Greene 76, Tal- 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, mc univ Nashville 61, cb F 8, Talladega. 

Wren, Edward Bailey, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Talladega. 
Total, 20. 

Honorary Members. 

Keller, David Cincinnatus, mc univ Pennsylvania 47, cb 86, Sylacauga. 
Mosley, Robert Alexander, mc South Carolina 88, cb 86, Talladega. 
Taylor, William, mc univ Louisville 52, cb 86, Talladega. 
Total, 8. 


Bailey, Robert Emmett, mc Atlanta 66, cb 86, Silver Run. 

Coker, Charles Francis, mc , cb Clay 87, Eureka. 

Conway, Magnus Eli, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Coosa 88, Sylacauga. 

Groce, Benton Walton, mc Georgia 42, cb 86, Munford. 


Humphreys, 8. 0., mo Jefferson 85, Jenifer. 

Keller, William Carleton, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 87, Sylacauga. 

Kelley, William Pace, mc Alabama 84, cb 86, Childersburg. 

Lee, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 86, Childersburg. 

Pearson, James Emmett, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Sylacauga. 

Powell, Thomas Jefferson, mc Maryland 66, cb 86, Childersburg. 

Sorrell, William Henry, mc , cb Tallapoosa 82, Childersburg. 

Stockdale, John Locke, mc South Carolina 54, cb 86, Talladega. 
Total, 12. 

Moved into the county— S. 0. Humphreys, mc Jefferson 85, to 

Moved out of the county — Thomas Newman, from Talladega to 
Nashville, Tenn. ; Lorenzo Ellis Ray, from Alpine to Edwardsville ; 
Frank Dudley DuBose, from Fayetteville to Shelby county. Reuben 
Calvin Stevens, from to Georgia. 

Examinations— Joseph Davis Heacock, mc univ Tulane 92, certifi- 
cate granted; Pruett, , mc Alabama 02, certificate granted; 

William Groce Harrison, mc univ Maryland, certificate granted ; Reu- 
ben Calvin Stevens, mc Atlanta Southern, certificate refused. 

Death— Paul Gist, M. D., mc Atlanta 66, cb 86, Talladega, died Jan. 
18th, 1898, aged 55. 



President, A. L. Harlan ; Vice-President, J. W. Hooper ; Secretary, 
J. W. McLendon ; Treasurer, G. C. Radford ; Health Officer, A. L. 
Harlan. Censors— G. W. Vines, A. J. Coley, J. A. Goggans, R. V. Sal- 
mon, A. L. Harlan. 


Carleton, William George, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Dudleyville. 
Coley, Andrew Jackson, mc Jefferson 80, cb 81, Alexander City. 
Davis, Clayton Crawford, mc Alabama 89, cb Chambers 89, Daviston. 
Freeman, Jeremiah Summerfield, non-graduate, cb 82, Alexander 

Goggans, James Adrian, mc univ New York 77, cb 82, Alexander City. 
Harlan, Aaron LaFayette, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Alexander City.; 
Harlan, John Jefferson, mc Alabama 72, cb 82, Hackneyville. 
Harper, John Wilson, mo Jefferson 84, cb 84, New Site. 
Hart, Eugene Walker, mc univ Baltimore 91, cb 91, Island Home. 
Johnson, John Young, mc Graffenburg 54, cb 82, Walnut Hill.| 
Lightfoot, Robert Wilson, mc South Carolina 62, cb 82, Alexander 



McClendon, Joseph Wiley, me Jefferson 88, cb 88, Dadeville. 
Nolen, Abner Jackson, mc univ Lousville 80, cb 82, New Site. 
Radford, George Clements, non-graduate, cb Clay 87, Bulger's Mill. 
Reagan, Onslow, non-graduate, cb 82, Alexander City. 
Salmon, Robinson Vaughn, mc Alabama 75, cb 82, Dadeville. 
Shepard, Orlando Tyler, mc Graff en burg 54, cb 82, Tehopeka. 
Smith, Watt Francis, mc Graffenberg 54, cb 82, Thaddeus. 
Vines, George Washington, mc univ Tulane 71, cb 82, Dadeville. 
Ward, Lucius Cincinnatus, non-graduate, cb 82, Daviston. 
Watkins, John Milton, mc univ Louisiana 70, cb 82, Camp Hill. 
Total, 21. 


Banks, Joseph W., mc Atlanta 90, Jackson Gap. 

Gray, Thomas Marshall, cb Randolph 82, Dadeville. 

Hamner, Harper Talliaferro, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb Chambers 90, 

Camp Hill. 
Ison, Hartford Lee, mc Georgia Southern 91, cb 91, Daviston. 
Jones, Robert O., Tehopeka. 

Pittman, Jasper J., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Thornton. 
Salmon, Robinson Herrman, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Dadeville. 
Shepard, Phillip Madison, mc Graff en burg 54, cb 82, Dadeville. 
Webb, Charles Starr, mc Atlanta 91. cb 91, Walnut Hill. 

Total, 9. 

Moved into the county — Robinson Herrman Salmon, mc Alabama 
93, to Dadeville. 

Examination— Robinson Herrman Salmon, mc Alabama 93, Dade- 
ville ; certificate granted. 



President, Eugene D. Bondurant ; Vice-President, Oliver H. Burton ; 
Secretary, William G. Somerville ; Treasurer, William G. Somerville ; 
Health Officer, John B. Read. Censors — Joseph L. Fant, James L. 
Williamson, Oliver H. Burton, Eugene D. Bondurant, William G. 


Allen, Alfred Sidney, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Cottondale. 
Bondurant, Eugene DuBose, mc univ Virginia 88, cb Hale 88, Tusca- 
Burton, Oliver Hearne, mc univ Tulane 87, cb 87, Tuscaloosa. 
Clifton, John Montgomery, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Cottondale. 


Elrod, William Washington, mc , cb 78, Sipsy Turnpike. 

Fant, Joseph Louis, mc South Carolina 76, cb Marengo 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Guin, Joel Benjamin, mc Cincinnati 88, cb Lamar 89, Humphrey. 

Hagler, Prewitt LaFayette, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Samantha. 

Hester, William, mc univ New York 67, cb 78. Tuscaloosa. 

Leatherwood, Timothy Marcus, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Cottondale. 

Little, John, mc univ Louisiana 69, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Lucius, Richard DeKalb, mc Alabama 71, cb 78, Hickman's. 

Marlowe, Nicholas Perkins, mc Jefferson 6&, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Monroe, Dana Elbra, mc univ Dartmouth 69, cb 89, Vance's. 

Neilson, Robert, mc Georgia 51, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Nichols, Andrew Barry Crook, mc univ Pennsylvania 69, cb 78, Tusca- 

Norris, Joseph, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Coaling, 

Pat ton, Madison Enox, mc univ Tulane 91, cb Greene 91, Foster's. 

Read, John Branham, mc univ Louisiana 46, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Searcy, James Thomas, mc univ New York 67, cb TO, Tuscaloosa, 

Somerville, William Glassell, mc phy and surg New York 89, cb 89, 

Trigg, Abram Warren, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Samantha. 

Trimm, James Lewis, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Northport. 

Williamson, James Lewis, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Tuscaloosa. 

Wright, Ruffin Ashe, mc univ Virginia 90, cb Sumter 91, Tuscaloosa. 
Total, 25. 


Beatty, Douglas Pearson, mc univ New York 87, cb 78, Hull. 
Caldwell, Washington Jackson, cb 84, Hull. 
Clements, Alsey, cb 78, Cottondale. 
Foster, Ezra, cb Blount 79, Brookwood. 
McCord, Charles Richard, cb 80, Marcumville. 
Olive, George Washington, mc Alabama 82, cb 88, New Lexington. 
Toomey, Mark Anthony, cb 78, Hagler. 
Total, 7. 

Moved out of the county — William Bonn ell Hall, mc univ Virginia 

91, cb 92, from Tuscaloosa to Sewanee, Tenn. 

Examination— For the practice of medicine ; Frank Oscar Auxford, 
mc Atlanta 93, Hull. Certificate refused. 

Deaths— Peter Bryce, M. D., mc univ New York 59, cb 78, Tuscaloosa, 
of chronic nephritis. Reuben M. Searcy, M. D., mc univ New York, 

92, cb 92, Tuscaloosa, of self-inflicted pistol shot wound of head. 




President, Joseph A. Goodwin ; Vice-President, Charles B. Jackson, 
Secretary, Andrew M. Stovall ; Treasurer, David H. Camak ; Health 
Officer, David H. Camak. Censors—Joseph A. Goodwin, William 0. 
Rosamond, Charles B. Jackson, William L. Gravlee, Andrew M 


Ballenger, Joseph William, mc univ Yanderbilt 84, cb Cullman 87, 

Carbon Hill. 
Camak, David Hubbard, (old law) 71, cb 84, Jasper. 
Cunningham, William M., mc univ Yanderbilt 84, cb 84, Corona. 
Davis, Daniel M., mc Georgia Southern 89, mc Bellevue 92, cb 89, 

Horse Creek. 
Deweese, Thomas Peters, mc univ Yanderbilt 85, cb 85, Gamble Mines. 
Edwards, Robert Smith, mc Atlanta 71, cb Jefferson 78, Carbon Hill. 
Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, mc Alabama 74, cb 81, Jasper. 
Gravlee, William Lewis, mc univ Yanderbilt 82, cb 82, Marietta. 
Griffin, Richard Parke, (old law) 72, cb 81, Coal Valley. 
Hendon, Albert Lucretius, (old law) 74, cb 81, Townley. 
Jackson, Charles Beaufort, mc Atlanta 85, cb Tallapoosa 85, Horse 

Manasco, John, (old law) 76, cb 81, Townley. 
Miller, Virgil Martin, mc univ Yanderbilt 80, ob 81, Townley. 
Rosamond, William Capers, (old law) 55, cb 81, Jasper. 
Shipp, Marcellus William, mc Alabama 85, cb Fayette 85, Carbon 

Stovall, Andrew Mc Adams, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 81, Jasper. 
Whitney, Ollis Hillman, mc univ Louisville 90, cb Fayette 90, El* 


Total, 17. 


Borden, B. F., mc univ Yanderbilt 90, cb 92, Hewitt. 

Dearth, James Kitridge, non-graduate, cb 88, Jasper. 

Masterson, William T., mc univ Louisville — , cb Franklin 91, Day's 

Phillips, Alfred B., mc univ Yanderbilt 85, cb 85, Horse Creek. 
Smothers, Blenner Hassett, mc Alabama 85, cb Lamar 85, Jasper. 
Stevenson, Hugh W., mc Atlanta — , Day's Gap. 
Woodson, Loudon Aubrey, mc univ Virginia 61, cb 91, Patton. 
Total, 7. 


Moved into the county — Robert Smith Edwards, from Trussville, 
Jefferson county, to Carbon Hill. 

Moved out of the county— Jonas Smothers, from Jasper to Moore's 
Bridge, Tuscaloosa county ; W. L. Rosamond, from Jasper to Arkadel- 
phia, Blount county ; S. D. Bevill, from Townley to Guin, Marion 
county ; W. C. Mullins, from Jasper to parts unknown. 

Examinations — W. L. Rosamond, s of m Kentucky 91 ; B. F.Borden, 
mc univ Vanderbilt 90; S. D. Bevill, mc univ Vanderbilt 92; W. O. 
Mullins, mc Bellfevue 89; J. L. Gallagher, mc Alabama 92. Certifi- 
cates granted. 



President, John W. Wood ; Vice-President, ; Secretary, Wil- 
liam E. Kimbrough; Treasurer, William E. Kimbrough; Health 
Officer, John Gordon. Censors— John W. Wood, John H. Cooper, 
John Gordon. 


Cooper, John Henry, mc Alabama 86, cb 87, Escatawpa. 

Gordon, John, mc Ohio 66, cb 87, Healing Springs. 

Kimbrough, William Edward, mc univ Louisville 83, cb 87, St. Ste- 

Peavy, John Francis, mc Alabama 88, cb 91, Fairford. 

Webb, Francis Asbury, mc Alabama 81, cb 91, Fairford. 

Wood, John Wesley, mc univ Virginia 60, cb 87, Healing Springs. 
Total, 6. 


Shoemaker, W. W., mc Alabama 92, cb — , Rescueville. 
Williams, William A., mc Alabama — , Mcintosh. 
Total, 2. 

Note. — No report having been received this year from Washington 
county medical society, the report of 1892 is here reproduced. Seo't. 



President, John P. Jones ; Vice-President, Ruffin Coleman ; Secre- 
tary, Rufus H. Kilpatrick ; Treasurer, Rufus H. Kilpatrick ; Health 
Officer, James C. Benson. Censors — Lucius E. Starr, Thomas G. Jen- 
kins, Thomas W. Jones, Rufus H. Kilpatrick, James C. Benson. 



Adams, David, mc Georgia 68, cb 81, Pine Apple. 

Adams, John Blankenship, mc Atlanta 84, cb 84, Pine Apple. 

Benson, James Cook, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Camden. 

Bonner, James Isaac, mc Alabama 78, cb 79, Rosebud. 

Coleman, Ruffin, mc univ Nashville 64, cb Limestone 78, Rockwest. 

Crum, Floyd Edward, mc univ Louisiana 73, cb 79, Arlington. 

Curtis, Alonzo Bittle, mc Alabama 79, cb 82, Lower Peach Tree. 

Curtis, Christopher Columbus, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Lower Peach 

Dale, William Bonner, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Allenton. 
Gaillard, Edmond, mc South Carolina 50, cb 79, Rockwest. 
Gaston, David Finis, mc univ Louisiana 82, cb 82, Boiling Spring. 
Gibson, Albert Madison, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Lower Peach Tree. 
Godbold, John Calhoun, mc Alabama 79, cb 79, Nellie. 
Haddox, William Thomas, mc univ Louisiana 58, cb 79, Pine Hill. 
Harris, John James, mc univ New York 88, cb Tuscaloosa 88,Furman. 
Jenkins, Thomas Griffin, mc univ Louisiana 48, cb 79, Camden. 
Jones, John Paul, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Camden. 
Jones, Joseph Harvey, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 80, Allenton. 
Jones, Thomas Warburton, mc phy and surg New York 90, cb 90, 

Kilpatrick, Rufus Hall, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Camden. 
Kimbrough, Franklin Flavius, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Kimbrough's. 
Lee, Thomas, mc South Carolina 57, cb 80, Furman. 
McDaniel, Edward Davies, mc South Carolina 57, cb 79, Camden. 
Palmer, Ransom Dabney, mc univ Louisiana 86, cb 86, Furman. 
Purifoy, John Howard, mc Jefferson 59, cb 81, Furman. 
Purnell, William Thomas, mc Alabama 76, cb 79, Prairie Bluff. 
Ramsey, David Wardlaw, mc univ Louisiana 70, cb 78, Pine Apple. 
Roach, Thomas Samuel, Rehoboth. 

Spurlin, George Green, mc univ Louisiana 92, cb 92, Rehoboth. 
Starr, Lucius Earnest, mc Alabama 61, cb 79, Camden. 
Watson, David Lipscomb, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Sedan. 
Watson, William Waldred, mc univ Virginia 87, cb 87, Furman. 
Total, 82. 


Cole, William, Snow Hill. 
Cook, Samuel Benjamin H., cb 85, Bethel. 
King, Edward D., Lower Peach Tree. 
Lee, John Francis, cb 83, Allenton. 
Williams, W. H., Sunny South. 
Total. 4. 


Moved into the county — John James Harris, Jr., from Tuscaloosa to 
Furman ; George Green Spurlin, to Rehoboth ; Ruffin Coleman, from 
Birmingham to Rockwest ; Edward D. King, from Florence to Lower 
Peach Tree ; Thomas Samuel Roach, from Texas to Rehoboth. 

Moved out of the county — John Quincy Dansby, from Rehoboth to 
Selma; Samuel S. King, from Catherine to McKinley, Marengo 

Examinations— George Green Spurlin, mc univ Louisiana 92. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Deaths— David McAdams Dansby, mc Georgia 32, cb 80, Rehoboth, 
died October '02 of senile debility, aged 81. Elbert Duggett Harris, 
mc South Carolina 63, cb 79, Pine Apple. Died March 1st, 91, of con- 
gestion of the brain, aged 61. 



President, Joseph C. Taylor ; Vice-President, W. J. Gravlee ; Secre- 
tary, Harvey C. Johnson ; Treasurer, Harvey C. Johnson ; Health Offi- 
cer, Joseph C. Taylor. Censors — Joseph C. Taylor, Harvey C. Johnson , 
W. J. Gravlee, William R. Bounds. 


Adkins, William Riley, mc 77, cb Tuscaloosa 77, Double Springs. 

Bounds, William Riley, mc Alabama 02, cb 9 J, Double Springs. 

Ford, David Benjamin, mc , cb vValker 85, Melville. 

Gravlee, W. J., mc , cb 01, Lynn. 

Johnson, Harvey Calaway, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Houston. 

Roden, Benjamin Wesley, mc , cb Marion 87, Haleysville. 

Taylor, Joseph Calhoun, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Haleysville. 
Total, 7. 


Bailey, James Watson, mc , cb 85, Houston. 

Carroll, David, mc , cb Blount 71, Double Springs. 

Hood, John Wesley, mc , cb 90, Addison. 

Total, 8. 

Examinations— William Riley Bounds, mc Alabama 92, Double 
Springs. Certificate granted. Thomas William Cassey, mc Atlanta 
Southern, 1891. Certificate refused. 



Revision of 1893. 


Cochran, Jerome, Mobile— Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Jackson, Robert Dandridge, Summerfield — Tuscaloosa session. . .1873 

Jackson, Walter Clark, Montgomery — Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Ketchum, George Augustus, Mobile— Tuscaloosa session 1873 

McKittrick, Adam Alexander, Evergreen —Tuscaloosa session. . .1873 

Michel, Richard Frazer, Montgomery — Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Webb, Robert Dickens, Birmingham— Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Total, 7. 


Abernethy, William Henry, Tinela— Montgomery session 1875 

Baldridge, Milton Columbus, Huntsville— Birmingham session. .1877 

Brockway, Dudley 8am uel, Livingston— Mobile session 1882 

Brown, Pugh H., Troy — Huntsville session 1880 

Cason, Davis Elmore, Ashville— Huntsville session 1880 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, Decatur— Selma session 1879 

DuBose, Wilds Scott, Columbiana— Montgomery session 1881 

Fletcher, Richard Mathew, Madison— Montgomery session 7881 

Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs — Mobile session 1882 

Furniss, John Perkins, Selma— Mobile session 1876 

Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, Mobile— Selma session 1879 

Gaston, John Brown, Montgomery — Montgomery session 1875 

Goggans, James Adrian, Alexander City — Birmingham session. .1883 

Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, Jasper— Mobile session 1882 

Hayes, Robert Hughes, Union Springs— Huntsville session 1880 

Hendrick, Gustavus, Brundidge— Montgomery session 1881 

Hogan, Samuel Mardis, Union Springs— Montgomery session 1875 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles, Letohatchie — Birmingham session 1877 

Jay, Andrew, Evergreen— Mobile session 1882 

Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham — Montgomery session. . .1875 

Jones, Capers Capehart, East Lake— Montgomery session 1881 

Kendrick, Joel Cloud, Greenville— Mobile session 1882 

Kendrick, William Toulmin, Montgomery— Montgomery session. 1881 
Luckie, James Buchner, Birmingham — Mobile session 1882 


McKinnon, John Alexander, Selma — Mobile session 1876 

Moody, Joseph, Fran con i a — Mobile session 1882 

Peterson, Francis Marion, Greensboro — Huntsville session 1880 

Prince, Francis Marion, Bessemer— Birmingham session 1877 

Pritchett, John Albert, Hayneville— Mobile session 1876 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, Birmingham — Montgomery session 1881 

Sanders, William Henry, Mobile— Euf aula session 1878 

Sears, John William, Birmingham — Birmingham session 1877 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery— Montgomery session 1875 

Sholl, Edward Henry, Birmingham — Huntsville session 1880 

Sledge, William Henry, Mobile— Mobile session 1882 

Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden— Selma session 1874 

Stovall, Andrew Mc Adams, Jasper— Mobile session 1882 

Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega— Montgomery session 1881 

Thigpen, Job, Greenville — Selma session 1879 

Thomas, James Grey, Mobile— Huntsville session 1880 

Wall, Conrad, Forest Home — Huntsville session 1880 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, Montgomery — Birmingham session. ..1883 
Total, 42. 


Baldwin, Benjamin James, Montgomery — Anniston session 1886 

Bragg, Shirley, Lowndesboro — Greenville session 1886 

Goodwin, Albert, Eufaula — Greenville session 1885 

Harlan, John Jefferson, Hackney ville — Montgomery session 1888 

Hill, Luther Leonidas, Montgomery — Montgomery session 1888 

Hugging, Jacob, Newberne— Selma session 1884 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler, Mobile — Greenville session 1885 

Kendrick, Joel Beder, Greenville — Greenville session 1885 

Lowry, Samuel Hickman, Huntsville — Greenville session 1885 

Nolen, Abner Jackson, New Site — Anniston session 1886 

Redden, Robert James, Sulligent — Tuscaloosa session 1887 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa — Selma session 1884 

Trent, Powhatan Green, Rock Mills- -Selma session 1884 

Whaley, Lewis, Birmingham — Anniston session 1886 

Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville — Montgomery session 1888 

Whelan, Charles, Birmingham— Greenville session 1885 

Wilkinson, James Anthony, Flomaton— Anniston session 1886 

Total, 17. 


Binford, Peter, Somerville— Birmingham session 1890 

Blake, Wyatt Heflin, Lineville —Montgomery session 1892 

Camp, Erasmus Taylor, Gadsden — Huntsville session 1891 

Coley, Andrew Jackson, Alexander»City— Huntsville session 1891 

Copeland, William Preston, Eufaula — Huntsville session 1891 

Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville-— Mobile session 1889 

Deweese, Thomas Peters, Gamble Mines— Birmingham session, . .1890 
Cowling, Oscar, Columbia— Birmingham session ,..•«•••*•. 1890 


Duggar, Reuben Henry, Gallion— Montgomery session 1802 

Goode, Rhett, Mobile— Mobile session 1889 

Hatchett, James Benton, Marion— Huntsville session 1801 

Heacock, John William, Alpine— Huntsville session 1891 

Jordan, James Reid, Montgomery — Montgomery session 1892 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston— Mobile session 1889 

Marechal, Edwin Lesley, Mobile— Mobile session 1889 

McWhorter, George Tighlman, Riverton — Huntsville sessipn — 1891 

Purdon, John Edward, Cullman — Birmingham session 1890 

Rand, Edgar, Leighton— Huntsville session 1891 

Robinson, Christopher Americus, Huntsville — B'gham session . ..1890 

Stewart, John Pope, Attalla— Huntsville session 1891 

Thomason, William Levi, Guntersville — Birmingham session 1890 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega— Mobile session 1889 

Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, Demopolis— Montgomery session 1892 

Wilkerson, Charles A., Marion— Birmingham session 1890 

Wilkinson, John Edward, Prattville— Montgomery session 1892 

Total, 25. 


Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Boyd, Andrew, Scottsboro, Jackson county* 
Cameron, Matthew Bunyan, Sumterville, Sumter county. 
Carson, Shelby Chad wick, Bessemer, Jefferson county. 
Cunningham, Russel McWhorter, Pratt City, Jefferson county. 
Desprez, Louis Willoughby, Russellville, Franklin county. 
Gay, Samuel Gilbert, Selma, Dallas county. 
Hefiin, Wyatt, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Union Springs, Bullock county. 
King, Goldsby, Selma, Dallas county. 
McCants, Robert Bell, Faunsdale, Marengo county. 
Moon, William Henry, Goodwater, Coosa county. 
Northen, Thomas, Ashland, Clay county. 
Parke, Thomas Duke, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Watkins, Isaac LaFayette, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
White, Thomas Noel, Spring Garden, Cherokee county. 
Total, 16. 

Grand Senior Life Counsellors 7—7 

Grand Senior Counsellors 42 

Senior Counsellors 17 

Junior Counsellors 25 

Counsellors Elect 16 

Active counsellors, total 100 



On this roll the names of the counsellors are given by congressional 
districts. It is intended to serve as a guide in the election of new 
counsellors, with a view to the distribution of them in approximate 
proportion to the number of members in the several districts. It is 
not considered to be good policy, and it is not considered to be fair 
and right, to give a few large towns greatly more than their pro rata 
share of counsellors. The calculations are based on the nearest 
whole numbers. 


Name$ of Counsellors. — W. H. Abernethy, Rhett Goode, V. P. 
Gaines, H. T. Inge, E. L. Marechal, R. B. McGants, W. H. Sanders, 
W. H. Sledge, J. G. Thomas, B. W. Whitfield. 

Choctaw, members 10 counsellors 

Clarke, " 12 " 

Marengo, " 16 « 2 














Monroe, u 16 " 1 

Washington, u 6 " 

Totals 91 10 

One counsellor to every nine members. 


Names of Counsellors.- -Glenn Andrews, B. J. Baldwin, Pugh H. 
Brown, J. B. Gaston, Gustavus Hendrick, L. L. Hill, Andrew Jay, J 
R. Jordan, J. B. Kendrick, J. C. Kendrick, W. T. Kendrick, S. D[ 
Seelye, L. £. Starr, Job Thigpen, Conrad Wall, I. L. Watkins, W. M. 
Wilkerson, J. A. Wilkinson. 

members 4 counsellors 

28 " 4 

9 " 1 

8 " 

18 " 

11 " 1 

87 " 9 

16 " 2 

82 " 1 

Totals 168 18 

One counsellor to every nine members. 





















Names of Counsellors.— W. P. Copeland, Oscar Dowling, Charles H. 
Franklin, Albert Goodwin, Robert H. Hayes, S. M. Hogan, H. M. 

Barbour, members 19 counsellors 2 

Bullock, " 19 " 4 

Coffee, " 8 " 

Dale, " 18 " 

Geneva, " 8 " 

Henry, " 15 " 1 

Lee, " 10 " 

Russell, " 11 " 

Totals 108 7 

One counsellor to every fifteen members. 


Names of Counsellors.— John M. Crook, W. S. DuBose, John P. 
Furniss, Samuel G. Gay, John W. Heacock, Goldsby King, John C. 
LeGrand, John A. McKinnon, W. F. Thetford, B. W. Toole. 

Calhoun, members 27 counsellors 2 

Chilton, M 9 " 

Cleburne, " 18 " 

Dallas, " 25 " 4 

Shelby, " 16 u 1 

Talladega, " 20 " 8 

Totals 116 10 

One counsellor to every eleven members. 


Names of Counsellors. — W. H. Blake, Shirley Bragg, A. J. Coley, 
James A. Goggans, J. J. Harlan, D. S. Hopping, W. H. Moon, A. J. 
Nolen, J. A. Pritchett, P. G. Trent, John E. Wilkinson. 

Autauga, members 10 counsellors 1 

Chambers, " 15 " 





Elmore, " 17 " 

Lowndes, u ....26 " 8 



















Randolph, u 20 " 1 

Tallapoosa, " 21 u 4 

Totals 168 11 

One counsellor to every fourteen members. 



Names of Counsellors, — S. D. Brockway, M. B. Cameron, T. P. 
Deweese, J. A. Goodwin, Joseph Moody, R. J. Redden, J. T. Searcy, 
A. M. Stovall. 

Fayette, members 9 counsellors 





















Pickens, " 16 " 1 

Sumter, •• 15 " 2 

Tuscaloosa, " 25 u 1 

Walker, " 17 " 8 

Totals 114 8 

One counsellor to every fourteen members. 


Names of Counsellors. — D. E. Cason, E. T. Camp, L. W. Desprez, J. 
E. Purdon, J. P. 8tewart, W. L. Thomason, T. N. White. 

Cherokee/ members 11 counsellors 1 

Cullman, " 9 " 1 

DeKalb, •' 14 * 

Etowah, " 11 " 2 

Franklin, " 16 " 1 

Marshall, " 8 " 1 

St. Clair, " 12 " 1 

Winston, " 7 " 

Totals 88 7 

One counsellor to every thirteen members. 


Names of Counsellors. — M. C. Baldridge, Peter Binford, Andrew 
Boyd, B. F. Cross, R. M. Fletcher, 8. H. Lowry, G. T. McWhorter, 
Edgar Rand, C. A. Robinson, W. C. Wheeler. 

Colbert, members 9 counsellors 1 

Jackson, " 12 " 1 

Lauderdale, " 24 " 

Lawrence, u 16 " 1 

Limestone, " 7 " 

Madison, " 20 " 5 

Morgan, " 18 " 2 

Totals 101 10 

One counsellor to every ten members. 



Names of Counsellors.— 8. C. Carson, R. M. Cunningham, R. H. 
Duggar, J. B. Hatchett, Wyatt Heflin, Jacob Huggins, W. H. John- 
ston, C. C. Jones, J. B. Luckie, T. D. Parke, F. M. Peterson, F. M. 
Prince, T. L. Robertson, J. W. Sears, E. H. Sholl, Charles Whelan, 
Lewis Whaley, C. A. Wilkerson. 

Bibb, members 10 counsellors 

Blount, " "7 17 " 

Hale, " 12 " 8 

Jefferson, " 86 u 18 

Perry, " 16 u 2 

Totals 140 18 

One counsellor to every eight members. 



The whole number of members in the state is 1,058, and the whole 
number of counsellors is 100. This gives one counsellor to every 
10.58 members. For convenience, we say one counsellor for every 
ten members, about. 

The first district, with 91 members, and 10 counsellors, has one 
counsellor more than it is entitled to. 

The second district, with 153 members, and 18 counsellors, has 
three counsellors more than it is entitled to. 

The third district, with 103 members, and 7 counsellors, has three 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The fourth district, with 115 members, and 10 counsellors, has one 
counsellor less than it is entitled to. 

The fifth district, with 158 members, and 11 counsellors, has four 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The sixth district, with 114 members, and 8 counsellors, has three 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The seventh district, with 88 members, and 7 counsellors, has two 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The eighth district, with 101 members, and 10 counsellors, has just 
the number of counsellors it is entitled to. 

The ninth district, with 140 members, and 18 counsellors, has four 
counsellors more than itlisjentitled to. 



Revision of 1893. 

Bozeman, Nathan, M. D., New York 1889 

Garnett, A. F., M. D., Hot Springs, Ark 1876 

Hoffman, John Richardson, M. D., Athens, Ala 1890 

McDaniel, Edward Davies, M. D., Camden, Ala 1889 

Mitchell, William Augustus, M. D., Eufaula, Ala 1891 

Moses, Gratz A., M. D., St. Louis, Missouri 1874 

Osborn, Thomas Childress, M. D., Cleburne, Texas 1886 

Phillips, N. D., M. D., Gainesville, Florida 1876 

Richardson, Nicholas Davis, M. D., Nashville, Tenn 1882 

Rorex, James Polk, M. D., Scottsboro, Ala 1891 

Summers, Thomas O., M. D., Waukesha, Wis 1876 


Revision of 1893. 

Thaddeus Lindlay Robertson, M. D Birmingham. 


Senior — Barokley Wallace Toole, M. D Talladega. 

Junior — John Alexander MoKinnon, M. D Selma. 


James Reid Jordan, M. D Montgomery. 

Term expires 1898. 


Walter Clark Jackson, M. D Montgomery. 

Term expires 1898. 



Cochran, Jerome (Senior Censor), Mobile 1898-1898 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa 1898-1898 

Sanders, William Henry, Mobile 1892-1897 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery 1892-1897 

Baldwin, Benjamin James, Montgomery 1891-1896 


Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs 1891-1806 

Ketchum, George Augustas, Mobile 1890-1895 

Whelan, Charles, Birmingham 1890-1896 

Sholl. Edward Henry, Birmingham 1889-1894 

DuBose, Wilds Scott, Columbiana 1889-1894 

Wyatt Heflin Blakb, M. D Lineville. 

William Wade Harper, M. D Selma. 

Wooten Moork Wilkbrson, M. D Montgomery. 

Reuben Henry Duggar, M. D Gallion. 


Jerome Cochran, M. D Mobile. 

(Official residence, Montgomery.) 
Term expires 1894. 

Time of meeting, third Tuesday in April, 1894. 


Session of 1894. 

Robert Sommervillb Hill, M. D., Montgomery — 

" Recent Progress in Surgery." 

John Thomas Chapman, M. D., Bessemer— 

" Recent Progress in Brain Surgery." 

Jacob Huggins, M. D., Newborn — 

" The Eruptive Fevers in Alabama." 

Henry Mitchell Hunter, M. D., Union Springs— 

M Therapeutic Uses of the Gold Tar Derivatives." 

Edwin Lesley Mareohal, M. D., Mobile — 

" The Medico-Legal Aspect of Criminal Abortion in 



Henry Altamont Moody, M. D., Bailey Springs — 

" The Extent of the Diseases Affecting the Kidneys 
of People in Alabama/' 

William Glassel Somervillb, M. D., Tuscaloosa — 

" Recent Progress in Bacteriology." 

Wyatt Hkflin, M. D., Birmingham— 

" Recent Progress in Gynaecology." 

Samdbl Lkonidas Lkdbetteb, M. D., Birmingham — 

" Myopia and the School Room." 



Selma— Albert Gallatin Mabry 1868 

Mobile— Albert Gallatin Mabry 1860 

Montgomery— Richard Fraser Michel 1870 

Mobile— Francis Armstrong Ross 1871 

Huntsville— Thomas Childress Osborn 1872 

Tuscaloosa- George Ernest Kumpe 1878 

Selma— George Augustus Ketchum 1874 

Montgomery— Job Sobieski Weatherly 1875 

Mobile — John Jefferson Dement 1876 

Birmingham —Edward Davies McDaniel 1877 

Eufaula— Peter Bryce 1878 

Selma— Robert Dickens Webb 1870 

Huntsville— Edmund Pendleton Gaines 1880 

Montgomery— William Henry Anderson 1881 

Mobile— John Brown Gaston 1882 

Birmingham— Clifford Daniel Parke 1883 

Selma— Mortimer Harvey Jordan 1884 

Greenville— Benjamin Hogan Riggs 1885 

Anniston— Francis Marion Peterson 1886 

Tuscaloosa — Samuel Dibble Seelye 1887 

Montgomery— Edward Henry Sholl 1888 

Mobile— Milton Columbus Baldridge 1889 

Birmingham— Charles Higgs Franklin 1800 

Huntsville— William Henry Sanders 1891 

Montgomery— Benjamin James Baldwin 1892 

Selma— James Thomas Searcy , , 1893 



Gaston, John Brown— -Mobile session 1869 

Ketchum, George Augustus— Montgomery session 1870 

Anderson, William Henry — Mobile session 1871 

Weatherly, Job Sobieski — Montgomery session 1872 

Jordan, Mortimer Harvey— Tuscaloosa session 1878 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble — Selma session 1874 

Ketchum, George Augustus — Montgomery session 1875 

Michel, Richard Fraser— Mobile session 1876 

Fournier, Edmund Henry — Birmingham session 1877 

Riggs, Benjamin Hogan — Eufaula session 1878 

Mitchell, William Augustus — Selma session 1879 

Baker, Paul DeLacy— Huntsville session 1880 

Baldridge, Milton Columbus — Montgomery session 1881 

Bryce, Peter— Mobile session 1882 

Sholl, Edward Henry— Birmingham session 1888 

Sanders, William Henry — Selma session 1884 

Searcy, James Thomas— Greenville session 1885 

No oration delivered— Anniston session 1886 

Huger, Richard Proctor— Tuscaloosa session 1887 

Baldwin, Benjamin James — Montgomery session 1888 

Coleman, Ruffin— Mobile session 1889 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler— Birmingham session 1890 

Riggs, Edward Powell— Huntsville session 1891 

Wyman, Benjamin Leon — Montgomery session 1892 

Andrews, Glenn— Selma session 1898 



Blount County — Samuel Hardeman Estell, M. D., cb Sumter 76, 
Blount Springs ; John Cooper Lee, M. D., mc Augusta 58, cb 78, 
Blount Springs, died July 24, 1892, of paralysis, age 62. 

Bullock County — James Henry Reynolds, M. D., mc Nashville 54, 
cb 80, Mt. Hilliard, died Feb. 23rd. 1803, of Bright's Disease. 

Choctaw County— Robert Bryan Carr. M. D., mc univ Louisville 82, 
cb Sumter 82, Pushmataha. 

Colbbbt County — James Marshall Houston, M. D., mc Jefferson 51, 
cb 81, Dickson. 

Dallas County — Lemuel Lovatt Alston, M. D., mc South Carolina 57, 
cb 7S Orrville, of Pneumonia; Francis Octavius Lock wood, 
M. D., mc North Carolina 44, cb 78, Carlowville. from Cancer of 
the Lip ; Frank Tipton, M. D., mc univ Louisiana 70, cb 78, 
from Narcosis. 

Grbbn^ County— Henry Young Webb, M. D., mc Jefferson 46, cb 79, 

Lauderdale County— James William Stewart, M. D., mc univ Louis- 
iana 58, cb 87, Florence. 

Macon County — John Hosea Gautier, M. D., mc univ Louisville 88, 
cb 88, Tuskegee, died July 14th, 1892. 

Mobilb County — Thomas Henry Cox, M. D., mc univ New York 4*, 
cb 78, Mobile, of septicaemia; Daniel Edgarly Smith, M. D., mc 
Alabama 61, cb 78, Mobile, of phlegmonous erysipelas. 

Montgomery County — Henry Lawrence Whipple, M. D., mc univ 
New York 44, cb 78, Hope Hull, died January 13th, 1893, of 
cancer, aged 74 ; Charles Kane Duncan, M. D., mc univ New 
York 58, cb 85, Montgomery ; George Robert Pat ton, M. D., mc 
univ Vanderbilt 69, cb 79, Montgomery. 

Perry County — William Washington Wilkerson,M. D., mc Jefferson 
55, cb 78, Marion, of chronic Bright's Disease — on March 7th, 
1893, aged 59. 

Randolph County— William Elbert White, M. D., mc univ Transyl- 
vania 40, cb 79, Roanoke, of cystitis, aged 73. 

Shelby County — James Andrew Simmons, M. D., Harpersville ; 
William Robert Singleton, M. D., cb Tuscaloosa (old law), 


Sumteb County — Robert Henry Arrington, M. D., mc univ Louisiana 
50, cb 77, Livingston, of chronic cystitis. 

Talladega County— Paul Gist, M. D., mc Atlanta 06, cb 86, Talladega, 
died January 13th, 1803, aged 55 ; Joseph Henry Johnson, mc 
Jefferson 56, cb 86, Talladega. 

Tuscaloosa County — Peter Bryce, M. D., mc univ New York 59, cb78, 
Tuscaloosa, of chronic nephritis ; Reuben M. Searcy, M. D., mc 
univ New York 92, cb 92, Tuscaloosa, of self inflicted pistol-shot 
wound of the head. 

Wilcox County — David McAdams Dansby, M. D., mc Georgia 82, 
cb 80, Rehoboth, died October, 1892, of senile debility, aged 81 ; 
Elbert Duggett Harris, M, D., mc South Carolina 53, cb 79, 
Pine Apple, died March 1st, 1891, of congestion of the brain, 
aged 61. 







Member of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

Gentlemen, of the Medical Association of Alabama : 

It is with a sense of peculiar pride and pleasure that I 
stand before you this evening. To be the spokesman of 
any assembly of men brought together for the purpose of 
discussing great moral issues or investigating important 
scientific questions, or for devising schemes or plans of any 
kind by whioh the general welfare of mankind is advanced, 
is, indeed, a credit, and the broader the field of observation, 
and the grander the scope for usefulness of such an organi- 
zation, the greater the honor to be its representative ; and 
hence, it is peculiarly gratifying to me to feel that I am 
called upon to address you in behalf of the Alabama State 
Medical Association, an organization whose every act tends 
toward the elevation and advancement of the people of the 
State, and whose deeds are characterized by an unselfish 
devotion to all that guarantees protection and security to 
their fellow men. 

And again, the pleasure of the occasion is heightened by 
the fact that this representation is to be made to a Selma 
audience, Selma, a place dear to me as the home of my child- 
hood, for it was along these broad avenues, grand in their 
shaded loveliness, that youth's sunny hours were whiled away 
in whilom jest ; and, too, it was here, under the skilful care 
of your own Callaway, that my mind received its first train- 
ing, and well do I remember how many times and oft, in the 
little unpainted school house in yonder grove, I used to go 
to class with more mathematics on my cuff than I had in 


my head, and more Latin in my pocket than I carried in my 
brain. And again, it was here, while suffering from the 
necessary ills of childhood, that the lamented Kent, by his 
assuring words, kindly attentions, gentle graces and super- 
ior skill, first impressed me with the nobility and grandeur 
of the medical profession, and implanted in a young heart 
the seeds of desire to follow a vocation which numbered in 
its ranks men of such purity of character, lofty intelligence 
and unselfish devotion to duty — traits so perfectly portrayed 
not only by himself, but also by his then companions, Drs. 
R EL Clark, Park and Biggs, all of whom have since reaped 
a well merited reward in some sweet haven of peace — and 
now as far as mine eye ken, a face is seen beaming with a 
smile of recognition which fills me with a rapture more 
eloquent than expression, and causes the memory of the 
days spent here to be nurtured like a preoious thing, ever 
to be cherished and never to be forgotten. 

The mandate of the State Medical Association compels 
the theme of this occasion to be of equal interest alike 
to the profession and laity, and in my search for such a 
subject, one has suggested itself whioh should be of the 
greatest importance to both doctors and clients, viz.: 


Seemingly it is a work of supererogation to address a 
Selma audience upon a subject so trite, for a stranger here 
at once is attracted by the numberless flowing wells on 
almost every square. 

However, it is said that the inhabitants of this city boast 
more of the purity and bountifulness of the water supply, 
and drink less of it, than any other people on the inhabited 
globe ; and since water is so essential to man's welfare, the 
idea has suggested itself that if a closer relationship can be 
effected between this elixir of life and the good people of 
this place, that then indeed this effort will not have been 
pronounced in vain. 

Again, it is a well established belief that physicians 


unhesitatingly refuse to take their own remedies, and since 
they prescribe more water than any other known agent, it 
may not be out of place to invite their attention to the 
salubriousness of this refreshing draught and suggest a 
trial of its potency in their own peculiar cases. 

Through rifted clouds a sunbeam broke, and, falling along 
a pathway made resplendent by its irridescense, implanted 
itself upon the ocean's surface, warming it into aqueous 
vapor, whioh, in turn, loosed from it restless moorings, 
rises up in rapid flight higher and higher, and yet higher, 
until cooled by its own expansion, it falls again in pelucid 
showers, purifying the atmosphere we breathe and refresh- 
ing all things of God's creation. Or, if perchance, caught 
upon the wings of some idle breeze, it is wafted onward 
towards the antipodes till some chilling blast suddenly con- 
geals it into icy crystals or snowy prisms, more beautiful 
than artists can depict, and these descending aimlessly in 
some mountain gorge, fall one upon another, building them- 
selves upward and upward, finally congealing into an icy 
mass, broader than the greatest hills and taller than the 
loftiest mountain peaks. A beautiful picture this, kissed 
into being by a sunbeam, from the ocean's bosom, and reared 
by uncontrollable natural laws, the glacier stands in its 
matchless grandeur and chaotic splendor a very masterpiece 
of nature's genius. As heat was so potent in the creation 
of this glacial structure, so it is an equally important factor 
in its destruction, for the sun's rays concentrated upon its 
base, soon melts it into water, whioh, sinking into subter- 
ranean chasms, follows along devious and labyrinthian ways 
to again find access to the earth's surface in some distant 
spring or rivulet. Or, perhaps, when first freed from its 
icy bed, it rushes in great volume with torrential fury 
down the mountain side, widening as it goes into a mighty 
river, along whose verdant banks nature blossoms in all its 
loveliness, the song birds make merry, the beasts of the 
field come and slake their thirst, and man, not forgetful of 
his needs, plants his habitations. 

The stream goes cm broadening into a bay, and at last 


expands into the limitless sea from whence it came, bearing 
upon its breast the commerce of nations, and uniting as a 
fetter distant worlds together. So much for the physical 
and poetical aspect of our subject. 

Physiologically considered, water is of more importance 
to all organized life than any other substance, excepting, 
perhaps, the atmosphere, and some scientists even do not 
make this exception. 

Fully seventy per cent, of the human economy is composed 
of this fluid. It is found in the enamel of the teeth, the 
bones, cartilage, and tendons, all owe their glistening, flex-' 
ibility and tenacious qualities to it; the blood its liquidity; 
the muscular and brain tissue are largely composed of it; 
besides, it serves as a food for animal life, and then acts as 
diluent, liquifying the pabulum, thus preparing it for 
ingestion, and then, serving as a vehicle, conveys the food 
to the different organs and tissues of digestion, and still 
continuing in its wonderful work, collects up all disorganized 
and excrementitious stuffs, conveying them to their proper 
channels for a final disposition. 

Again, water largely controls the regulation of the body 
temperature by a combined process of oxydation within 
the organs of the human system and a subsequent exhalation 
from its surface. 

Is it not surprising, then, that more care is not exercised 
in order to procure a pure and wholesome water for domes- 
tic use? 

A chemically pure water is composed of oxygen and 
hyrogen in fixed proportions. The remarkable solvent 
properties of this agent precludes the possibility of obtain- 
ing it in this state except in extremely small quantities, by 
distillation. Nor is this desirable, for such water is vapid 
and not agreeable to the taste. However, it is all important 
to know just what and how much of any extraneous matters 
may be found in a water, and it remain wholesome. 

Hence, in speaking of pure water, we mean considered 
from a sanitarian's standpoint. Water by test should be 
limpid, colorless, transparent, tasteless and odorless, retain- 



ing this latter property through varying transitions of heat, 
and containing but a minimum degree of fixed impurities. 
Since water dissolves every known gas and all solids except- 
ing the diamond and two or three of the so-called noble 
metals, you readily appreciate the difficulty experienced in 
obtaining it in a wholesome state, and you must also be 
impressed with the great necessity of securing it from an 
unquestionable source, since it is so readily contaminable. 
Analysis discovers manifold foreign ingredients in all ex- 
posed waters, consisting of gases, acids, minerals, animal 
and vegetable organic matters and living micro-organisms, 
some inocuous and others productive of specific diseases, 
the latter being by far the most dangerous. 

The Rivers Pollution Commission of England, in one of 
their excellent reports, adopts the following classification 
according to wholesomeness for sources of domestio water : 


Spring Water. 
Deep Well Water. 

Very Palatable. 



Surface Water, from T 
cultivated lands. 

i River Water, to which V Palatable, 
sewerage gains access. 
Shallow Well Water. J 

Water from a spring or deep well percolates through 
great thicknesses of rock, gravel or sand and collects be- 
neath an impervious formation, gaining access to the earth's 
surface again either through an artificial opening or natural 

The process of percolation frees the water from impuri- 
ties, and often it returns to the surface in an exceedingly 
pure state. The nature of the formations through which 
the water passes effect it greatly. When minerals or salines 


exist in any quantity the water becomes more or less 
charged with them and is consequently valueless for a 
general supply. If possible to be obtained, this is emphat- 
ically the best and purest source for potable water. 

Upland surface water obtained by impounding the rainfall 
from a given area of the earth's surface is often remarkably 
soft, pure and wholesome. Purity of water depends entirely 
upon the purity of the substances with which it comes in 
contact Hence, a collecting water-shed should always be 
protected from invasion by man or beast, and never inhab- 
ited or cultivated. This water contains more or less vege- 
table matter and swarms of so-called water bacteria, washed 
from the earth's surface. The nature of the soil effects it 
somewhat, a peaty marl producing bitter and unwholesome 
water. When the soil is cultivated, the water more perfectly 
takes up its ingredients and becomes questionable, especially 
when fertilizers have been used upon the lands, such water 
ought never to be used for domestic purposes. 

It is a common but erroneous belief that rain water col- 
lected in cisterns is the purest of all drinking waters. 
Bain water may be had in an exceedingly pure condition, 
but great care is necessary, both in its collection and stor- 
age. Bain in falling becomes impregnated with impurities 
of all kinds, gathered from the atmosphere and the collect- 
ing surfaces. By a refusal of the first part of a shower, 
after a drouth, this can be avoided, for after atmospheric 
purification, and cleansing of the roofs, the remaining fall, 
if properly guarded, is safe from impurities. Collecting 
roofs should always be made of slate. Metal yields too 
often to the solvent action of the water, thus introducing 
poisonous substances into the supply. 

Biver and shallow well water is by far the most danger- 
ous. Mountain streams, flowing through an uninhabited 
region, and having an inflow from natural springs and per- 
colations, together with uncontaminated surface drainings, 
are pure ; but commercial streams, or those flowing through 
an inhabited territory, are questionable. 

The organic purity of river water constantly varies 


according to the natural conditions along its course — the 
surface washings and the garbage and sewage which is 
thrown into it from the cities along its banks. Sewage 
contaminations are always dangerous, and totally unfit the 
water Jor potability. The theory of self purification of 
river water has been too often proven chimerical to longer 
be misleading. 

Subsidence, aeration, oxydation and nitrification do re- 
move suspended matters from such waters, and again, one 
class of bacteria may aid not only in removing these sus- 
pended particles, but also in destroying other organizms ; 
but there is no established proof that water when once 
infected by the germs of a communicable disease ever looses 
them by any of these processes. These pathogenic germs 
remain active through long periods of time and varied tem- 
perature changes, and are always a menace to human life. 
The Rivers Pollution Commission of England boldly asserts 
that there is not a river, tainted by sewage, long enough 
in the United Kingdom to become so purified by its flow as 
to render the water safe for domestic use. Boiling alone 
rids this water of suspicion. 

Shallow wells, so common in rural districts and small 
towns, are fertile sources of mischief. Their location near 
habitations makes them peculiarly liable to pollution from 
drains and sewers. The radius of drainage into these wells 
is frequently considerable, and by siping, or a subterranean 
fissure, sewage may be introduced into them from great 
distances. Their water presents all manner of impurities, 
and very often direct evidences of contamination from drains 
and sewers. People may drink this water with safety for a 
long while, but still at great risk, for should a typhoid or 
cholera patient come into the community, and the emana- 
tions from the sick room be carelessly thrown into the 
drains, the water siping through the porus soil would con- 
taminate the well, and those drinking there would drink to 
their destruction. 

The draught from the old oaken bucket that hangs in the 
well, instead of tinging the cheeks with a glow of health, 


more frequently causes the front door knob to be gracefully 
draped in sable garbs of mourning. These wells should by 
law be abolished from towns and cities, and wherever, from 
necessity, one must be used, it should be always sunk 
through an underlying impervious strata, and the sides of 
the well properly walled up to protect against siping. In 
some localities where the superficial strata consists of clean 
sand or gravel, the underground water is merely percolated 
rain water held in abeyance by the impervious underlying 
stratum. When such an area is situated above a point of 
possible contamination the supply is pure. The water is 
obtained by sinking wells, galleries, or tunnels into the sub- 
soil, allowing the water to rise in such openings, and it is 
then conveyed by conduits to the place for distribution. 
So great a city as Brooklyn, N. Y., is thus supplied. Wells 
of this character are often sunk near rivers, and a mistaken 
idea obtains that the water sipes into them from the stream, 
when in reality it is the underground current flowing toward 
the river. Care must be exercised to prevent improper 
drains into these tunnels. 

Thus, briefly, has been outlined the ordinary sources of 
drinking water. Each locality, according to its own peculiar 
situation and needs, is governed in its selection of one 
source or another. Difficulty in obtaining it, and expense, 
often renders spring and artesian waters impossible, and 
then upland surfaces afford the best supply. Uncertainty 
and possible contamination militate against rain water, but 
this is far preferable to either shallow wells or river water 
infected by sewage. 

The source of supply largely controls the manner of its 
storage. Many of the impurities existing in the water are 
removable by simple processes, but when tainted by sewage 
nothing except boiling renders the water potable. 

The supply from springs or artesian wells merely needs 
protection, and as little handling as possible. Carefully 
collected rain water in properly constructed cisterns or 
tanks, situated above or under ground, according to circum- 
stances, is ready for use. Underground cisterns should be 


located remote from drains or sewers, if possible lined with 
slate, and made secure against contamination from siping, 
and a free circulation of air should be provided. Water is 
better preserved in subterranean cisterns than in the cypress 
tanks above ground, on account of the influences of the 
summer's heat upon the latter, causing a putrefaction of 
retained matters. 

All cisterns require constant supervision and occasional 

An extract from one of Smart's articles along this line 
illustrates the dangers of cistern water when it is not prop- 
erly protected. He says of 558 cisterns examined in 
Memphis, Tenn., in 1879, 167 were undoubtedly leaky, 177 
apparently sound, the remainder on the border line, and 
that many of these contained water contaminated by sewer- 
age, which is easily understood when it is recalled that of 
4,744 cisterns and wells, 369 were built under the basements 
of houses and within ten feet of a drain, 3,039 from ten to 
fifty feet of such drains, and 1,336 over fifty feet from 
organic accumulations. No one can wonder at the appear- 
ance of an epidemic under such circumstances. 

The supply from rivers, streams, lakes and upland sur- 
faces is generally collected in reservoirs or stand-pipes, and 
then distributed through the city by means of conduits or 
pipes. As already shown, a majority of these waters hold 
in solution or suspension particles of clay, sand, vegetable 
and animal organic matters, gases, and inocuous or poison- 
ous micro-organisms. If no sewage or other contaminating 
influence has gained entrance to the water supply, the pro- 
cess of purification is both expeditious and simple. 

Water by mere subsidence loses much of the suspended 
impurities. The effect of snoh sedimentation is consider- 
able, and just so far beneficial. To illustrate, there are four 
sedimenting basins used by the city of St. Louis, Mo., each 
having a capacity of 18,000,000 gallons ; the settling process 
only goes on eighteen hours, thirty hours being required 
for perfect subsidence, yet there is an annual removal of 


nearly 200,000 cubic yards of sedimented deposits from 
these basins. Water contained in such basins is prone to 
become foul at any time from putrefaction of the retained 

Filtration through filter beds constructed of broken 
rpcks, screened gravel and sand, or of porous iron or 
coke, or similar materials, removes to a considerable degree 
suspended matters and many living micro-organisms. Water 
untainted by sewage, after passing through such filter beds, 
is clarified and pure. 

There are now in use artificial filters, built on a large 
scale, which, together with the addition of certain chemical 
agents, remove almost perfectly suspended particles. The 
power of sand filtration depends on the thickness of the 
filtering medium, and the time occupied in the process of 
filtration. These filters must be constantly cleaned, or 
soon they become foul and dangerous. It is not the province 
of this essay to discuss the different modes of constructing 
and operating these devices, but merely to point out the 
results obtained by their use. Experience shows that sus- 
pended matters and organic impurities are largely removed 
by proper filtration, and that the number of many varieties 
of bacilli is greatly reduced, some families, in fact, entirely 
disappearing ; but without exception, each experiment has 
proven that the pathogenic germs of specific diseases, such 
as typhoid fever or cholera, invariably pass through all 
filtering contrivances. 

The Bivers Pollution Commission of England is emphatic 
in its conclusions on this point. They say : 

First — " The existence of the specific poisons, capable of 
producing cholera and typhoid fever, is attested by evidence 
so abundant and strong as to be practicably irresistible. The 
poisons are contained in the emanations from persons 
suffering from these diseases." 

Second — "The admixture of even a small quantity of 
these emanations with a large volume of drinking water is 
sufficient for the propagation of those diseases among per- 
sons using such water," 


Third — " The most efficient artificial filtration leaves in 
water much invisible matter in suspension, and constitutes 
no efficient safeguard against the propagation of these epi- 
demics by polluted water. Boiling the water is the only 
sure disinfectant, and this can only be effected on the small 

or domestic scale." 


No one in touch with advanced scientific thought longer 
questions the generation and. transmission of disease by 
germs, and also that many of these organisms gain entrance 
into the human system through the medium of drinking 
water. Filtration as shown rids the water of many of 
these germs. Unquestionably the poison-producing malaria 
is perfectly removed in this way, and although the germ is 
perhaps often conveyed atmospherically, still, wherever a 
pure water supply has been introduced into a malarious 
district, there has been a great reduction, if not a complete 
suppression of the disease. Our own immediate section, 
once famous for yellow, and congestive chills, bears evidence. 
But germs of other maladies, such as cholera and typhoid 
fever, are not so happily gotten quit of. These organisms 
survive through varying temperatures, and for long periods 
of time; and hence, every precaution should be used to 
prevent their gaining access to the general water supply. 

By way of illustration, note the following array of 

In one of Smart's reports he states that in Brooklyn, N. 
T., where the water is untainted by sewerage, the average 
death rate from typhoid fever for the ten years preceding 
1885, was 15 to the 100,000. 

In the city of New York, where there is slight contamin- 
ation from this source, 26 to the 100,000. 

In London, England, where there is constant supervision 
over the water supply, the average is 28 to the 100,000, 
while in Boston, Cincinnati and Philadelphia, all of which 
cities have a supply of water from rivers polluted by sewage, 
the average death rate from this disease during the same 
period was 45 to the 100,000, 63 to the 100,000 and 66 to the 
100,000, respectively. 


To make the fact more pointed as to the source of this 
disease, New Orleans, recognized as the filthiest city in 
America, using rain water collected in cypress tanks above 
ground, and consequently uncontaminated by sewage, only 
showed an average death rate from typhoid fever of 25.6 to 
the 100,000. 

From a computation of these figures it will be seen that 
in the city of Philadelphia alone there were about 50,000 
cases of illness, with more than 5,000 deaths, from a slow 
and loathsome disease, during the period alluded to, which 
might have been largely prevented by a proper water sup- 

These facts bespeak their own argument 

The fearful epidemic of cholera which spread over the 
eastern hemisphere a year ago adds proof to the transmis- 
sion of this disease by water. Many eminent German 
authorities attribute the outbreak at Hamburg to the pol- 
luted water drawn from the river Elbe, the cholera germs 
having been introduced into the streams from cities along 
its banks many miles away. 

London, by the epidemics of 1854 and 1866, lost 16,000 
souls, solely due to the contaminated water. A single 
cholera patient arriving at Tolouse in 1884, and escaping 
the health authorities, started an epidemic of the Asiatic 
plague, which, in a few weeks, spread over Southern France, 
Italy and Spain, and destroyed about 25,000 people. It is 
proper to exercise the strictest sanitary precautions in every 
respect, but Alabama might expend all the money in its 
treasury in cleaning and disinfecting a city, and still if the 
germs from a cholera patient should gain access to the 
general water supply of that city, a scourge would be the 
inevitable result. 

Thus briefly I have outlined some of the dangers con- 
stantly arising from many water supplies. 

How can they be best combatted? 

Unhesitatingly I assert that all corporate towns and cities 
should own and operate or control their water systems. 
This interferes with greedy corporations, but such action 


would secure by far the greatest good to the people. The 
State should provide an expert sanitarian and scientist, 
whose duty it should be to discover and point out the best 
source for a water supply for each community, as well as 
take cognizance of other matters of sanitation. 

Each city ought to provide a similar officer. This indi- 
cates seeming expense, and hence suggests objection to the 
unthinking, but there is no wealth so dear as good health, 
no riches so precious as protection from disease. Of course, 
legislation alone can institute such measures, and it takes 
men to make such legislation. 
Seemingly, some representatives misinterpreted their duties 
when serving at the state capitol, for instead of surround- 
ing the people with the greatest safeguards against disease, 
they attempted apparently to invite it within our borders. 

There is actually a statute in Alabama requiring every 
pharmacist doing business in a place of more than 900 
inhabitants to pass a stated examination, while any nincom- 
poop who pleases can dispense drugs in a smaller locality. 
No reason is assigned for this discrimination, but a general 
impression prevails that the framers of this bill, in their 
wisdom, conceived death to be preferable to life in so small 
a village. Again, only last winter, your representatives in 
one branch of the legislature, actually created a doctor of a 
man, residing in a remote corner of the State, who, by his 
own acknowledgement, was incapacitated to stand the re- 
quired medical examination. 

The only assignable cause for this mad act was that the 
man was a good enough doctor to practice upon the people 
who were fools enough to inhabit such a precinct What a 
pity that these savants could not be herded together and be 
made to swallow the nauseous decoctions as prescribed by 
their doctor and compounded by some one of their ignorant 
village druggists. All this, by way of parenthesis, to im- 
press the importance of wise legislators in order to gain 
benefit from legislation, and, my confreres, it is not only 
our privilege, but our duty, to aid in securing such men to 
represent us. 


No man stands higher or exerts a greater influence in 
any community than a conscientious and learned physician. 

In dark days of trial they stand alone on a parity with 
the man of God, as a comfort and solace to their fellow 

A retrospective glance of a few short months ago, when 
a cholera epidemic overhung the world like a wintry pall, 
and death haunted men's souls like some horrible phantas- 
magoria, reveals physicians standing in the midst of desola- 
tion and defying the insidious messenger of death with a 
heroism so great, so grand, and so daring, as to challenge 
the admiration of the universe. 

All this is well enough ; but, my countrymen, you have a 
higher and a grander duty. Tou should, by your learning 
and efforts, teach the people of the State the dangers of 
such epidemic invasion, and wherein they lie, and point out 
proper means for security and protection,, and aid by your 
every effort in securing them. By so doing, the world will 
be bettered by your life, science will be advanced, your pro- 
fession will have another star added to its already rich 
galaxy, and you will have subserved unselfishly the best 
interest of your fellow man, thus following out the dictates 
of God, which, above all else, is as it should be — man's 
chiefest ambition and highest attainment 



By William Henry Sanders, M. D., Mobile, 

Censor and Grand Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of 

the State of Alabama. 

One of our best lexicons defines ethics to be "The science 
of human duty," or "The body of rules of duty drawn from 
this science." 

Sir Wm. Hamilton coincides with this definition and calls 
it "The science of the laws which govern our actions as 
moral agents." 

Both definitions declare that ethics is a science, and not 
a code of arbitrary rules, and both likewise declare it co- 
extensive with the relations, of every kind, existing between 
human beings. 

Like all sciences, it must, and does, depend upon immuta- 
ble and eternal truths to discover which, and thereupon to 
formulate a perfect code of morals, is the aim of ethical 

It is claimed and believed that the laws of ethics are as 
constant and universal as those of physics, and that viola- 
tions of the former are as certainly followed by evil conse- 
quences as of the latter. 

The philosophy of ethics, therefore, is a profound subject, 
and naturally has claimed the earnest study of some of the 
master intellects of ancient and modern times. 

Plato reasoned well on this subject, as on many others, 
and in those masterful dialectical compositions bequeathed 
us he pointed out many of the beautiful truths in morals 
that have survived for more than two thousand years, and 
remain as fresh and vigorous to-day as when first pro- 

Aristotle quickly followed and rivaled, if he did not excel 


him, and between these two pioneer philosophers the lights 
of virtue and morality were placed upon an eminence far 
higher than they had ever before occupied, and from which 
their effulgence beamed across the dark gulf of the middle 
ages, to be caught up and re-brightened by Hobbes, Butler, 
Fenelon, and others in the early dawn of modern civilization. 

In giving credit to these early thinkers and writers, an- 
cient and modern, I would not be understood as overlooking 
or forgetting that original and inspired fountain of truth 
and morals from which have gushed exhaustless streams of 
wisdom to purify and enrich every human code. 

"And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also 
to them likewise," is the golden rule therein stated that con- 
stitutes the germ and finished fabric of the whole science of 

No sixteen words ever put together compress so much of 
meaning and truth in them as do these. 

Indeed, they cover the entire field of human duty and fur- 
nish a simple and clear guide that, if rigidly followed, would 
conduct us unerringly through all the emergencies and 
responsibilities of life. Volumes might be written and not 
contain so much of the real substance of ethical truth as do 
these few simple words. 

Were every code of civil and criminal laws extant abol- 
ished and the letter and spirit of this golden rule observed, 
crime and wrong would be banished from the face of the 
earth and the millenium would reign supreme. 

It is the province of ethics simply to define what is right, 
and not to point out, except by antithesis, what is wrong. 
The doctrine of penalties and punishments is wholly foreign 
to its scope. 

As has been well said, "It deals with the physiology of 
morals and not the pathology." It insists that we do right 
because it is right, and not because there is a penalty 
attached to doing wrong. It even denies us credit for resist- 
ing temptation to do wrong, and demands that we shall, 
under all circumstances, prefer the right and feel no inclina- 


tion to the wrong, although such inclination may be success- 
fully resisted. 

Not only so, it requires that we pursue the right for its 
own sake, and not for any profit or advancement that may 
accrue therefrom. 

How pure and grand is this conception, and how it lifts us 
to the very mountain tops of ethical philosophy! 

A young man carried to D'Alembert the solution of a dif- 
ficult problem and said : "I have done this in order to have 
a seat in the Academy." 

D'Alembert congratulated him very coldly and replied : 
"Sir, with such dispositions you will never win one. Science 
must be loved for its own sake, and not for the advantage to 
be derived." 

What a regret one feels that the young man did not solve 
the problem for the sake of solving it, and thus uncon- 
sciously and unintentionally win a seat, perhaps, in the Acad- 

Further, the quality of expediency is radically incompati- 
ble with ethics. If ethics be founded upon truth — a propo- 
sition no one will deny — it necessarily follows that its prin- 
ciples are universally applicable and can never be violated 
with impunity. 

The speaker is aware that the doctrine that "what is ex- 
pedient is right" is held by some, but he prefers the trans- 
position of this dictum made by Herbert Spencer, namely, 
that "what is right is expedient" 

Experience has repeatedly taught that any good accom- 
plished by a policy of expediency is but apparent and short- 
lived, and that sooner or later the pure and eternal law of 
ethics that has been contravened will assert its supremacy 
and put its transgressors to discomfiture and shame. If, 
therefore, in constructing and enforcing a code of ethics we 
would have it correspond with the purest and highest teach- 
ings of philosophy the slightest tinge of expediency must be 
scrupulously eliminated. 

My function, however, is not to discuss the subject of gen- 
eral ethics, but to briefly present some points in connection 


with special ethics, or that code which prevails, or should 
prevail, among the members of the medical profession. 

Before engaging in this discussion, allow me to stop for a 
moment to inquire from what source should a code of medi- 
cal ethics emanate? 

Shall each member of the profession make his own code, 
or shall a code be agreed upon by some organized body of 
medical men? 

Manifestly the former plan would be impracticable and 
absurd ; the latter, therefore, must be, and is, the proper 
way. If so, then by what organized body or bodies of med- 
ical men should a code be constructed? 

Shall it be done by the doctors in each neighborhood, 
town, city, county or state, or shall it be by the doctors of 
all the states? 

If done by the doctors in each locality, great diversity of 
provisions would likely enter into the various codes, many 
of which might be in conflict with each other. 

Then, in the multiplicity of codes frequent violations 
would be apt to occur through ignorance. 

For these reasons, and others I can not now stop to men- 
tion, it is obvious that the great body of the profession is 
the proper source from which a code of ethics should ema- 

This is, as you all know, in accord with the existing con- 
dition of things, the code adopted by the American Medical 
Association being the one to which we all owe allegiance. 
This code appears to have been written in strict conformity 
with the highest principles of ethics. No one can read it 
carefully without feeling that for the time being he has 
dwelt in an atmosphere of pure truth, which has greatly re- 
invigorated his moral courage. 

A recent correspondent of The Journal of the American 
Medical Association says of it: "Its style is perspicuous 
without dogmatism, copious without redundancy, and ele- 
gant without pedantry. Its tenets have no flavor of magis- 
terial assumption, but are formulated in reason and justice, 
so plainly set forth that the "wayfaring man, tho' a fool, 
need not err therein." 


Agreeing with this estimate, the speaker is not one of 
those who insist that a revision of the code is imperatively 
demanded. He is willing to hear all propositions for 
changes that may be made, and to adopt them if found 
more enlightened and more in accord with justice and right 
than the old ones, but he cannot repress great doubts as 
to the possibility of this being the case. 

The advocates of revision contend that the code is not 
adapted to the present status and needs of the profession. 
Lack of adaptability may be due to either one of two 
causes — the profession may be too good for the code, or the 
code too good for the profession. 

Few will deny that the latter is the true situation. If so, 
the proper remedy lies in elevating the profession to the 
level of the code, and not in debasing the code to the level 
of the profession. 

The fact is, the code was written for a high-toned and ed- 
ucated profession, and when the profession reaches that 
standard everywhere all complaint of want of adaptability 
will instantly cease. 

To conceal or refuse to expose the gross and culpable ig- 
norance of a member of the profession is one of the pro- 
visions of the code hardest to carry out, sometimes putting 
conscience to the rack, but when ignorance becomes sup- 
planted everywhere by skill and intelligence, there will no 
longer be any occasion for embarrassment on this score. 

It is conspicuously apparent that education in the pro- 
fession is making steady advances, and judging the future 
by the past the time cannot be far distant when the title of 
"doctor of medicine" will invariably represent an adequate 
amount of professional skill and capacity. In the face of 
this progressive reformation we are compelled to lament the 
fact that the standard of ethics is not being correspondingly 
elevated. On the contrary, we fear it is being sadly 

Allured by the prospect of some immediate and temporary 
gain, selfish and short-sighted members of the profession 
do not hesitate, on occasions, to ruthlessly invade funda- 


mental and time-honored principles of ethics, utterly and 
shamelessly indifferent to the wreck they are making of 
those principles, as well as to the damage that thereby 
results to their professional brethren — damage that not in- 
frequently recoils upon themselves with especial force and 
retributive justice. 

The laws of ethics being fixed and eternal will sooner or 
later, assert their supremacy and expose the folly of the 
time-serving policy that attempted to transgress them. 

The only safety, then, lies in adhering tenaciously to a 
high standard, and so much the better if such standard be 
growing hoary with age and be the work of generations of 
the good and great 

A few words in regard to some of the special provisions 
of that old code, which it should be our pleasure to honor 
by observance, and I shall have finished. The duties it im- 
poses are classified as follows : 

1. Duties of physicians to their patients, and corre- 
spondingly the obligations of patients to their physicians. 

2. The duties of physicians to each other, and to the 
profession at large. 

3. The duties of the profession to the public and the 
obligations of the public to the profession. 

Under the first head, or that of the duties of physicians 
to their patients, I wish to call attention to one or two pro- 
visions, and quote from the code as follows : 

"Secrecy and delicacy, when required by peculiar circum- 
stances, should be strictly observed. * * * None of the 
privacies of personal and domestic life, no infirmity of dis- 
position or flaw of character observed during professional 
attendance should ever be divulged, except when impera- 
tively required." 

Although the mere statement of this provision is suffi- 
cient to carry conviction of its justice, yet I am persuaded 
that it is frequently violated, more, perhaps, from thought- 
lessness than other cause. 

Understanding the object of this address to be, to call 
attention to speoifio points in the oode, I have brought 


forward this one, believing that the mere mention of it will 
secure the more general observance of the rule quoted. 

I quote again from the code : 

"A physician should not be forward to make gloomy 
prognostications, because they savor of empiricism, by 
magnifying the importance of his services in the treatment 
or cure of the disease." 

Nothing is more reprehensible than the violation of this 

If reports are to be credited, there are physicians who 
are so continually defrauding the undertaker and grave- 
digger out of their rights by reaching their patients just in 
time — a feat which, according to their account, no other 
doctor could have performed — that a suspicion not alto- 
gether creditable to their candor will creep into the minds 
of acute observers and critical hearers. 

Occasions do arise on which doctors reach their patients 
very opportunely and render them very valuable services 
that are very urgently needed, but it should be regarded as 
a misfortune for any given doctor should these occasions be 
continually happening to him, or should he be the only 
doctor who could have met the emergency. 

We now pass to the other phase of this division of the 
subject, namely, the obligations of patients to their physi- 
cians. Doubtless you all will agree that to do justice to 
this part of the subject many hours might be devoted to its 
discussion, but I beg that you will not feel uneasy lest I 
exhaust your patience, for I shall barely do more than touch 
upon this part of the subject. 

The code lays down judicious rules that should guide 
persons in the selection of a physician, and then very prop- 
erly advises them to repose in the one so selected full and 
implicit confidence. 

Nothing is more disagreeable to a sensitive and capable 
physician, one who conscientiously feels that he understands 
the case in hand and is able to treat it in accordance with 
the most approved teachings of his science, than to harbor 


doubts as to whether or not he enjoys the confidence of his 

When these doubts amount to conviction the situation is 
unbearable, and the sooner the doctor withdraws from the 
case the better for him. 

There is one form of obligation due from the patient to 
the physician I fain would pass by unnoticed, for, to me, it 
is by far the most disagreeable of all the points of relation- 
ship existing between patient and doctor. I allude to the 
business feature. Would that it could be entirely elimin- 
ated from the problem, but in the present utilitarian age 
this seems wholly impracticable. 

The nature of this obligation is clearly indicated by the 
delicacy with which it is alluded to in the code. 

"Honorarium," "pecuniary acknowledgment," are the 
terms employed, thus divesting it, as far as possible, of the 
elements of a cold-blooded business transaction. 

No high-toned physician should ever name a larger hon- 
orarium than is just, and no appreciative patient should 
ever tender less. 

By far the most disagreeable and humiliating experience 
of a physician is to be compelled to contend with a patient 
over the pecuniary part of the transaction. 

A patient should convey to his doctor the honorarium 
due very much as I suppose a man does toward the preacher 
who has cured him of bachelorhood at the hymenial altar, 
slips it into his hands and says naught about ii Unfor- 
tunately, however, in this wicked world we cannot always 
depend upon people doing things in this agreeable way, 
therefore it becomes necessary, on occasions, for doctors to 
demand and enforce their rights. 

When so, they should have the courage to do it fearlessly 
and fully, for it is demoralizing to people to permit them to 
disregard their obligations. Were a single law promulgated 
that would do most toward reforming the world it would 
undoubtedly be one to compel people to respect their finan- 
cial obligations. Gould this be accomplished, it would cer- 
tainly and forever abolish a long catalogue of other crimes 



to which the disregard of financial obligations is the enter- 
ing wedge. 

One more point in this connection. The world is very 
much in the habit of undervaluing the services of physi- 

Let an indictment lie against a man that endangers, even 
remotely his life or liberty and his entire possesions are 
freely at the service of the attorney who secures for him a 
verdict of "not guilty." 

Let the same man be stretched upon a bed of disease and 
tied to life by a mere thread, and often he will begrudge 
the doctor who rescues him a fractional part of what in the 
former instance he would cheerfully give. There is no way 
of correcting this under-estimate of the services of physi- 
cians except by the physicians themselves. It goes without 
saying and is known of all men that the poor and the un- 
fortunate can command the services of doctors with the 
same freedom as the rich and fortunate. Let us hope that 
the profession will never cease to pay this debt to benevo- 
lence, and that in paying it they will be actuated by the 
highest and purest dictates of ethical philosophy, do bene- 
volence for the sake of benevolence. 

Under the second classification, or that of the duties of 
physicians to each other and to the profession at large, I 
shall briefly advert to one point, but that one I deem of 
vital importance. The code of ethics teaches that a close 
and confiding fraternity should exist among doctors. 

Let us make this a living truth, and not a mere formal 
profession. When rumors reflecting upon the professional 
or moral character of a brother physician reach us let us 
never forget to obey the Latin maxim, "Audi alteram 

Let us go further, and not only hear the other side, but 
seek for it. Were this made an invariable rule the damag- 
ing rumors would often be traced to a false assumption of 
facts or to a thorough misapprehension. The explanation 
or correction thus ascertained would not only prevent the 
growth of prejudices and enmities, but lead to close and 


confiding friendships and do honor to the man who sought 
and found "the other side." True to the teachings of 
ethical philosophy, our code prescribes no penalties or 
punishments ; indeed, these words do not occur in it from 
beginning to end. 

It may, and does, happen that the profession must some- 
times deal with violations of the letter and spirit of the 

When this becomes necessary the highest punishment 
that can be inflicted, and the one that should humiliate a 
proud and sensitive man the most, is to deny the erring 
brother the privilege of professional fellowship. 

Time leaves us but a few moments in which to discuss 
any point connected with the third and last head in our 
classification, or, the duties of the profession to the public, 
and the obligations of the public to the profession. In 
truth, the necessity for a discussion of this topic has been 
greatly abridged by the able and exhaustive manner in 
which the duties of the profession to the public were 
treated of in the monitor's address of last year. These 
duties are undoubtedly of the highest and most exacting 
kind, and consist, mainly, in preventing, by every means 
possible, the origin and spread of disease. 

The physician who would not instantly raise his hand, if, 
by so doing, he could banish disease from the earth, is un- 
worthy of the title he holds, untrue to the moral principles 
he professes, and unfit for the fellowship of his professional 

The enlightenment of the public upon all sanitary 
questions and the practical administration of hygienic laws 
lie at the very foundation of professional duty, and should 
claim the wisest and most faithful work of physicians. 

In Alabama the profession are earnestly endeavoring to 
discharge this trust, and it is to be hoped will not relax 
their efforts until the State shall have been placed in the 
foremost rank for salubrity and health. It remains to be 
seen whether the people and the State will support the 


profession in their effort to achieve this great work, for 
without such support success will be impossible. 

No reasonable person would likely deny to the members 
of the medical profession the possession of knowledge on 
questions of public health superior to that of the non-pro- 
fessional, admitting which the absurdity of withholding 
from the former the power of using that knowledge to the 
best interests of the public becomes self-evident 

As paradoxical as it may seem, the profession have reason 
for complaint on this point. The authorities seem re- 
luctant to confer upon the doctors the power of dealing 
with the problem of public health to which their special 
knowledge clearly entitles them. 

If they do not know how to deal with this problem the 
pertinent question arises : Who does? 

The challenge is broadly made for an instance to be 
pointed out in which they ever proved recreant to this trust 
when reposed. 

History, therefore, fortifies reason in establishing the 
wisdom of consigning the guardianship of the public health 
to the medical profession. 

Until this is done we feel justified in affirming that the 
public will not have discharged the obligation it owes to 
the profession. 





Member of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

Pausing for a moment in our rapid onward march, we 
look back across the ages and are profoundly impressed by 
the fact that these closing years of the nineteenth century 
are indeed "the cradle of a new epoch." 

If, a quarter of a century ago, a prophet had dipped into 
the future and foreseen the wonders which have since been 
accomplished in the material world, he would have been 
laughed to scorn as a wild dreamer, drunk with a disordered 

The realm of thought has transcended the conception of 
the ages past, and stands limitless to-day with grand 
achievements and mighty possibilities for the future. 

The midnight sentries of old earth are keeping vigil, ever 
and anon proclaiming a new world discovered, a strange 
celestial visitor in the solar system, a fifth satellite of Jupiter 
come within our ken, the queen of night noon to be brought 
by the aid of our powerful telescopes to within a score of 
miles. The patient Columbus of the heavens comes with 
his instantaneous photographs of far-off worlds, and with 
his treasures of observation and calculation, to make us 
"gaze and wonder much and praise" the glorious triumphs 
of the human intellect in these latter days. 

The problem of sBrial navigation, so long a vexed one to 
the scientists, is about to be solved by the skycycle, which, 
when perfected, will fulfill the dead laureate's . vision, in 
which he 

"Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails, 
Pilots of the purple twilight dropping down with costly bales." 


Through the power of mechanism, irrigation, and fertili- 
zation, agriculture has become a charmed science beyond 
the most sanguine fancies of our toiling forefathers. The 
great African desert which our sires would have thought 
folly to cultivate has, by these magic agencies, been largely 
reclaimed and made to "blossom as the rose." 

By the clicking of the Mergenthaler linotype, one man's 
speed is quickened to that of eight setters of type, according 
to the old process. 

In education, too, the world is striding forward, and in 
almost every department of learning, the modern child may 
know far more than the sage of antiquity. Alabama, no 
less progressive than the elder sister states, has done much, 
and will do more, for the harmonious development of the 
three-fold nature of her sons and daughters. In her various 
schools she provides ethics for the spiritual part, mental 
pabulum for the intellectual, and manual training for the 

Twenty-five years agone, the human mind, great though 
its achievements were even then, had not conceived of a 
scheme so chimerical as that of harnessing the lightning to 
so prosaic a work as the running of street cars. And since 
this has been accomplished so thoroughly and so speedily, 
may we not safely predict that, ere the dawn of the 
twentieth century, the Mann Boudoir and Pullman Vestibule 
cars, considered so luxurious at present, will be superceded 
by trains made perfect through some later invention of the 
wizzard Edison? 

This wonderful man and his brother electricians have 
already accomplished feats so astonishing as would have 
caused their ancestors to stand aloof at such connivance 
with the evil one and his powerful magic. How utterly in- 
credulous would they have been at the idea of sitting in 
New York city and carrying on, in ordinary tones, a conver- 
sation with friends in Chicago ; or of imprisoning the human 
voice and liberating it at will by means of the tiny indenta- 
tions on the phonograph's paraffine cylinder; or of the pro- 
digious changes destined to be wrought by the transporta- 


tion of mail and express matter through pneumatic tubes ; 
or of reading at the breakfast table an account of yester- 
day's revolution in France, or last night's earthquake among 
the isles of Greece. 

Not only have advances been made by the study and ma- 
nipulation of electricity on the lines already suggested, but 
the progress made with it in the practice of medicine has 
really been wonderful. With it we are enabled to even light 
up some of the hidden recesses of the human body. By a 
very ingenious little electrical instrument, we can now light 
up the human bladder and examine its contents. This is a 
step in progress which is marvelous, and when first made 
known, astonished the medical world. 

By means of the electro-magnet, foreign bodies, as par- 
ticles of iron and steel, can readily be removed from the 
eye. The apparatus is connected with one cell of an active 
battery, and the end placed as near as convenient to the 
foreign body to be removed. When the circuit is closed 
the current passes through the wire of the electro-magnet 
and renders the iron core magnetic. 

The blacksmith who gets a piece of iron or steel in his 
eye and goes to his physician and has it removed in this 
manner, needs no further evidence to convince him that 
progress has been made in the practice of medicine. 

The girl, who for years has had a beautiful face made 
less beautiful by an abnormal growth of hair on the face, is 
also convinced of this progress, when, by the use of elec- 
tricity, she has the unwelcome hair removed permanently, 
painlessly, and without leaving a scar. 

By the use of electricity we can also easily remove warts, 
moles, and small fibromata of the skin. Angiomata, papil- 
omata, pigmentary naevi, are also readily destroyed by 
means of electrolysis. 

For the past few years electricity has been extensively 
used in the treatment of many diseases of the nervous 
system. It has also been found a valuable agent in cutane- 
ous and venereal diseases. 

In cases of apoplexy, the electrical treatment is beneficial 


upon the paralysis of sensation and motion and the de- 
pressed circulation and nutrition of the paralyzed muscles. 
Where there is loss of function of the sensory nerves, due 
to inflammation, compression, or traumatism, a large pro- 
portion of the cases yield very readily to the influence of 
the electric current 

Gases of facial palsy, as a rule, yield promptly to elec- 
trical treatment 

In cases of neuralgia, much benefit is often derived and 
relief afforded from the application of electricity over the 
seat of the lesion ; and in cases of chronic rheumatism, the 
happiest results often follow the use of the galvanic current 

In exophthalmic goitre the excessive frequency of the 
pulse, the enlargement of the thyroid gland, and the prom- 
inence of the eyeballs are directly influenced by electrical 

When intestinal obstruction is due to atony, or paralysis 
of the intestinal walls, no other treatment is now considered 
equal to the current of electricity. 

In puerperal hemorrhage, where the bleeding comes on 
during or after labor, there is no agent that can be relied 
upon with so much confidence as electricity. 

For the destruction of foetal life in extra-uterine preg- 
nancy, nothing is now thought of except the application of 

While the progress in the use of electricity in medicine 
already mentioned is marvelous, yet probably its greatest 
usefulness has been achieved in the practice of gynaecology. 
As has been said, "many of the diseases of women, espe- 
cially metritis, endo- and peri-metritis, as well as inflamma- 
tion of the adnexa, appear theoretically to be suitable for 
electrical treatment, and have proven so in practice." 


Twenty-five years ago the guides in making diagnosis 
were few and simple. They were confined to the pulse, the 
tongue, the temperature, as inaccurately judged by the pulse 
and touch, and the expressions of the countenance* 


With the progress which has been made, no one of us 
present to-day would attempt to practice medicine if we 
could not secure an armament more elaborate and compre- 
hensive than was our father's of a quarter of a century ago. 

The physician of to-day must not only be able to exam- 
ine the tongue, feel the pulse, examine the lungs and heart 
by the ear, but he must have as a constant companion a self- 
registering clinical thermometer, and must be able to handle 
skillfully the stethoscope, the otoscope, the laryngoscope, 
the ophthalmoscope, the gastrosoope, the microscope, and 
many others that now compose the diagnostic armament, 
which were not dreamed of forty years ago. 

Truly during the last quarter of a century a most won- 
derful progress has been made in diagnosis. By the use of 
the clinical thermometer, we are enabled to keep a correct 
daily record of the temperature of any case under treatment. 
It enables us to discriminate between functional and organic 
affections. It is exceedingly valuable in the treatment of 
all fevers ; in the study of apoplexy, of palsies, and of hys- 
terical affections, and often enables us to tell when diseases 
are feigned. It is indispensable in determining whether a 
rapid pulse is due to fever or debility. 

The invention of the clinical thermometer has made such 
progress in the practice of medicine that to deprive the prac- 
ticing physician of it to-day would be to make him as a 
mariner at sea without bis compass. 

By the k aid of instruments invented within the last few 
years, we now literally look within the human body and see 
the wonderful mechanism therein contained. As already 
stated, by the use of an ingenious little electric lamp and 
instrument we are now enabled to look within the human 
bladder. By the use of the ophthalmoscope we can now 
see the living retina of the human eye and view the pictures 
daguerreotyped upon its sensitive surface. Of late years 
we have been enabled to inspect the vocal cords by the aid 
of the laryngoscope, and our knowledge of the diseases of 
the larynx has been revolutionized through its influence. 

There are many other new and valuable instruments now 


used in making diagnosis, but to give a detailed account of 
them would make this paper entirely too lengthy. 

These improved methods of diagnosis have enabled us to 
make corresponding improvements in the treatment of dis- 
eases. For one of the most important features in the man- 
agement of any case is a proper diagnosis. 


While the progress in the other departments of medicine 
has been such in recent years as to challenge the admiration 
of the reading world, yet probably in no other department 
has it been so great as in the work to prevent and control 
epidemics of disease. 

The recollection of the ruin of communities and cities in 
Alabama by the spread of yellow fever and cholera is still 
fresh in the memory of the people. r A few years since there 
was constant dread that our southern country would be 
scourged by an epidemic. Annually the yellow demon found 
its way through our southern ports. Yearly several of our 
southern cities were depopulated. The people fled for their 
lives. All commercial interests were crippled. The minds 
of the people throughout the southern country were filled 
with the direst apprehensions. 

But with the progress made in quarantine and disinfection, 
our people now feel comparatively safe. Now an educated 
sanitary official stands at every port of entry to prevent the 
spread of any germ of contagion among our people. Public 
boards of health are organized and in operation in every 
state, and should yellow fever, typhus fever, cholera, or 
smallpox find its way into the states, by an organized effort 
on the part of our boards of health, by the means of quar- 
antine and disinfection, we are soon enabled to prevent its 
spread and to stamp it out of existence. 

The progress made in this particular in recent years has 
not only been marvelous in the protection which it affords 
to the health and lives of the people, but has been worth its 
millions to the business interests of the United States. 


By the famous discovery of Jenner, smallpox has been 
robbed of its terror, and by vaccination all can feel com- 
paratively safe during an epidemic of this loathsome dis- 

Not only has great progress been made in preventing the 
spread of disease on the lines suggested, but the investiga- 
tions of bacteriologists of recent years has done much to 
enlighten the minds of the profession on the specific causes 
of many diseases, and by the proper use of valuable disin- 
fectants, which we now have, we are enabled to so destroy 
the germs in the excreta and sputum, and to fumigate and 
disinfect the rooms of patients who have had certain dis- 
eases, as to prevent their spread. 

We now know that typhoid fever is due to a specific germ, 
and that this disease is spread almost exclusively by the 
contamination of drinking water from the excreta of typhoid 
patients. In the former years, the excreta of typhoid pa- 
tients were emptied without any effort at disinfection, and 
the rule was, that when one patient had typhoid fever, nearly 
all those who used the drinking water from wells near by 
had the same disease. Now, as soon as we are called to see 
a typhoid patient, we at once commence the disinfection of 
all excreta, and thus prevent the spread of this long con- 
tinued fever. This is so important, that the physician who 
fails to have the excreta of his typhoid patient disinfected 
should be considered guilty of the very greatest negligence. 

By the use of disinfectants we are also able to prevent 
the spread of scarlet fever. As soon as a case of scarlet 
fever is seen, all persons except the nurse are excluded, and 
no article of any description is allowed to be removed from 
the sick room until it is thoroughly disinfected. As soon 
as the patient is removed from the sick room, the room with 
all its contents is thoroughly fumigated and disinfected be- 
fore it is allowed to be occupied. 

Such progress has been made on this line, and our sani- 
tary laws are being so rigidly enforced that the White 
House, occupied by the President of the United States, is 
treated as would be the humblest cottage in the land. A 


short time since, when the grand children of President Har- 
rison had scarlet fever, the board of health erected the 
warning sign and closed the doors of the White House to 
all visitors. After these children recovered, the board of 
health sent its officials and had the room occupied by the 
little ones thoroughly fumigated and disinfected. 

Such confidence is had in our ability to destroy germs of 
contagion, that President Cleveland felt perfectly safe in 
carrying Baby Ruth into the White House a few weeks 
after it had been thus fumigated. 

Ten years ago, Koch, the German bacteriologist, announced 
to the world the discovery of the bacillus tuberculosis. 
Not only this, but it is now well established that consump- 
tion is contagious, and that "its spread is largely due to the 
fact that the sputum of consumptive patients, which always 
contains bacilli, floats about in the air after being dried and 
pulverized and is inhaled by healthy people." It is also 
now well known that there is no danger of contagion from 
the sputum of consumptive patients as long as the sputum 
is kept moist. This has only recently been known by the 
medical profession, and it is now carrying on a campaign of 
education, and to a certain extent is making an effort to im- 
press upon all consumptives the importance of casting their 
infected expectoration into a receptacle containing a disin- 
fecting fluid. By this effort it is hoped to greatly decrease 
the number of cases of this fearful disease which yearly 
slays its thousands. The effort to prevent the spread of 
this disease dates back only a few years, and the mass of 
the profession is not yet thoroughly aroused to a sense of 
its duty in this important work. If, during the session of 
this Association, we can properly impress upon the pro- 
fession in Alabama the importance of making a united effort 
to stamp out of existence this fearful, and as yet incurable, 
disease, which is annually slaying one-seventh of all the 
people who die in the United States, we will then have done 
a work of inestimable value to the coming generations in 
this State. 

The masses of the people are ignorant of the fact that 


consumption is contagious. The father who now suffers his 
infected expectoration to become dry and pulverized and 
thus inhaled by his children, is ignorant of the fact that he 
is scattering bacterial annihilation among those whom he 
loves. He needs to be told of the knowledge which we 
have recently acquired. Whose duty is it to furnish him this 
information? Some may answer, the State of Alabama. 
Probably so. But the medical profession should not wait 
for the state to do this work, but should deem it a privilege 
— a work of love — to scatter an address in every nook and 
corner in Alabama, furnishing the people the necessary in- 
formation for the prevention of the spread of this fearful 

During the past twelve months cholera and typhus fever 
have both found their way to the city of New York. They 
came in such a manner as to threaten a scourge for this en- 
tire country. But our boards of health, with their recent 
knowledge and appliances, were equal to the emergency, and 
soon stamped the invading monsters out of existence. 

The successful manner in which these threatened panics 
were controlled was a triumph for medical skill and sanitary 
knowledge, and is a recent and living illustration of the great 
progress made in preventive medicine. 

The public has not failed to recognize the efforts the med- 
ical profession has made to prevent the spread of disease, 
and is yearly becoming more and more imbued with the 
truth that "prevention is better than cure." 

Not only is the use of disinfectants valuable in prevent- 
ing the spread of disease, but they occupy a most important 
place among other remedial agents in the treatment of dis- 
ease, and hold out to us the hope that in the near future 
we will be able to cure all diseases which are now listed 
among the incurable. 

Never in the history of the world has so much time and 
study been given in laboratories in learning the origin of 
disease, and the means by which these organisms may be 

From the success which has already crowned this study, 


it is reasonable to believe that the time is near when we 
will be able to isolate and distinguish the peculiar organism 
to which every disease owes its origin. 

While it is true that little progress has as yet been made 
in discovering remedies to destroy in the human system the 
discovered germs in typhoid fever, consumption and other 
diseases, and while we are yet forced to stand by a typhoid 
patient as a spectator and see the fever run its course, and 
confess that consumption is incurable; yet the discoveries 
recently made are on the right line, and as we become 
familiar with disease and the cause of disease, we will in 
time discover the antidote. 

Yes, we have sufficient reasons to lead us to believe that 
we are just now upon the threshold of the grandest discov- 
eries in the practice of medicine the world has ever known — 
that the time is not far distant when we will be able to cure 
all manner of disease. 

Grand as the progress has been during the past century, 
we can now confidently look forward to a more glorious 

Progress has been made in the treatment of so many dis- 
eases that I dare not undertake the time to enumerate them, 
and will allude only to diarrhoeal diseases, as the progress 
made in these cases is directly in line with the germ theory 
of disease which we have just been considering. 

The ancient fallacies of the pathology of diarrhoeal dis- 
eases have been exposed, and we now know that micro- 
organisms play an important part in these diseases. 

Dr. Emmett Holt in discussing the relation of bacteria to 
diarrhoeal diseases says : "Clinically we are brought face 
to face with a group of symptoms which admit of no other 
satisfactory explanation, in the light of our present knowl- 
edge, than that they are of toxic origin from the absorption 
from the intestines of ptomaines produced by bacteria. 
These symptoms are high temperature which autopsies 
show are not inflammatory ; profound nervous symptoms, 
such as great prostration, delirium, coma, or convulsions, 
without, in most of the cases, any demonstrable changes in 


the brain, and often subsiding when the intestinal contents 
have been discharged; and, finally, the great evolution of 
offensive intestinal gases seen in nearly all acute cases." 

So long as these diseases were considered to be due to 
dentition and atmospheric heat per se, it was considered use- 
less to make any effort at prophylaxis, and we now look 
back over the past with the sad reflection that thousands 
and thousands of children have died who might have been 
saved had the profession been in possession of our present 
knowledge as to the cause of these diseases. 

But since we have progressed so as to have a better un- 
derstanding as to their causes, we have adopted such pro- 
phylactic rules as have greatly decreased the number of 
cases, and we hope the day will soon come when diarrhoeal 
diseases will not be known as the greatest scourge of 

Not only has our recent knowledge of the causes of these 
diseases enabled us to decrease the number of cases by 
looking closely after the hygienic surroundings of children, 
and to the sanitary conditions of cities and communities, and 
by regulating the quantity and quality of food children take, 
but we have made corresponding progress in treatment 

Formerly these cases were treated almost exclusively with 
vegetable astringents containing tannin ; such as kino, cate- 
chu, etc. The profession is now agreed upon the fact that 
these drugs, instead of being beneficial, are positively inju- 
rious. The same can also be said of the mineral astrin- 
gents, with the exception of bismuth. 

No matter how much faith we may place in the value of 
any combination of drugs, if they disturb the stomach in 
these cases, they are exceedingly harmful, and this is suffi- 
cient reason why we have discarded the astringent plan of 

With our present knowledge of these troubles, the indi- 
cations for treatment, as Holt well says, are (1) "to evacuate 
the fermenting masses from the stomach and intestine ; (2) 
to combat the process of decomposition by drugs and proper 
food ; (3) to restore healthy action by intestinal hygiene ; (4) 
to treat symptoms and complications," 


With this plan of treatment we have been more successful 
in the treatment of these cases, and as we better understand 
their cause, we will better understand how to treat them, 
and we hope the time is near when the cemeteries in every 
city and community will not be so numerously dotted from 
square to square every year by the graves of little ones who 
have died from diarrhoeal diseases. 


The subject which has been assigned me is so compre- 
hensive — there has been such progress made in every de- 
partment of the practice of medicine — I find it impossible 
to cover the field with one brief paper, and have no doubt 
many will be disappointed, and feel that I have omitted the 
very things which I ought to have included in this report 

But before I close, I must refer to one other thing, for it 
would certainly be considered a very great oversight if, in 
preparing a paper on the "Progress of Medicine," no allu- 
sion should be made to the large number of new remedies 
and therapeutical agents which have been presented to the 
profession during the last five years. 

These new preparations have been so numerous, that to 
consider them alone would require a much more lengthy 
paper than would be admissible upon this occasion. Indeed, 
to even name them would require considerable time. 

Many of these new preparations have been tested suffi- 
ciently to prove that they are valuable. They have greatly 
aided in making this century an important period of time 
in the progress of medicine, and will take a prominent and 
permanent place among our therapeutical agents, while 
many others of the new remedies which have been pre- 
sented to the profession have been "weighed in the bal- 
ance and found wanting," and will occupy no place in the 
future history of medical progress. 

The work which the medical profession has done, and 
especially the work in the line of preventive medicine, 


during the last century, has shown it to be entirely unselfish. 
We feel confident that the unselfish labor expended by our 
profession in the interest of the country has, in a measure, 
been appreciated by the general public. But surely the 
works we personally do must be few and small in the aggre- 
gate of history, and the value of our services will not de- 
pend absolutely upon the estimate the world places upon 
them, but upon truth and justice; and he who is now giv- 
ing his labor and life in the interest of medical progress 
must be content to labor on with the assurance that he will 
be rewarded as he — 

"Who, whether praise of him must walk the earth 
Forever, and to noble deeds give birth, 
Or must go to the dust without his fame, 
And leave a dead, unprofitable name. 
Finds comfort in himself and his cause, 
And while the mortal mist is gathering, draws 
His breath in confidence of Heaven's applause." 



By Eugene DuBose Bondubant, M. D., Tuscaloosa. 
Member of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

It is a fact not generally recognized by the profession at 
large, nor by those who plan the curricula of our medical 
schools, that probably no other of the specialties into which 
the science of medicine has, through its rapid growth and 
development, become divided, is of such importance to the 
general practitioner, and so closely related to the general 
practice of medicine as that of psychiatry, or the science of 
the so-called mental diseases. It falls to the lot of every 
physician to deal at some time, and, alas, not infrequently, 
with this most distressing of all the manifestations of dis- 
ease; and a large share of responsibility rests upon the 
shoulders of the medical man who is called upon to treat 
the early stages of mental aberration, and to decide as to 
the necessity or advisability of depriving a patient of his 
liberty, removing him from the home and social circle, and 
subjecting him to the supposed disgrace of legal committal 
to a hospital for the insane. 

Notwithstanding this, I think I may safely say that no 
department of medicine receives at the hands of teachers 
and students such scant courtesy and attention; and the 
very general ignorance of this subject not only among the 
people at large, but among otherwise quite well educated 
and informed physicians, is a just cause for regret and sur- 
prise. Many of the crudest, most vague and most erroneous 
ideas regarding the nature and pathology of mental disease 
find general credence, and retard not a little the advance 
and diffusion of more rational and correct ideas concerning 


the nature of insanity, as well as render the course of an at- 
tack of mental disorder more painful and distressing for the 
individual patient than would otherwise be the case. 

A century or two ago the scientific study of insanity was 
unknown; the dependence of mind upon physical structure 
was but imperfectly recognized, and any possible relation 
between intellectual disturbance and bodily disease was not 
thought of. The insane were bewitched, or possessed of 
devils, which could be exorcised by charms or driven out by 
ill treatment It is only within the past hundred years 
that the insane have been brought under the care of medical 
men, and during the first half of this period but little ad- 
vance was made. Alienists, attracted by the ever changing 
and endless variety and complexity of the mental symptoms, 
expended their time and energies chiefly in the study of the 
psychological aspect of the disease, giving to delusions, hal- 
lucinations, imperative conceptions and other accidental and 
non-essential mental symptoms, that attention which had 
more profitably been devoted to the underlying bodily states 
of their patients. Even to the present time the overshadow- 
ing influence of psychology is but too apparent Not a few 
intelligent people — physicians too — entertain in more or 
less definite shape the idea that the "mind" may become 
disordered or diseased without disease of bodily tissues. It 
is, however, apparent that, having once attracted the atten- 
tion of medical men and been made the subject of critical 
investigation, the study of insanity has, despite the disad- 
vantages under which it has labored, progressed with rapid 
strides. And as it advances, it becomes more and more 
closely united with and dependent upon the general science 
of medicine. 

It is now recognized that disorder of mind is unknown 
without correlative disorder of the organ of mind, the cortex 
cerebri ; we have advanced still further to the discovery that 
primary or demonstrable disease of the brain is found in 
but a small proportion of the recent insanities, the essential 
cause existing is disease of distant organs and tissues, the 
brain functions being only secondarily disordered, and ana- 


tomical changes in cerebral structure appearing only after 
the primary cause of the disease has been long operative. 

It is to this extremely interesting and important phase of 
insanity, viz., the influence of bodily disease other than dis- 
ease of the brain, in the causation of insanity, that I shall 
more especially ask your attention. What we call insanity 
is not a disease, it is a symptom or group of symptoms of 
disease. When we recall the intimate association and inter- 
dependence of the central nervous system and the other or- 
gans and tissues of the body, it is readily comprehensible 
that disease or disorder of the one must induce correlative 
changes in the other; and an organ such as the gray cortex, 
whose physiological function is ready response to stimuli, 
will most quickly and surely reflect any serious departure 
from the normal in other organs. That almost all forms of 
disease induce some intellectual disturbance, slight or 
serious, is known to none so well as to the general practi- 
tioner of medicine. The disinclination to mental exertion, 
the ideational sluggishness, the depression of spirits, irrita- 
bility, etc, attendant upon many of even the minor bodily 
ailments, are generally recognized; while every physician is 
familiar with the more serious delirium with well defined 
hallucinations, illusions, delusions, emotional weakness and 
intellectual dullness accompanying the severe febrile affec- 
tions, and typically shown as a result of the toxic states of 
mania a potu, and morpho-mania. This delirium differs in 
any case only in degree and duration from "insanity;" and 
I would especially emphasize the fact that many cases of 
true insanity — typical acute manias, acute melancholias and 
acute dementias, enduring for long periods and too often in- 
curable, are symptomatologically and pathologically but the 
delirium of disease — the psychic expression of cerebral 
malnutrition, hypernutrition or toxamia. 

The authors of most of the text books of mental disease, 
in framing their definitions, attempt to exclude all such de- 
lirium from the term insanity. Some make the compromise 
of excluding only the delirium of short duration. In prao- 


tice we never speak of the milder delirium, nor of that en- 
during for brief periods only — that, for instance, which 
accompanies an acute illness and disappears as the illness 
subsides — as insanity ; but it is well to bear constantly in 
mind that no essential difference exists ; the dividing line is 
drawn for convenience, and is purely arbitrary. 

The development of mental aberration of any kind and 
degree is dependent upon two factors, united in varying pro- 
portion in different cases, viz., inherent brain instability, 
and unwonted and unfavorable conditions external to the 
brain. The first of these factors is an inherited quality and 
for all practical purposes unchangeable ; the latter is sup- 
plied by the constantly changing and complex forces opera- 
ting from without, the most important single agency being 
physical disease. The brain of ideal balance will exhibit 
perverted action under only the severest strain ; actual de- 
struction of anatomical elements being necessary to the 
manifestation of serious intellectual disorder. In an organ- 
ism, however, predisposed by inheritance to a ready over- 
throw of mental equilibrium, changes in the quality of the 
blood supplied to the brain, or a slight lowering of general 
nutritive tone, will be quite sufficient to initiate serious in- 
tellectual disturbance ; and in extreme cases of this class — 
those of the well recognized "insane constitution" very 
slight physical disorder — so slight as to be with difficulty 
detected — will be followed or accompanied by a degree of 
mental disorder out of all proportion to the gravity of the 
bodily disease. To this class belong many of the cases of 
acute insanity developing without apparent bodily disease 
or other adequate cause. 

Turning now to the more especial consideration of the 
distinct diseases which experience has shown are most apt 
to exhibit intellectual disorder as a symptom, or to leave in 
their train some perversion of mental character, the first 
and most important group is encountered in the acute dis- 
eases attended by elevation of temperature and characterized 
by contamination of the blood stream — all of the acute germ 
diseases, and in particular scarlatina, typhus and typhoid, 


the malarial fevers and influenza. The mental disorder in 
these cases is of two kinds, the well known and almost 
always to be expected delirium occurring during the acute 
stage of the fever, and the much more serious mental dis- 
turbance which develops at varying periods after the subsi- 
dence of the disease, often after convalescence is apparently 
well established. To the first of these classes belong most 
of the typho-manias ; to the latter the so-called post-febrile 
insanities, which may assume the form of either a mania, 
melancholia, or dementia ; the two last named being most 
common. The cause of the mental disorder in these oases 
is complex — a combination of high temperature, the pres- 
ence in the blood of the specific poison of the disease, and 
the toxic effect of some of the products of tissue metamor- 
phosis, which under normal conditions are thrown off by 
the excretory organs, but are here retained by reason of dis- 
order of the eliminative apparatus, prominently the kidneys. 
It is probable that the delirium occurring during the height 
of the febrile attack is especially due to the first two of the 
agencies named, high temperature and the specific poison of 
the disease acting upon the more or less unstable nerve cell- 
In the post-f ebrile cases it is especially the last named influ- 
ence which is most at fault — the retention of excrementitious 

We receive quite a number of cases at the hospital in 
which serious and acute mental disorder accompanies some 
form of acute illness ; the cases are frequently serious ; a 
certain proportion prove fatal; some become chronic, and 
probably in most instances some mental defect remains; in 
those cases which recover or improve, the disappearance of 
the bodily disease or a material change for the better in 
physical state precedes the disappearance of the intellectual 
disorder, and throughout the attack the dependence of the 
mental symptoms upon the physical state is very apparent 

Post-febrile cases are still more common. Here the deli- 
rium during the acute stage is slight or entirely wanting, but 
at periods varying from a week or two to several months 
after the fever has subsided, usually without much physical 


improvement in the intervening period, an attack of more or 
less serious mental disorder begins; it pursues a more 
chronic course than the cases just named, and is a rather 
unpromising form of mental trouble, frequently passing into 
hopeless dementia, or leaving at least some slight dulling of 
intelligence or change in character. The intellectual defi- 
ciency often seen after scarletina, especially in children, will 
occur to many as an example. 

An interesting phase of the pathology of these post-febrile 
insanities is presented by the kidney complications which 
our experience here has shown to be of extremely common oc- 
currence. Almost without exception we have found albumin 
and renal casts present in the urine, and in a large propor- 
tion of the cases an undoubted and quite severe nephritis 
exists. It is more than probable that this renal weakness is 
largely responsible for the development of the intellectual 
disorder. The poison of the original disease, in its passage 
through the kidneys, sets up an acute inflammation, which 
interferes with the normal function of the gland ; the retained 
products exert their toxic influence upon the cerebral cells, 
already weakened and rendered unstable by the exhaustion 
of serious illness, and an attack of acute melancholia or de- 
mentia is the result Althaus applies the term "delirium 
of inanition" to this entire group, and remarks that "the 
condition is always owing to sudden exhaustion of brain 
power from excessive destruction of unoxidized albumin of 
cerebral tissues." It would, however, seem reasonable to 
assume that the necessarily serious toxaemia from the cause 
mentioned above plays a not unimportant part in the etiology 
of the post-febrile insanities. 

Among the specific infections which have recently attracted 
attention as being prone to incite mental disturbance, the 
influenza or "la grippe," prevalent over a considerable por- 
tion of the country during several winters past, should be 
prominently mentioned. A very large number of cases in 
which insanity has developed a short time after the subsi- 
dence of an attack of influenza have already been reported. 
Probably many of my hearers have met with such oases in 


practice, and can readily recall the prostration, mental as 
well as physical, which is often seen to follow this malady. 
At the hospital we have had about twenty-five cases under 
care; very few have recovered entirely; more have died; 
usually most directly from the resulting renal complication, 
and the great majority have become hopelessly demented. 

The part played by malaria in the causation of insan- 
ity in Alabama is not easily determinable. So far as I 
am aware, very little has been written upon the subject; 
and at the insane hospital the difficulty of obtaining accu- 
rate and reliable information concerning the illness preced- 
ing admission to our wards renders our experience less val- 
uable than it would otherwise be. Still, we receive in the 
course of a year a small number of cases in which distinct 
malarial infection, usually in its more chronic forms, can be 
traced. The patients have had chills — possibly an attack of 
continued fever, and come to us very emaciated, anemic, 
pale and weak. Probably general blunting of intellectual 
power is the most common mental symptom. The subject 
would repay closer investigation. 

Typhoid fever is a not infrequent cause of mental disorder 
and weakness, which, under unfavorable circumstances, may 
assume the gravity of insanity. These severe forms of 
intellectual weakness are unfavorable, and rarely recovered 
from. Fortunately the disease is becoming rare, and cases 
of insanity from this cause are not frequent in Alabama. 

Of all the forms of bodily disease encountered among the 
patients which we have under treatment at the hospital, no 
other is so frequent, nor so intimately associated with the 
mental disorder as disease of the kidneys. This occurs not 
only as a complication of acute infectious diseases, as above 
briefly mentioned, but as a primary lesion in both its acute 
and chronic forms. We have during several years past made 
repeated examinations of the urine in more than thirteen 
hundred insane patients, and have found albumin and casts 
present in something more than one half of the cases. The 
several hundred examinations made shortly after admission 
of the recent cases to the hospital show a still higher per- 


oentage of renal disorder — about sixty-five per cent exhib- 
iting albumin and casts in the urine. Not all of this large 
proportion show other symptoms of renal disorder, though 
the vast majority do, giving in the oedema, pasty complexion, 
anaemia, gastric and intestinal disorder, headache, and other 
ursemic symptoms indubitable clinical evidence of Bright* s 
disease. It would be easy at any time to select from our 
population at the hospital an hundred or more very typical 
and characteristic cases of nephritis, representing every form 
and variety of this disease. It is a frequent cause of death. 
These rather startling assertions find ample confirmation in 
our post mortem records, which in near one hundred and 
fifty cases examined and studied microscopically, reveal the 
existence of serious kidney lesions in more than half of the 
cases investigated. 

The chronic forms of nephritis preponderate, and espe- 
cially the cirrhotic or arteriosclerotic type, from which so 
large a proportion of our old chronic dements suffer. The 
mental disorder accompanying the more serious chronic 
lesions is as a rule permanent and incurable. The acute 
insanities associated with acute renal disease is not rarely 
recovered from, the subsidence of the renal trouble being 
usually promptly followed by distinct change for the better 
in mental condition. 

Tuberculosis, in its various forms, is another disease which 
is extremely common among the insane. At our State Hos- 
pital it, as a direct cause of death, occupies the first place, 
more than one-fourth of the deaths on our wards during the 
past fifteen years having been due to this cause. Reference 
to our pathological records for two years past will show 
that tubercular disease of some organs and of some degree 
has existed in more than half of the cases examined ; or to 
be explicit, in one hundred and fifty-four autopsies, tuber- 
culosis was discovered in eighty-one instances, though in a 
certain proportion of these the tubercular disease was not 
the cause of death. The proportion of disease is distinctly 
higher among the negroes than among the white patients. 

The possible influence of phthisis in the etiology of men- 


tal aberration has been much discussed Several writers 
describe a characteristic "phthisical insanity" having as its 
distinctive features a moody melancholy with fixed delus- 
ions of suspicion and persecution, running a chronic course 
and rarely or never recovered from. That some disorder 
of mind accompanies many cases of phthisis is well known ; 
the peculiar cheerfulness and hopefulness in the face of in- 
evitable death — the "spes phthisica" — is of this character, 
but not rarely the intellectual disturbance is muoh more 
serious, and is justly termed insanity. We have seen a 
number of cases in /hich an acute melancholia, or more 
rarely an acute mania, has developed simultaneously with 
tubercular disease of the lungs. It is not remarkable that 
this disease should so frequently be associated with insan- 
ity, since the circumstances favoring the development of 
mental disorder are all present in an unusual degree. 
Probably the temperament which favors the development 
of tuberculosis is also liable in an unusual degree to dis- 
orders of mind ; and the marked dyscrasia of phthisis — the 
anaemia, general malnutrition, the specific poison, and the 
derangement of the excretory apparatus, all contribute to 
the production of a high degree of blood contamination. 
Here, as in the typical post-febrile cases, we find nephritic 
complications common. We have not been able to detect 
a characteristic phthisical insanity among the cases we have 
seen ; melancholia with delusions is the most common group 
of symptoms, but we see essentially the same mental state 
in other conditions and from other causes ; and a consider- 
able proportion of the oases of insanity with tuberculosis 
assume other forms — acute excitement, paranoia, or acute 

Another form of disease to which some few cases of men- 
tal aberration can be traced is organic heart trouble — the 
various valvular defects. This lesion is usually chronic 
When existent from early life an undoubted influence is 
exerted upon mental character and development Its in- 
fluence in this way — as a predisposing cause, owing to dimi- 
nution in general resistive power, is muoh more important 


and far reaching than its power for the production of indi- 
vidual attacks of insanity. The subjects of cardiac diseases 
are supposed to be irritable, nervous, melancholy, and hypo- 
chondriacal. This condition exaggerated becomes a chronic 
melancholia, and unfits the subject for social life. Several 
oases of this kind have been brought to us recently. They 
are in general incurable. 

Information as to the frequency of heart disease among 
the general population of our State is not obtainable, but 
it is probable that the proportion of such cases is smaller 
than among the patients of the Insane Hospital We find, 
in examinations of the patients admitted during the past 
several years, that nearly or quite fifteen per cent show a 
valvular lesion. During last year my colleague, Dr. Wright, 
made a physical examination of most of the white patients 
then in the Hospital, the majority of course being old chronic 
cases, with the result of discovering distinct valvular defect 
in about eleven per cent — among seven hundred and two 
patients examined, eighty-two were found to exhibit the 
lesion in question. 

The idea seems quite prevalent in the medical profession 
that among women disease of the generative organs and 
disorders of menstruation play an especially prominent part 
in the causation of mental disturbance ; we find that some 
supposed uterine disorder or abnormality is more frequently 
than any other single cause, mentioned by the medical men 
sending patients to us as the exciting cause of the intellect- 
ual disturbance. Our experience at the Hospital is not in 
accord with this view ; serious disease of the uterus and its 
appendages is not common among our patients ; menstrual 
disorders and irregularities are common, it is true, but are 
themselves symptoms of a general lowering of nutrition, 
rather than a cause of ill health or of mental disease. At 
our autopsies, the generative organs are usually found to be 
in normal state ; a few fibroids, a few ovarian cysts with an 
occasional instance of periuterine inflammation making up 
the sum total of the morbid anatomy of the reproductive 


organs, at some one hundred and fifty post mortem exami- 

This subject should not be closed without some reference 
to the mental disorders of pregnancy and the puerperal 
state, usually grouped together under the term "puerperal 
insanity." These by no means rare and often quite serious 
forms of mental disease show many of the characteristics of 
acute delirium and post-febrile insanity, and probably 
belong to the same etiological group — the prime cause being 
toxaemia. The insanity is usually acute in character, and 
is fortunately very frequently recovered from, many cases 
not being sent to the Hospital at all. The mental symptoms 
assume very various forms, and are not characteristic; so 
that the term does not represent a definite clinical picture. 

Many other diseases than those above referred to — prob- 
ably all of them in some degree— occasionally contribute to 
the causation of mental disorder. Some authors have at- 
tempted to describe characteristic forms of insanity due to 
the various bodily ailments giving us a "gouty insanity," 
a "diabetic insanity," "rheumatic insanity," "insanity 
of oxaluria and phosphaturia, " and so on through 
almost the entire range of diseases flesh is heir to; 
but in practice it is impossible to detect specific differ- 
ences in the clinical features, and the whole subject 
may be summed up by repeating that "insanity" is 
only a symptom of disease ; may be a symptom of any dis- 
ease ; and the form the mental aberration assumes — mania, 
melancholia or dementia — is its least important feature, the 
three classes named being pathologically identical 

It has been suggested and seems not improbable that a 
morbid process of sudden or rapid development is apt to 
induce maniacal excitement, while the more chronic affec- 
tions — the dyscrasias and marasmatic states — incite melan- 
cholia or simple dementia. 

The recognition of the direct dependence of the mental 
symptoms of insanity upon the bodily state of the individual 
possesses important practical bearings upon the question 
of diagnosis and treatment Many of the acute mental dig- 


orders can be cared for at home. It is not necessary to 

commit a typhoid fever case to an insane asylum because the 

mental symptoms are prominent, as has been done. The 

mental symptoms may be disregarded, and the treatment 

addressed to the bodily ailments. Tonics and a liberal 

dietary accomplish more than moral agencies and the whole 

range of nerve sedatives. 
Tne above very hurried resum£ of an important subject is 

intended rather to provoke discussion than to be exhaustive. 



By Russell MoWhobtbb Cunningham, M. D. f Pratt City. 
Counsellor-elect of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

It is my purpose in this paper to present a few practical 
facts, with such deductions as may be logically made there- 
from, limiting the discussion to his morbidity and mortality. 
It is not my purpose to enter into any thorough considera- 
tion of the essential anatomical or physiological differences 
of the races except as demonstrated or logically established 
by the data at hand. It is clinical facts, not theoretical 
problems I would discuss. 

Since my connection with the convict system of Alabama, 
there have been but two races represented in our convict 
population : the Caucasian and the Negro — the latter includ- 
ing that hybrid of humanity — the mulatto of all shades. 
From the consecutive examination of some 2,500 convicts 
that were in the penitentiary in March, 1883, and received 
from jail from that date to October, 1884; and from March, 
1887, to October, 1888; and from October, 1888 to 1890, it 
appears that 15.43 per cent were whites, and 84.57 per cent 
were negroes, or in a ratio of one white to 5.41 negroes. 
Questions of health, morbidity and mortality, then, practi- 
cally mean the consideration of these important subjects in 
connection with and as applying to the negro race. This 
proposition will be fully demonstrated in this paper. 

From March, 1883, to October, 1884, including only state 
convicts wherever confined; and from October, 1884, to Oc- 
tober, 1886, state and county convicts ; and from October, 
1886, to October, 1888, including only state and county con- 
victs at Pratt Mines ; and from October, 1888, to October, 


1890, including state and county convicts at Pratt Mines, 
and state convicts at the Walls at Wetumpka; and from Oc- 
tober, 1890, to October, 1892, state convicts at the Walls and 
at Pratt Mines, it appears from the penitentiary physicians' 
and inspectors' reports covering these periods for the above 
places, that there were from all causes 553 deaths. This 
period embraces only 9 years and seven months. Of the 
553 deaths 37 or 6.67 per cent were among white convicts 
and 516 or 93.33 per cent among the negro convicts. Thus 
the ratio of white to negro deaths was 1 to 13.94, while the 
percentage of mortality of the white and negro is as 1 to 
2.57. That is to say, that out of an equal number of white 
and negro convicts the mortality would be more than two 
and a half times greater in the latter. 

Of the 553 deaths, 70 or 12.65 died from the direct and in- 
direct effects of violence — accidental, suicidal, homicidal, 
etc. Of the 70 deaths from violence 14 were white, or 37.83 
per cent of the total mortality among the white convicts ; 
56 were negroes or 10.85 per cent, of the total mortality 
among the negro convicts. This leaves dying from disease, 
including "not known," 483, to-wit: White, 23 or 4.76; ne- 
gro, 460 or 95.24. Ratio of white to negro deaths from dis- 
ease, 1 to 20, while the actual percentage of mortality is 1 
to 3.69. That is to say out of an equal number of white 
and negro convicts the mortality of the latter would be 3.69 
to one of the former, or a little more than 250 per cent, 

From these figures the following facts are established, 
to-wit : 

1st That there are nearly 5.50 times as many negroes as 
whites committed for crime. 

2d. That the negro mortality is nearly three times greater 
than the white. 

3d. That over one-third of the white deaths were due to 

4th. That only a little over 10 per cent, of the negro 
deaths were due to violence. 

5th. That from an equal number of white and negro con- 


victs there would be a little more than 3£ of the latter to 1 
of the former die from disease. 

From these facts it may be logically concluded : 

1st That, (taking it for granted that our laws are impar- 
tially administered so far as race is concerned), there is 
something in or about the negro— some inherent principle 
or acquired property, — the former being a part of his orig- 
inal creation, or from long continued hereditary influences — 
the latter of environment, — religious, social, political, etc., — 
that prompts him to acts of crime, or that there is a defi- 
ciency of that restraining power which limits the action of 
universal depravity of the races. 

2d. That as a physical entity he is inferior to the white 
man either in anatomical formation and the physiological 
performance of function, or that there is something in him 
that more greatly predisposes him to disease, or that aggra- 
vates the type of disease, or that he is wanting in recupera- 
tive or reconstructive power— certainly as a convict 

The first question I leave to the political economist, mor- 
alist and philanthropist 

The second, however, is, to those who are responsible for 
his health and life, a problem of absorbing and burning in- 
terest Strange to say, this aspect of the convict problem 
in Alabama has never received the attention it deserves, so 
far as the question of prison life, work, discipline, etc., 
affects the health and lives of negro convicts. So far as I 
know, there has never been, heretofore, any attempt to 
compare the mortality and morbidity of white and negro 
convicts with a view of ascertaining the differences, if any, 
and the causes therefor. 

I submit below in parallel columns, one for whites and 
one for negroes, a classification for the primary causes of 

Negro. White. 

Unknown 86 1 

Violence 56 14 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis 72 1 

Peritoneal Tuberculosis 27 1 



Acute Milliary Tuberculosis. 
Miscellaneous Tuberculosis.. 

Croupous Pneumonia 

Catarrhal Pneumonia 

Fibroid Pneumonia 


Typhoid Fever 

Other Fevers 


Meningitis Tuberculous 



Organic Heart Disease 



Gastritis and Enteritis 


Tertiary Syphilis 





Lumbar Abscess 



Bright's Disease 




Hip Joint Disease 

Pott's Disease 

Measles and Pneumonia 














































I submit also, in parallel columns, one for white and one 
for black, a classification of the complications existing, as 
a supplement to the foregoing : 


Croupous Pneumonia 22 

Catarrhal Pneumonia 9 

Pleurisy with Effusion 10 

Pulmonary Consumption 1 







Tubercular Meningitis , 

Acute Military Tuberculosis. 

Tuberculosis of Bowels 

Tuberculosis of Larynx 

Organic Heart Disease.. . — 



Tubercular Pleurisy 

G astro-Enteritis 

Perforation of Bowels 

Meningitis , 


Pneumonia and Meningitis. . 

Cystitis and Stricture 




Blight's Disease 


Phlegmonous Abscess 

Cardiac Thrombosis 

Malarial Fever 


Pulmonary Infarction 

Abscess Parotid 






Pulmonary Congestion 

Pericarditis and Meningitis. 


















In discussing these tables, the 70 deaths from violence 
and 37 "not known" causes are not here considered, leaving 
negroes 424 and whites 22. It appears that the primary 
diseases in the 424 negro deaths involved the thoracic 
organs in 265 or 62.50 per cent, to-wit : Various forms of 
tuberculosis, 137; of pneumonia, 84; pleurisy, 11; heart, 
pericardium and large blood vessels, 33. 

Of the 22 white deaths, the thoracic organs were involved 
with the primary disease in 9 or 40.90 per cent, to-wit: 
tubercular disease, 4; pneumonia, 2; organic heart dis- 


ease, 3. It thus appears that there were nearly double the 
deaths among negroes from acute and chronic thoracic 


Add to these the same classes of disease in the complica- 
tions and we have 358 or 8433 per cent, among the negroes 
and 14 or 63.63 per cent, among the whites. These compli- 
cations were in many cases the cause of death, but they do 
not represent a corresponding number of convicts, as some- 
times two or more complications exist in the same case. 

Of acute febrile disease, there were 42 deaths or 9.90 per 
cent, 26 typhoid and 16 other forms of fever, among the 
negroes; 3 or 13.63 per cent among the whites. 

Occurring as a primary disease and as complications, 
there were among the negroes 50 cases of organic heart dis- 
ease, 36 chronic and two of acute myo-carditis, 12 of peri- 
carditis, making a total of 50 or 11.71 per cent Whites, 6 
or 27.22 per cent 

Meningitis occurred as a primary disease and as a compli- 
cation in negroes in 20 cases or 4.71 per cent Whites in 3 
cases or 13.63 per cent 

Tubercular disease in all forms existed as a primary dis- 
ease or complication — among the negroes, in 182 or 42.92 
per cent. ; among the whites, 6 or 27.27 per cent 

Croupous pneumonia existed among the negroes in 88 or 
20.75 per cent ; among the whites, 4 or 18.18 per cent 

I will not take up your time with a further analysis of 
this table 

From the foregoing facts the following conclusions are 
legitimately made : 

1st. That there is a much larger class of diseases repre- 
sented among the negroes than among the white deaths. 

2d. That the whites are more liable to die from accidents, 
meningitis and the essential fevers than the negroes. 

3d. That the negroes are especially predisposed to tuber- 
cular disease, the various forms of pneumonia, pleurisy and 
organic heart disease — in other words, to thoracic diseases 
generally. The problem, therefore, resolves itself into the 
inquiry, why are negro convicts predisposed to the develop- 
ment of these diseases? 


1st Is it due to any deficiency in the anatomical devel- 
opment or formation? 

Bight here there is danger of straying away from the 
clinical into the theoretical, so I will have very little to say 
in answer to this question. Aside from the well known 
facts, the black skin, flat nose and foot, etc., etc., there is, 
in my opinion, in the negro race, when compared to the 
white, a hypo-cranial and thoracic development, and a 
hyper-abdominal and genital development It is apparent 
to us all that the cranium is smaller than the white ; that 
the cranial capacity is less, necessarily follows. Post mor- 
tem examinations have convinced me that the cranial wall 
is thicker; that the brain is smaller; that the convolutions 
are less prominent and the sulci more shallow. Hence, the 
inevitable conclusion follows, that brain function is not 
equal to the white race. 

An examination of hundreds, or rather several thousands 
of negroes, has convinced me that the normal thoracic 
movements in ordinary respiration are deficient and that th 
thorax is not capable of as great movement during forced 
inspiration and expiration. 

If this be true, what is the reason? 

Is it in the want of muscular development, mobility of the 
bony walls, or pulmonary elasticity or capacity, or in the 
encroachment of the abdominal organs below? In my judg- 
ment the causes are to be found, (a) in less lung capacity, 
(b) less muscular development, particularly of the accessory 
muscles of respiration, and (c) the more or less encroach- 
ment of the abdominal organs. The first two are largely 
conjectural ; but I think the latter is susceptible of demon- 
stration by physical signs. Examine a series of whites and 
a series of negroes, noting carefully the line of beginning 
hepatic dullness on the right side, and the line of beginning 
gastric tympany on the left, and you will find that these 
lines are higher in the negro than in the white. If there be 
no error in these observations, the conclusion is inevitable, 
that the perpendicular diameter of the interior of the thorax 

is thereby diminished. In a general way I will say that it 


is very rare thai the physical signs are absolutely negative. 
There is either diminished expansion, a prominent clavicle 
with depression below and above, and an asymmetry in 
movement, points of asymmetrical percussion sounds and 
vocal resonance and fremitus, with more or less modification 
of the normal, rythmical, clear vesicular murmur, with, in a 
considerable percentage of cases, adventitious sounds. The 
latter remarks are true, to some extent, in both races, but 
much more conspicuously so in the negro. 

As to the hyper-abdominal and genital developments, all 
one has to do is to see 300 or 400 negroes naked in a large 
bath house and step through a door, and see 75 or 100 white 
men in the same condition to convince him of the correct- 
ness of this view. 

The general muscular development, taken as a whole, is 
good in the negro ; but the chest muscles and muscles below 
the elbow and knee are deficient I conclude, therefore, 
that the negro, as a whole, is inferior to the white in ana- 
tomical development, and in the symmetrical arrangement 
of systems and organs, etc. That there should, therefore, 
be a correspondingly weakened function and predisposition 
to disease is apparent 

That environment has a great deal to do with the causa- 
tion of disease, both predisposing and exciting, there can be 
no question. 

The question, therefore, is, have the white and negro con- 
victs the same environment? I answer emphatically that 
they have. This is certainly true at the places from which 
the above statistics were obtained. Hence the difference in 
mortality cannot be explained by a difference in environ- 

The effects of prison life, however well ordered, are be- 
yond all doubt detrimental to both mind and body, regardless 
of race. It affects the mind more in the white and the body 
more in the negro. 

Now, just in proportion to the bad hygienic surroundings 
— both general and personal — will these effects obtain, par- 
ticularly the effects on the physical condition. If these con- 


ditions are such as to be productive of disease they will ope- 
rate more disastrously on the negro, both in morbidity and 
mortality. Therefore it is under more or less unfavorable 
environment that the physical inferiority of the negro race 
becomes manifest In certain statistics published by CoL 
John T. Milner, it appears that in certain northern prisons. 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio, and in the 
border state of Missouri, for a series of years, the average 
white mortality was 1.55, and the negro mortality 5.05 per 
annum. The same may be said of the negro as a soldier. 
Among the IT. S. white troops during the war the average 
annual death rate was 53.04 per 1000 ; and of colored troops 
143.04 per 1000, or 1 to 2.68, almost as much as the differ- 
ence in the Alabama penitentiary. Given the same en- 
vironment the white man will have much the longer 
life. If the environment be bad then the negro mortality 
will increase much more rapidly than the white. That pri- 
son life, however well ordered, is always more or less unfa- 
vorable to life and health, the statistics of civil and mili- 
tary prisons prove. Why is this so? 

The following in my judgment are the principle reasons, 
so far as civil prisons are concerned : 

First, as to the convict himself. If he be guilty, there is 
not only a possibility, but even a probability that there is 
some occult condition, which we do not understand, inher- 
ited or acquired, that operates upon the mind in such a way 
as to suggest crime, or that cripples the moral inhibition that 
restrains crime, in either case affecting that mental and moral 
equipoise that inspires honesty and obedience to law, so 
that crime is committed not merely because of the common 
depravity of mankind, which in the individual criminal may 
be unrestrained, but because of this occult condition over 
which the criminal has no control. If there be truth in this 
conjecture, is it not logical to conclude that this occult con- 
dition would affect, in some way, the physical condition also? 
If he be innocent, then the horror of the situation — inno- 
cence in chains — would certainly act detrimentally to health. 

In both cases, whether he be guilty — the victim of some 


imperative power that forces him to crime, or the voluntary 
action of total depravity ; or innocent — the victim of circum- 
stances or of perjury, — he is a human being deprived of his 
liberty, with all that that means to him, socially, politically, 
religiously and sexually. The inspiration to work, to live, 
almost, is dead. He becomes subdued and cowed, and his 
whole mental, moral and physical nature is more or less de- 
pressed and weakened. Therefore, he at once becomes more 
susceptible to disease ; latent diatheses become active, exist- 
ing mild diseases are increased in severity ; the suscepti- 
bility to germ infection is increased ; and, finally, his ability 
to withstand disease of all kinds is more or less diminished. 

Second. The change of hygienic surroundings, from a 
seggregated to an aggregated relationship ; from home, how- 
ever humble, to prison, where he is thrown in contact with 
hundreds of his fellow beings, breathing more or less the 
same air, becoming exposed to the infection of germs of va- 
rious diseases, especially the tubercle baccilus ; submitting 
to a hygiene to which he has not been accustomed, in a word, 
to a changed environment altogether. 

Third. The change of his personal hygiene in matters of 
clothing, diet, sleeping, drinking and the kind and amount 
of work, etc. 

These general remarks apply to all conviets, more or less, 
white and black, but the first affects the white more, and 
the negro least; the last two affect the negro more especially. 
That is to say, the negro has less capacity to accommodate 
himself to any new environment, particularly a bad one. 
Finally, in the majority there occurs, sooner or later, a cer- 
tain mental and physical resignation to the inevitable, that 
counteracts to a great degree the evils of prison life — in 
other words, a hygienic mental, moral and physical acclima- 

These conclusions are sustained by the following facts : 
First The greatest amount of morbidity and the greatest 
mortality are among those recently received — thus: total 
deaths at Pratt Mines, state and county convicts, for the two 
years ending October 1st, 1888, 80. Of these only 17 were 


received prior to January 1st, 1886, and 63 from that date 
to October 1st, 1888. (See Inspector's Beport, p. 199). Also, 
total deaths of state and county convicts at Pratt Mines and 
state and county convicts at Walls, for the two years ending 
October 1st, 1890, 132. Of these, 59 had been in prison 
not more than one year, and 36 not more than six months. 
(See Inspector's Beport for 1890, p. 254). Further, convicts 
are not classed up until they have been in prison for some 
time ; therefore, the 3d and 4th class convicts are mostly of 
those recently received. Percentage of mortality for each 
class, two years: 1st class, 3.68; 2d class, 6.49; 3d class, 
8.61; 4th class, 13.79; $11 class (those who work outside, for 
whom the company pays $11), 5.40. 

Thus the mortality diminishes as the class is increased, 
and vice versa. The following is the percentage of morbid- 
ity represented in the days lost : 1st class, 13.80 ; 2d class, 
18.47 ; 3d class, 19.58 ; 4th class, 41.38, or nearly one half 
the total; $11 class, 6.79. It is a fact about which there 
can be no dispute, that the greater the number of convicts 
required to keep up a certain average, the latter depending 
upon the average term of the convicts, the greater is the 
morbidity and mortality. Hence, the death rate of county 
convicts is always greater than state convicts. I think that 
I have shown in this paper that the negro as a convict, so 
far as a low rate of mortality is concerned, is a failure. It 
would be interesting right here to enter into a full and com- 
plete discussion of the adaptability of the negro for coal 
mines, but I forbear, inasmuch as this subject was thor- 
oughly considered by me in a paper before this Association 
two years ago. I will say, however, that there is no doubt 
in my mind whatever, that the county convict system ought 
to be abolished altogether, and if not altogether, certainly 
so far as mines are concerned ; and not more than fifty per 
cent, of the negroes sentenced to the penitentiary should 
work in coal mines, and not even these unless there is adopted 
a system of prison hygiene which will permit of some open 
air exercise and sunlight 

In conclusion, I will submit that the race problem will be 


largely settled in the event of public works being established 
throughout the south, which means ready money for the 
negro; that means the profitable practice of prostitution, 
and that means gonorrhoea and consequent sterility; tuber- 
culosis and other pulmonary diseases will do the rest 



Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

discussed by 
Russell MoWhobter Cunningham, m. d., pbatt city. 

Mankind owes to Sir Joseph Lister an everlasting debt 
of gratitude which it can never repay. Last December when 
he arose in the grand amphitheatre of the Sorbonne to address 
the illustrious Pasteur, in the name of medicine and surgery, 
whose seventieth anniversary scientific representatives from 
nearly all the countries of the civilized world were that day 
celebrating, he was received with an enthusiasm not second 
to that which greeted the great French biologist Since 
he inculcated his great principle of aseptic and antiseptic 
treatment of wounds, the greatest of modern triumphs, the 
palisades which impeded the onward march of our art 
have been broken and operations are daily being success- 
fully performed which would have "brought down condem- 
nation for reckless disregard of life" upon such prodigious 
masters as Henry Syme and John Hilton. In courts of 
justice to-day the question is not, Are you a believer, but 
did you observe asepsis and antisepsis? 

In this paper, I will not speak of the progress of gynecic 
or ophthalmic surgery, but confine my remarks to the 
domain of the general surgeon. 

Prof. Lannelongue in June, 1890, removed from the head 
of a microcephalic idiot a narrow strip of bone, nine centi- 


metres long and six millimetres broad, parallel with and 
to the left of the sagittal suture. He reported great mental 
improvement, and his operation for this deplorable condi- 
tion was re-performed by a number of American and English 
surgeons, notably among them were Keen of Philadelphia, 
Wyeth of New York, and Victor Horsley of London, with 
varying opinions as to its feasibility. Mr. Horsley main- 
tains that premature synostosis of the cranial sutures in 
microcephalus is the primary condition, and not secondary 
to defective brain development, and resting upon this patho- 
logical basis is a firm supporter of the operation. 

In a letter to Prof. Morton from Dr. Keen, which was 
read before the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery recently, 
he said : "Up to the present time I have done nine linear 
craniotomies, the earliest one November 19th, 1890. Of this 
number, three died immediately after the operation from 
shock. The other six have improved to some extent As 
yet, I do not feel that I can formulate any opinion further 
than to say, that the very sanguine views put forth by 
Lannelongue in both his papers are, I think, not justified. 
That it will do some good I am inclined to believe." 

My own experience with the operation is limited to one 
case. During the early part of the spring of 1891, Mr. 
K M. consulted me concerning his microcephalic child, 
then about six years of age. The child manifested no sign 
of intelligence whatever, showed great restlessness and was 
constantly uttering inarticulate cries. The lower extremi- 
ties were rigid and the child was unable to stand. The 
hands seemed to be in perpetual motion and without power 
of grasping any object within reach. She slept very little. 
I operated by making an incision through the scalp directly 
over the superior longitudinal sinus and extending from the 
line of the hair to a point in the occipital bone. Drawing 
the scalp well to one side I applied a 3-8 inch trephine, the 
inner margin of which was a finger's breadth from the 
median line. I trephined in the same way at the lower end 
of the wound and connected the openings with a Hay's saw, 
thereby removing a strip of bone a little more than a quar- 


ter of an inch in breadth and about three inches in length. 
The operation lasted about one hour and the patient made 
a good recovery. The child is quiet, sleeps well at night ; 
and when food is handed, she grasps it and carries it to her 
mouth. The mother thinks she takes some notice of her 

With Dr. Keen's rongeur forceps the operation can easily 
be done now in twenty minutes, which is a decided improve- 
ment over the saw and trephine method. The operation has 
been performed forty-four times, with nine deaths. Whether 
it will maintain a permanent place in surgery remains to be 

The pioneer operation for cerebral tumor was performed 
by Godlee on a patient of Dr. Hughes Bennett in 1884. To 
Victor Horsley, however, is due the credit of establishing 
it among the recognized operations of surgery. The char- 
acter of tumors of the brain is more often tubercular and next 
in frequency sarcomatous, as shown by 580 cases collected 
by Seguin and Weir, of New York. The diagnosis of these 
tumors is often very difficult, for there are latent zones, as 
the anterior portion of the frontal lobes and parts of the 
parietal and occipital lobes, where there are no localizing 
pymptoms produced and our only guides are such general 
symptoms as headache, vomiting, and perhaps convulsion. 
If located in the centres of special senses or motion, or in 
the paths of nerves from these centres, the diagnosis is 
comparatively easy. An idea of its size may be gained by 
considering the amount of paresis and involvement of ad- 
jacent centres. Keen, Weir, and Horsley each removed a 
tumor of four ounces with two recoveries. 

A tumor, amenable to operation, being diagnosed in a 
given locality, the parts are shaved and cleansed with a 
one in twenty carbolic solution ; a semi-lunar flap is made 
with its center over the tumor. Large trephines from 
1} to 2 inches in diameter are applied at the two ex- 
tremes of the area to be removed, and the bone be- 
tween them is divided with a Hay's saw. The dura mater 
is opened for four-fifths of the circumference of the exposed 


area and one-eighth of an inch from the bone, so as to have 
room for suturing. The tumor may be removed by Hors- 
ley's flexible knife, or the handle of an ordinary teaspoon. 
Hemorrhage is seldom troublesome and can be controlled 
by sponge pressure. The dura mater should be sutured 
with fine catgut An opening must be left for drainage, 
and about 24 hours is the time required for the tube to re- 
main in situ. If the tumor has been removed the bone must 
be replaced and the scalp flap secured with silkworm gut 
sutures, otherwise the bone should be left out of the 

In trephining for abscess, which is caused in fifty per- 
cent of cases from suppuration in the ear, if pus is not 
found after the opening is made over the most probable 
spot, a hypodermic syringe having a long slender needle 
attached may be pushed in various parts of the brain, but 
always in a direct line and never moved laterally. The 
abscesses are usually about the size of a walnut and are 
best evacuated by inserting a pair of slender forceps by 
the side of the aspirating needle to enlarge the track, after 
which a drainage tube is introduced. 

In an excellent paper read before the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Surgery in September, 1891, by the late Dr. D. Hayes 
Agnew on "The Present Status of Brain Surgery," he drew 
the following conclusions which I have thought well to give 
before leaving this department 

1. "That all fractures of the skull attended with depres- 
sion, however slight, and entirely irrespective of symptoms, 
should, in view of the late after effects, be subjected to the 

2. "That trephining for Jacksonian epilepsy is to be re- 
garded as only affording temporary benefit. 

3. "That trephining for cephalalgia or traumatic epilepsy 
(medical measures having failed) should be undertaken with 
every prospect of success. 

4. "That trephining for hydrocephalus is a useless oper- 


5. "That trephining for intra-cranial traumatic hemor- 
rhage is both an imperative and highly promising operation. 

6. "That trephining for abscess, in view of the fact that 
all such cases left alone almost invariably terminate fatally, 
is entirely proper, and that the earlier such operation is 
done the better." 


For that intolerable suffering of trigeminal neuralgia 
"characterized by furious pains following one another in 
flashes with lightning-like rapidity," Galen first proposed 
neurotomy, but the operation was first performed by Mare- 
schal in the middle of the last century. The pathology of 
this disease has been very obscure, but in June, 1891, Dr. 
Dana, of New York, made some examinations which seem 
to shed light upon this most interesting question. He ex- 
amined five superior maxillary nerves removed from cases 
of tic-donloureux. In three of them there wa, obliterating 
arteritis of the nutrient vessels of the nerve ; in the other 
two no blood vessels could be found. There were no 
changes in the nerve tissue proper. 

Carnochan was the first surgeon who performed neurec- 
tomy of the superior maxillary division of the fifth by what 
is commonly known as the antral method of removing 
Meckel's ganglion, a full account of which appeared in The 
American Journal of Medical Sciences in 1858. Belief after 
neurectomy in a great majority of cases is not permanent. 
Of the 135 cases collected by "Wagner, only 18 remained 
cured as long as three years. Of the three cases which I 
have operated upon, the pain in the first two has been 
greatly mitigated; in the third absolutely no suffering for 
thirteen months, when it returned suddenly in supra-orbital 
branch, which was removed and has given relief for the last 
six months. But a want of success in many cases caused 
surgeons to look for more radical measures, and Prof. Rose, 
of London, removed the Gasserian ganglion for the first time 
in November, 1890. The patient is placed under chloroform 

and the eyelids are stitched together to prevent accidental 


injury to the ball An incision is made along the zygoma 
commencing a half inch below the external angular process, 
carried to the angle of the jaw and along the lower border 
as far forwards as the facial artery. The flap should be 
carefully dissected so as to avoid wounding Stenson's duct 
or the seventh nerve. The zygoma is drilled, divided and 
drawn down with the masseter muscle. The coronoid 
process of the inferior maxillary is similarly treated and 
turned up with the temporal attached. The internal max- 
illary artery is tied and divided, after which the external 
pterygoid is severed, exposing the foramen ovale. A half 
inch trephine with a long handle is applied to the foramen, 
enlarging it for the introduction of a hook with a cutting 
edge on the concave border to remove the ganglion. The 
trunk of the nerve should be used as the guide, A head 
mirror is of great service in enabling the surgeon to control 
hemorrhage, which is always troublesome. Antiseptics are 
freely used and the bone replaced and held in position by 
silver wire in the drill holes. The soft parts are sutured 
with sterilized silk. There are seven cases on record in 
which this operation has been performed, the earliest one 
about 24 years ago ; and the relief thus far has been per- 
fect, as to its permanency time alone can telL There are 
certain inconveniences experienced subsequent to the oper- 
ation, such as a soreness and stiffness about the parts, with 
some headache. The trophic centres for the nutrition of 
the eye are situated in the upper and anterior segment of 
the ganglion, which renders the condition of the ball serious. 
To obviate that, Prof. Rose has suggested leaving that part 
intact, but so far no case has been reported where the ex- 
periment has been tried. Since the publication of Mr. 
Rose's operation, Victor Horsley has removed the roots of 
the nerve as they pass from the pons, to the Gasperian gang- 
lion. He accomplished it by exsecting the squamous por- 
tion of the temporal bone, opening the dura mater, tieing 
the middle meningeal artery and lifting the temporo-sphe- 
noidal lobe. They lie in a canal beneath the tentorium, 
which he opened. His patient died from shock a few hours 
after the operation. 



To the late Dr. Robert Kinloch, of Charleston, is due the 
credit of having first performed abdominal section for gun 
shot wounds of the abdomen. The patient was a negro, oper- 
ated on in the Roper Hospital in 1881, but died a few hours 
afterwards, and the operation virtually slumbered until 
Prof. W. T. Bull, of New York, published in The Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal November 27th, 1885, his case 
in which seven perforations of the intestines were closed 
and the patient made a good recovery. Statistics show that 
when the expectant treatment is adopted, 88 per cent of all 
penetrating wounds of the abdomen are fatal, and when in- 
volving the stomach or intestines, death is almost certain. 
Dr. Coley, of New York, has recently collected 165 cases of 
penetrating gun shot wounds of the abdomen treated by 
laparotomy, with 54 recoveries and 111 deaths — a mortality 
of 67 2-10 per cent His conclusions are : 

1. "Exploratory incisions in the region of the wound to 
ascertain whether or not it is penetrating. 

2. "If penetrating, median laparotomy as soon as possi- 
ble after the injury has been received, unless suffering from 

3. "Signs of peritonitis just beginning or well developed, 
while diminishing the chances of success, are by no means 
a contra-indication for operative interference." 

The hydrogen test of Prof. Senn, which caused a furore 
among laparotomists a short time since is now very properly 
discarded, for the reasons given in The Boston Medical and 
Surgical Journal by Dr. Cabot 

L "The test is not an infallible index of the condition of 
the alimentary canal. 

2. "It shows nothing as to the condition of other viscera, 
wounds of which frequently demand operative interference. 

3. "It prolongs the operation, interferes with respiration, 
adds to the shock. 

4. "It increases the liability of sutured wounds to give 



If a desperate remedy is ever admissible in a desperate 
case, it certainly is in perforating typhoid ulcer. The first 
operation in this country was reported to the Academy of 
Surgery of Philadelphia by Prof. Morton in December, 1887; 
the next by Dr. Bontecou, of Troy, N. T., ?which, like the 
first, was unsuccessful. Prof. Van Hook, of Chicago, has 
collected nineteen cases of operation, with four recoveries. 
In two of the successful ones reported, there seems to be 
some doubt about the correctness of the diagnosis. The 
conclusions drawn by Yan Hook and endorsed by Morton 

1. "There is no rational treatment for perforation in the 
course of typhoid fever except laparotomy. 

2. "The indication for laparotomy when perforation oc- 
curs in typhoid fever is imperative. 

3. "The only contraindication is a moribund condition 
of the patient. 

4 "Collapse is often at least temporarily relievable by 
hot peritoneal flushings. 

5. "The stage of the fever is not to be considered as an 
indication or as a contra-indication for laparotomy. 

6. The severity of the typhoid fever is alone not a contra- 

7. "Early laparotomy offers the most hope. 

8. "The symptoms of peritonitis should not be awaited 
before operating." 


To Maisonneuve is due the credit of originating the idea 
of a communication above and below an impermeable boweL 
Both of his cases being unsuccessful, the operation fell into 
discredit, though Van Hacken, in 1863, performed a num- 
ber of experiments on dogs, until Prof. Senn read his paper 
before the International Medical Congress, in Washington, 
in 1887, and brought it into the area of practical surgery. 
To accelerate the operation, he used as artificial aid bone 


plates. Dr. Davis, of Birmingham, and Dr. Abbe, of New 
York, suggested catgut rings and mats, with which they 
were very successful in their experiments on dogs, but as 
the latter remarks, there is a great difference when per- 
formed on man, and has since discarded them as being lia- 
ble to cause leakage, obstruction and irritation of the inte- 
rior of the bowels. Another point upon which he lays 
great stress is to have the intestinal openings at least four 
inches so as to overcome stenosis from cicatrical contraction. 
In his paper published upon this subject, in the April num- 
ber of the New York Medical Record, he reports seven cases 
operated on, of which two died. 


So long since as 1867 Dr. Willard Parker, of New York, 
suggested the propriety of surgical interference in acute 
suppurative appendicitis, but the first successful case was 
reported, I believe, by the late Dr. Henry B. Sands in 1888; 
since which time it has been so extensively written upon 
and discussed that it is like a twice told tale. The indica- 
tions for the operation, as shown by Dr. Osier, are : 

1. "In all cases of acute inflammatory trouble in the 
csBcal region when, whether tumor is present or not, the 
general symptoms are severe, as shown by tympany, spread- 
ing pain, increase in fever and increase in the rapidity of 
the pulse. 

2. "When a definite tumor is present, associated with 
attacks such as have been described, particularly if they 
have been recurrent 

3. "In recurrent appendicitis, when the attacks are of 
such severity and frequency as seriously to interrupt the 
patient's occupation." 

As to the question of operating in the interim of attacks 
or waiting for one, the consensus of opinion is to adopt the 
latter course, as it is by no means improbable that there 
will be complete healing. 

I will not consume your time with the technique of the 
operation, but pass to some of the operations of the gall 


Cholecystotomy, or making an incision into the gall blad- 
der for gall stones and empyema, is a very successful oper- 
ation with a mortality of only about 6 per cent It was first 
performed by Dr. Bobbs, of Indiana, in 1867, but to Dr. 
Marion Sims is due the credit of perfecting it in 1878. 
Since then it has been so frequently performed that it can 
hardly be classed among the novelties of surgery. 

Cholecystectomy, or removal of the gall bladder, was first 
proposed by Langenbuch in 1880. It is indicated where it is 
impossible to unite the wounds in the gall bladder to that 
of the parietes, or where the walls have been so damaged 
by disease or manipulation that the sutures will not stand. 
The operation is not difficult, and the mortality is about 
ten per cent 

One of the latest operations on the gall bladder is that of 
Dr. Gaston, of Atlanta, which he terms duodeno-cholecys- 
totomy, and is performed by establishing a fistula between 
the gall bladder and duodenum in cases of occlusion of the 
ductus communis choledochus from destructive inflamma- 
tory changes or pressure from malignant growths. Winni- 
water, of Vienna, had a somewhat similar operation, but he 
connected the gall bladder with the colon, thereby losing 
the physiological action of the juice in digestion. 


Hernia is of such frequent occurrence and so annoying 
that operations for radical cure have been proposed from 
the earliest times, "and the subject has furnished a fruitful 
field for the deft hand of roguery in drawing contributions 
from the pocket of gullability." In the latter part of the 
eighteenth century a charlatan had knighthood bestowed 
upon him in England and a reward of twenty-five hundred 
dollars a year and twenty-five thousand paid down for a 
secret nostrum, which proved to be sulphuric acid applied 
so as to cause ulceration of the hernial coverings. The 
earliest operation by what is understood as the open method 
was first performed by Mitchell Banks. He separated the 


sac from its surroundings, applied a ligature high up about 
its neck and removed the portion below, after which he 
closed the inguinal ring with silver wire. He was soon 
followed by MacEwen, of Glasgow, who first published his 
operation in the December number of The British Medical 
Journal of 1887. Instead of removing the sac as Banks did, 
he puckered it by means of a suture and made it pad the 
abdominal aspect of a hernial opening. The result of these 
operations is, that of 66 cases operated on after Bank's 
method, 44 were totally successful and 7 partially. Of 81 
after MacEwen's, 48 were compelled to wear a support 
McBurney, of New York, has recently published his opera- 
tion in the New York Medical Record, After dissecting out 
and removing the sac, he sews the skin to the deep fascia 
and packs the wound with iodoform gauze to have it heal 
by granulation and form a firm scar, which will obliterate 
the canal It usually requires from three to six weeks. 
Mr. Tait, in a paper read before the British Medical Asso- 
ciation in 1891, condemned the methods of removing the sac 
and closing the aperture, as he held in cases of strangula- 
tion it was often very difficult and in all cases dangerous. 
He advises opening the abdomen by median incisions, for 
the following reasons : 

1. "Accuracy of the diagnosis by digital exploration 
through the abdominal incision. 

2. "Ease of manipulation and breaking up of adhesion. 

3. "Facility of reduction of the hernial protrusion by 
traction as compared with pressure. 

4 "No weakening of the tendinous pillars of the aper- 

5. "The sac need not, as a rule, be opened. 

6. ."In case it is necessary to make an artificial anus, the 
median line is the situation of election in preference to the 
unyielding tissue of the groin. 

7. "In cases of complicated strangulation incomplete 
operations, with their serious consequences, will be entirely 



8. "The operation is comparatively simple and is easily 

9. "The result is in most cases complete and permanent 

It is performed by "opening the abdomen in the median 
line, after which two common glovers sewing needles with one 
piece of salmon silk worm gut, are fastened in some conve- 
nient needle-holder at a very slight angle to one another so 
that their points completely coincide, and can be made to 
enter through one hole in the skin. The left forefinger cov- 
ers or occupies the inner aperture of the sac, the needles 
are made to enter from without, and then separated. The 
outer needle is then made to dip deeply into the external 
column of the ring, and the inner needle similarly into the 
inner column. The needles are then pulled out through the 
central incision, and as many sutures as may be thought 
desirable are inserted in this way. When the insertion of 
the stitches is completed, they can be tied from within and 
dut short The abdominal wound is then properly closed." 


In 1890 MacEwen of Glasgow published in The British 
Medical Journal a new method of treating aneurisms by 
"inducing the formation of white thrombi within the sac." 
The parts rendered thoroughly aseptic, a needle is passed 
through the aneurism until it touches the opposite wall 
when the point is made to irritate the lining membrane of 
the entire sac by constantly shifting it. The operator must 
bear in mind that the amount of irritation should be limited 
only to reparative exudation, as a step beyond would prob- 
ably cause softening and rupture. It may be necessary to 
repeat the operation for weeks. 

The last number of the Annals of Surgery contains the 
report of an interesting case of aneurism of the external 
iliac treated by Prof. J. D. Bryant after this method. 



To prevent unsightly contractions from extensive burns, it 
has recently been proposed to transplant tissue from the 
lower animals to man. In Prof. Morton's excellent paper 
before the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery, to which I am 
indebted for many facts in the preparation of this report, 
he publishes Dr. Miles' case of a boy with an ulcer covering 
almost the entire left leg, the result of a burn, cured by 
transplanting "the whole cutaneous tissue, with the excep- 
tion of the adipose layer" of a smooth-skin puppy a week 
old. The boy's ulcer was thoroughly cleansed and all blood 
removed, when strips of skin four inches long and a half 
inch wide were pressed into the wound, after which the 
whole was covered with a bandage. The dressings were 
removed in 72 hours and the pieces, with one exception, had 
become firmly attached. After three weeks the small spots 
that remained bare were filled with human skin, and in six 
weeks the patient had entirely recovered. When examined 
seven months later, the color of skin did not differ from 
other portions of the body, nor was there any hair or secre- 
tion. The animal should always be very young, that the 
tissue may be empowered with great growing force. Prof. 
Houg, of Munich, has proposed the shell membrane of a 
fresh egg for the same purpose ; the shell side of membrane 
should be applied to the wound. Dr. A. M. Phelps, of New 
York, tried bone transplantation in a boy with ununited 
fracture of the leg, by confining a dog two years old in plas- 
ter paris bandage for three weeks, when the bandage became 
loose and the graft was cut from the dog, but the experiment 
failed. The graft was one inch in length and contained the 
nutrient artery. Dr. Phelps claims the stimulation the frac- 
ture was subjected to has excited a reparative process which 
bids fair to unite it 


Dr. Bussell MoWhobter Cunningham. 

The doctor has read us a most excellent paper. It is in 
keeping with the advanced surgical thought and practice of 
the day. 

There is one thing, however, to which I desire to call at- 
tention, and that is the rule for trephining, as quoted by Dr. 
HilL I do not believe that it is always advisable to trephine 
in cases of depressed skull icithout symptoms. In the prac- 
tice of Dr. Hill and other surgeons who are prepared for 
such work and who have experience, I think that such 
should be the practice. My observation during the past ten 
years, during which time I have examined seriatim several 
thousand men, a large percentage of whom had had head 
injuries, and quite a number with depressed bone, the result 
of injury, has convinced me that a man with a depressed 
skull may go through life without unfavorable symptoms. 
During all this time I can recall but one case in which there 
was epilepsy, and he was an hemeplegic, the result of a 
considerable fracture and depression of bone in the anterior 
parietal region. Of course in all cases of compound frac- 
ture ; in cases of simple fracture, with considerable depres- 
sion; and in all cases where there are symptoms of com- 
pression, with or without apparent depression or fracture, 
the trephine should be used Discretion and judgment 
should guide us here as elsewhere in medicine and surgery. 
Still, I am of the opinion, that the more liberal and general 
use of the trephine should be advised and practiced. 

We have cases without apparent depression that remain 
more or less unconscious for days and recover perfectly. 
We also have cases of extensive injury, with considerable 
depression, without symptoms. In such cases, when we 
operate, we will find that the intra-cranial hemorrhage has 
escaped through the fractured bone. Hence I believe that 
the majority of cases of fracture of the skull with or without 
depression, unless the latter be extensive, in which there are 
symptoms of compression, the latter are due to the hemor- 
rhage, not infrequently, below the dura mater. In conclu- 
sion, I will submit that we all feel much better if we have 


left our patients without depressed bone, regardless of its 
extent or the symptoms. 

In regard to hernia. This is an important field. In all 
cases when we operate for strangulated hernia we should 
endeavor to make a radical cure. In ordinary cases, when 
a truss is satisfactorily worn, I doubt the utility of the 
operation. The doctor, in my judgment, has left out the 
most important operation, to-wit, Dr. Marcy's, of Boston. 
His operations consist, essentially, in the use of a series of 
continuous buried tendon suture, a description of which 
will be found in the Transactions of the Southern Surgical 
and Gynseological Association when printed. I do not know 
that Dr. Marcy's operation has ever been published. He 
reports, I think, 80 per cent, of cures. 

Dr. L. L. Hill, 

In closing the discussion on his paper, said : "I am aware 
there are innumerable operations for the radical cure of 
hernia, but the short time allowed did not permit of my 
naming all of them. As to which is the most important de- 
pends upon the individual taste of the surgeon. Out of the 
vast number proposed, those which I have selected are con- 
sidered the chief operations in the recent writings of such 
distinguished authorities as Mr. Treves and Mr. Jacobson, 
of London ; Dr. McBurney, of New York, and Prof. Morton, 
of Philadelphia. Dr. Marcy published his operation in his 
book on hernia sometime since, and a distinguished editor 
says : "It seems to be a very complicated way of effecting 
the object aimed at" The doctor said, in concluding his 
remarks, that I had not mentioned Baxter's operation. In- 
tentionally so, for I considered it still sub-judioe. Dr. Bax- 
ter published an account of his operation in the March 
number of the "Annals of Surgery" and stated, if I remem- 
ber correctly, that his experience was limited to one case. 
Until it has been sufficiently tried and won a position among 
legitimate surgical procedures, it is not entitled to a place 
in a report on the progress of surgery. 



By Thomas Duke Parks, M. D., Birmingham. 
Counsellor-elect of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 


Russell MoWhorter Cunningham, M. D m Pratt City. 
Jones Cadwaladbr Abernethy, M. D., Birmingham. 

I have been requested to present a report at this meeting, 
on a subject that has been the cause of more contention and 
controversy in our county society than all other subjects 
combined, namely: The Continued Fevers of Birming- 

The time has not yet come for an exhaustive and final 
report on this subject and this short paper will only attempt 
to deal, in a brief way, with some phases that seem fairly 
well settled and to point out some of the possibilities of 
future investigation. 

Eleven years ago, the late Dr. M. H. Jordan of Birming- 
ham, read a very instructive paper on this subject before 
this Association, and was inclined to the hybrid or typho- 
malarial nature, though his title was "Observations on Epi- 
demic Typhoid as it Prevailed in Birmingham in 1881." 
Pryor to that time even, and until within the last two years 
no subject has rivalled it as a theme for discussion or for 
difference of opinion. But to name fevers in the county 
society was to precipitate a discussion that generally was 
ended only through the lateness of the hour. 


Some held that the fevers were "typhoid," others"malarial,' > 
others hybrid, others styled them simply "continued fevers," 
and others still "Birmingham fevers." Not only so but mem- 
bers who were found one year among the adherents of one diag- 
nosis might be heard on another side the followingyears, when 
cases were seen that varied from the type. To know the phy- 
sician in charge of a fever patient- was to know from what 
fever the patient suffered, and this confusion of diagnosis 
in fevers of similar type largely gave occasion to the very 
unscientific and confessedly blind nomenclature, "Birming- 
ham fever." 

The adherents of the malarial causation based their opin- 
ion largely on exclusion of typhoid. The fever usually did 
not answer the classical descriptions as laid down in the 
text books, nor did they present all the symptoms as ob- 
served by some of them in other latitudes. There was no 
marked remitte ncy in the cases, nor would quinine in large 
doses — though faithfully tried — have any effect upon the 
course of the fever, and t hough many of the cases suffered 
from intestinal hemorrhages, from relapses, from diarrhoea, 
still malaria was made to account for all these symptoms. 

The war of discussion waged in and out of society year 
after year with out the light of post mortems, but some five 
years ago post mortem examinations began to be made. 
Dr. Jordan, in his paper, refers to 49 deaths in the 
previous year, but states that not one autopsy was 
made. As post mortem examinations have grown in 
number, the belief in the typhoid nature of these con- 
tinued fevers has increased, until to-day I feel safe 
in asserting there is practical unanimity. So far as I 
know the lesions of typhoid fever, the ulceration or engorge- 
ment of Peyer's patches and enlargement of the spleen have 
been universally found in all post mortems on cases of con- 
tinued fever. 

While I believe these continued fevers of Birmingham are 
typhoid, I still recognize that the microscope must be the 
final arbiter in excluding any malarial element I do not 
look, however, for any such malarial complication to be 



shown by the microscopic examination of the blood, 1st, 
because quinine has proven itself useless in combatting 
these fevers — because it is difficult to understand how a 
combination of poisons should render the course of the 
disease milder and also because in other localities, as in 
Galveston, microscopic examinations have proven the ab- 
sence of malarial parasites in similar cases diagnosed mala- 
ria and in which the subsequent course proved them to be 
cases of typhoid. 

There is a hope that within the next year or two some- 
thing definite may be learned about these fevers. Two mi- 
croscopes with high powers will be brought into requisi- 
tion, and it is to be hoped that their owners may acquire 
the skill and expertness sufficient to arrive at some definite 
conclusion, either in a positive or negative way or both. 

In several hospitals in this country the blood of all sus- 
pected patients is examined for malarial organisms, and if 
found, the treatment is governed accordingly. 

Where malaria has been diagnosed by microscopic exam- 
inations it has been found that quinine, iron and arsenic 
either inhibit or destroy these organisms, and this would 
seem a very strong point in connection with the large doses 
of quinine fruitlessly given in our continued fevers, but lest 
lengthy discussion of this point by me without the crucial 
test of the microscope would only too strongly recall the 
weary years of discussions in our society, without post 
mortems, I desist 

It has come that from the blood-examination even the 
kind of attack, whether tertian, quartan, remittent or 
chronic malaria, can be predicted, and in many instances, 
from the stage of development of the organisms, how soon 
the paroxysm may be expected. 

The time cannot now be far distant when treatment will 
be instituted and intelligently, in the light of microscopic 
examinations, in all cases that are probably malarial. 

I believe that it will be as much required in the precise 
methods of the future as is now the information afforded by 


physical diagnosis in many other diseases. I doubt not 
there are members present who can recall the days when 
physical diagnosis was practically unknown, and I likewise 
do not doubt that many here will see the microscope in con- 
stant use in malarial districts. In the good old days — of 
blessed memory — men were born doctors, as they were born 
with a caul and second sight; but with the increase of pre- 
cue methods, the race is fast dying out and every aid to more 
precise knowledge is demanded. 

There has been no uniformity of invasion. Some cases 
have come on with the classical prodromal stage of ma- 
laise, headache, epistaxis, followed by gradual rise of fever, 
till end of first week, but the majority come on with a chill 
or chilly sensation and fever of 102°, 103° or 104*. Others 
begin with high temperature (104° or 105°) and chill, and after 
four or five days, fall to 102° and continue for three weeks or 

Abdominal pain masks diagnosis in the beginning of some 

Dr. Jordan in his paper calls attention to a symptom com- 
monly seen, and it is one that is especially called attention 
to in the Medical History of the War of Rebellion, and that 
is the slow pulse — pulse of 90 or 95 with temperature 102° 
or 103*. The pulse gradually increases in frequency as ex- 
haustion incident to the continued fever supervenes. 

The countenance is usually bright and may be flushed, 
though some cases present the classical f acies of hebitude or 

The tongue has a white fur at beginning. Some cases 
with temperature of 103° or 104° run through attack with 
slight coating. Others present sordes and dry cracked 

The bowels are at times constipated, and in other cases 
loose and require attention. 

Bash usually appears at end of first week, though it is not 
constantly present My observation is that those men con- 
stantly see rash who open blinds and with good light search 


for the rose-colored spots. Those seldom see them who do 
not expect them and who casually examine. 

Bronchitis is a very prominent symptom in the beginning 
of some cases and even during the course of attack, and not 
infrequently obscures diagnosis. I recall one case in a 
young man, where my diagnosis of typhoid was becoming 
very unsettled in my own mind, so prominent became the 
lung symptoms, and yet a little time confirmed the diag- 

I know of another case where a patient was treated for 
pneumonia, and only upon the dead table was the diagnosis 
refuted and the lesions of typhoid discovered. 

This man could not speak English, and had come under 
the observation of a professional friend without his being 
able to find out how long he had been sick. The prominence 
of lung symptoms and the apparently typical flushed face 
of the patient completely misled this brother, whose surprise 
upon opening the pleural cavity would only be equalled by 
that of some of the rest of us, if we were to make post mor- 
tems on all our fatal cases. I do not think the frequency of 
this bronchitis in typhoid is sufficiently emphasized. 

Another form seen in one instance is the petechial There 
was profuse epistaxis in this case, requiring the tampon on 
more than one occasion. Over the arms and trunk, wherever 
the skin was exposed to bites of mosquitoes, dark blue spots 
were to be seen. This case recovered, and I believe the au- 
thorities state that it is not a symptom of grave import* 
The blood was examined in this case, but no malarial organ- 
isms could be found, nor was the blood disorganized. The 
fever ran a course of three or four weeks. 

Dr. Osier calls attention to another form — the cerebro- 
spinal — and states that he has made post mortems on three 
different cases diagnosed cerebrospinal meningitis, and 
found only the typical lesions of typhoid fever. They pre- 
snted headache, photophobia, retraction of neck, rigidity, 
and even convulsions. 

In a word, we have cases of all degrees of severity 
and of all the varying types — from the ambulatory to 


the most virulent — from those that are typical to those 
which vary radically from type ; and it is clear how so much 
confusion has existed when only symptoms were relied upon 
for forming opinions. 

Parotitis, thrombosis of veins of lower extremities, intes- 
tinal hemorrhage, intestinal perforation, are complications 
noted in due proportion. Statistics are not available in pri- 
vate cases. 

Relapses occur at times, and one attack as a rule gives 
immunity, though the rule is often broken. 

I believe that septicaemia and tuberculosis in its many 
forms, are the two diseases most often mistaken for typhoid, 
after the patient has been ill several days. 

Malarial troubles at the outset present the greatest diffi- 
culty, but intermittency or marked remittency and use of 
quinine, with in the near future the microscope, must form 
the bases of diagnosis. 

June, July, August and September are the months of great- 
est prevalence, to judge from report of the Hospital of United 
Charities, by general consent From these statistics for 
three years, '90, '91, '92, the percentage of mortality was 
25J per cent This is far too great for private cases, as not 
only are light cases not sent, but neglected cases and those 
almost moribund are admitted to swell the mortality record 
far beyond that of private practice. 

The duration of the disease varies from fifteen days to 
six and eight weeks, according to the severity of attack, 
probably averaging twenty-five days. 

The coal-tar derivatives enjoyed great force for a period 
as anti-pyretics, but I think time and experience have 
largely relegated them to the past as being too depressing 
in their after-effects. Sponging I think is more generally 
relied upon to reduce fever. Cold baths are not used on 
account of their impracticability in private practice, though 
I think there can be no question that the best results in 
treatment are obtained where they can be systematically 

After a purge of some kind, usually calomel, to open the 



bowels at the beginning, and repeated if needed, the treat- 
ment is largely supportive and expectant Individual physi- 
cians have their favorite constant medicines, as muriatic 
acid — or nitro-muriatic — or syrup of hypophosphites, or 
iodine or carbolic acid, but none claim decided curative 

Stimulants in the form of whiskey or brandy are given as 
soon as the pulse shows any disposition to climb higher, 
and are given in increasing quantities as weakness is mani- 
fested. The diet consists of milk, broths and gruels, but 
principally of milk. Some claim that milk agrees with all 
patients, but I happen to know from personal experience 
some of the discomfort that arises from undigested milk- 
curd in the intestines of a fever sufferer. 

Chloral or opium are given for the insomnia ; turpentine 
largely for the tympanitis; strychnia and strophanthus 
for the heart failures and fast pulse; opium and bismuth — 
acetate lead, salol, eta, — for the diarrhoea, when exceeding 
three or four operations. 

Intestinal antiseptics have not given results that have been 
satisfying to any number of physicians and are consequently 
not relied upon. 

These continued fevers have lessened in frequency since 
the drainage has been improved — the water supply changed 
for the better, and since surface wells have been less used 
for drinking purposes ; but they still occur as they did in 
the valley before Birmingham was founded. With the water 
supply polluted as was that of Birmingham prior to five 
years ago, it is difficult to see why more cases did not occur, 
for quite a large inhabited territory drained into the small 
creek from which the water supply of the city was taken. I 
think all the weight of evidence is to the effect that the dis- 
ease must find entrance through the alimentary canaL 

My reading convinces me that there is no uniformity of 
symptoms in typhoid fever in other localities and other 
countries. All authors note variations from type, and it is 
especially so noted by the writers of the Medical History of 


the War of the Rebellion — by Osier and by others in this 
country and on the continent. 

All of us have seen cases of pneumonia that did not 
follow the classical course as laid down in the text books — 
cases of pneumonia where consolidation did not show for 
three or four days — cases without cough. We have seen 
cases of every disease that depart from type. We do not 
yet know why the continued fevers assume, as a rule, a 
milder form in this latitude. Neither do we know why 
diphtheria and scarlet fever are generally so much milder 
with us than in the other latitudes. These are questions 
that must be left to a future day. 

Finally, I am not prepared to deny that cases of malarial 
fever do not occur in Birmingham, but the contention is, 
that the vast majority of the cases seen are cases of typhoid 
fever. One case I recall where, from the surroundings and 
the tertian remittency of the fever — not intermittency — from 
the aching of muscles and stomach irritation, I diagnosed 
malarial remittent, and proved the diagnosis by the treat- 
ment by quinine, which checked the disease in five days. 

Many cases are checked after three or four days by good 
doses of quinine, but it is the continued fevers to which ref- 
ence is made in this report 

I wish, finally, to emphasize again my belief that the time 
has not yet come for the settlement of this question, and 
that to the microscope on one side and the examination 
of the dejecta and of the urine for typhoid fever on the 
other, must be left to final arbitration. 

Dr. Russell MoWhobteb Cunningham. 

That there has been a modification of the clinical history 
of the classical fevers, or that we have a new fever in Ala- 
bama, particularly throughout the mineral region, I think 
we all agree. The question is, have we a new fever, or are 
certain forms of fever, constantly observed, aberrant forms of 
the classical fever? I have some statistics here, covering 


four years at the Pratt Mines prison, in which the following 
classification occurs : 

Typhoid, 80; continued fever, 176; other fevers, 172. 
Thus, out of a total of 428 cases, in only 80 did the symp- 
toms justify a diagnosis of typhoid fever, and the vast ma- 
jority of these were not typical Of the 80 cases of typhoid, 
10 or 12.50 per cent died. Of these, six were complicated 
with pneumonia, one with perforation, one with meningitis ; 
leaving only two to die without complications. 

Of the remaining 348 cases, only two died — one compli- 
cated with pneumonia, and one with parotid abscess. The 
last case was diagnosed typhoid, but the post mortem dis- 
proved it. Again, in one or two of the typhoid deaths the 
diagnosis had been "continued fever," the post mortem show- 
ing typhoid. I therefore believe that we sometimes have 
cases of both typhoid and continued fevers in which we 
make an erroneous diagnosis. When I say typhoid fever, I 
mean the fever characterized by the recognized anatomical 
signs of that disease. 

Typhoid fever is a serious disease, and a considerable 
mortality will attend outbreaks of it, both from the disease 
itself and from the complications— pneumonia, perforation, 
hemorrhage, eta The term "continued fever" I am aware is 
a term of unscientific meaning. Yet we have in Jefferson 
county — certainly at Pratt Mines — in both private and insti- 
tution practice, a large number of cases in which pyrexia is 
the only important symptom — the cases lasting from a few 
days to several weeks, and always get well if properly man- 
aged and no complication — which is rare — occurs. In this 
fever the ordinary symptoms of fever — unless high — are 
not of importance. Appetite fair, bowels, as a rule, cos- 
tive, tongue coated — edges red, no nausea nor vomiting, 
digestion good ; no subsultus, nor delirium, nor headache — 
at least slight headache only, i£ present at all — sleep well; 
very little prostration; urine somewhat scant and increased 
in specific gravity; pulse from normal, sometimes slower 
than normal, to 100, seldom reaches 120; temperature from 
100° to 101° in the morning; 102 Q to 104* in the evening. 


These cases can not be aborted. Antipyretics respond 
promptly — they should be used, however, with caution. A 
fluid diet, an occasional enema, and the mineral acids are 
the main features of treatment. I have seen hundreds of 
such cases. I cannot call them typhoid ; hence, for want of 
a better term, I call them "continued fevers." That some 
of them may be aberrant typhoid, I have no doubt 

Dr. J. 0. Abernethy. 

This fever is a hybridism, presenting multiform phases, 
and frequently complicated by other diseases, and by pre- 
senting such diversified features, I do not believe it de- 
pends upon a specific germ, as do cholera, yellow fever, Ac 
It was found as prevalent on Bed Mountain, Shade's Valley 
and Shade's Mountain near Birmingham, in 1882 up to 1888, 
as it was in the city during that period ; and the city at that 
time was poorly drained and very filthy. It can be fre- 
quently aborted by the use of mercurial purgatives and 
quinia with antifebrin — if seen early. If this does not 
succeed in a few days in stopping the fever, my custom is 
to continue the use of quinia in small doses with salol or 
any other antiseptic — some of the coal tar products in small 
doses, so as to hold the fever from 99° to 102°, with nour- 
ishment and rest at night. These coal tar products have 
this peculiarity, that the longer they are used the smaller 
the dose required. I can ordinarily control the temperature 
of this fever with anti febrin with as much certainty and 
regulation as an engineer can regulate and control the steam 
entering the steam chest of his engine. I have seen no 
deaths, except a few cases of intestinal hemorrhage and one 
or two from perforation. 




Grand Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State of 


Edward Hknry Sholl, M. D., Birmingham. 

Tuberculosis in the negro is the same thing as tubercu- 
losis in the white man, or as tuberculosis in the lower 
animals, with the exception that the so-called tuberculosis 
gallinosus (the tuberculosis of fowls) seems to be a separate 
and distinct disease, and should not, therefore, be called 
tuberculosis at all, if we wish to avoid confusion. 

Such being the case, it seems necessary, even in a paper 
limited to tuberculosis in the negro, to make a few remarks 
on tuberculosis in general But, in doing so, I shall spare 
you any resume* (even if I were competent for such a task) 
of the almost interminable discussions by the pathologists, 
especially the German, on the morbid anatomy and histology 
of tubercle. No doubt most of you have read and heard as 
much on that subject as you desire to. My paper will be 
confined solely to the etiology and prevention of tubercu- 
losis, with special reference to its prevalence in the negro. 

It is only necessary to say, in this connection, that since 
the discovery by Koch of the bacillus tuberculosis as the 
true cause, the ageus morbi, of the disease, the accepted doc- 
trine has been that the disease is a unit, that there is but 
one tuberculosis, that it is a non-hereditary, specific, infec- 
tious disease. It was only the influence of a great genius 


like Virchow that could have induced the profession to 
abandon the original teachings of Laennec and to believe 
that tuberculosis was a non-specific disease, due to the re- 
sorption of the exudative products of any ordinary inflam- 
mation that had previously undergone caseous degeneration. 
It was fitting that the refutation of this heresy should come 
from Koch, a countryman of Virchow. 

I accept the definition of tuberculosis given by Osier in 
his work on Practice, viz : "An infectious disease, caused 
by the bacillus tuberculosis, the lesions of which are charac- 
terized by nodular bodies called tubercles or diffuse infiltra- 
tions of tuberculous tissue which undergo caseation or 
sclerosis and may finally ulcerate, or in some situations 
calcify." It will be seen that under this definition the affec- 
tion belongs to the infectious and not to the autogenous 
class of diseases, or, in other words, that it is exopathic and 
not endopathic in its origin. 

The importance of this subject of tuberculosis, from a 
sanitary point of view, can scarcely be exaggerated. It is 
responsible for more deaths than any other one disease ; ac- 
cording to Hirsch, for two-sevenths of all the deaths that 
occur in the world and for more than half of those occurring 
in middle life, the active period of man's existence. It is 
certain that statistics do not adequately represent to us the 
extent of the destruction of life due to this terrible plague. 
Even if it were supposable that all the deaths due to pul- 
monary tuberculosis were fully reported under that head, 
how many cases must there be of tuberculosis of other or- 
gans, as the meninges, the abdominal viscera, the bones, &c, 
that fail of diagnosis and are consequently reported under 
other names, as "congestions" of various organs, Ac.! Nor 
does even this tell the whole tale of the evil and misery in- 
flicted upon the world by the bacillus tuberculosis. Those 
who are in the habit of making autopsies on the bodies of 
persons dying from all manner of diseases, tell us that it is 
very rare to find one the apices of whose lungs do not show 

evidences of obsolete tubercle. It is probable, then, that 


more than one-half of the cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 
undergo spontaneous recovery. But though they have 
eventually recovered, how much suffering and valetudina- 
rianism must these persons have undergone ! 

The disease affects both sexes and all ages, from the suck- 
ling infant to the octogenarian. Histologically, it may affect 
any or all the organs and tissues of the body, though the 
lungs are the most frequent seat of the disease, because 
most exposed to the infection. As to geographical distribu- 
tion, it prevails from the poles to the equator ; no climate 
is exempt from it As to zoological distribution, it affects 
every known species of animal. The dog, the goat and the 
horse seem least susceptible, whilst the cow is peculiarly 
susceptible to the disease. These facts have very valuable 
sanitary bearings, as will be seen later on. 

The zoological distribution of tuberculosis stands in strik- 
ing contrast to that of syphilis, a disease so similar to it in 
other respects, both being infectious diseases ; for, as Keyes 
aptly remarks, "the sad privilege of having true syphilis 
seems to be the exclusive prerogative of man." This uni- 
versal distribution of tuberculosis, histologically, geograph- 
ically and zoologically constitute it, beyond all question, the 
greatest scourge of the earth. 

The inoculability and infectiveness of tuberculosis is the 
most important fact in medicine that has been demonstrated 
during the present century. Although nearly every great 
clinician, from Hippocrates down, has, upon purely clinical 
grounds, expressed a belief in the infectiveness of the dis- 
ease, yet the idea seems to have taken no great hold on the 
general body of the profession ; they seem still to regard it 
as hereditary and autogenous. The complete demonstration 
of the inoculability of tubercle was made by Villemin in 
1865 by experiments on guinea pigs, followed a little later 
by the still more complete experiments of Cohnheim and 
Solomonsen. Those of Cohnheim were especially valuable 
for the reason that he was at first a disbeliever in the con- 
clusions that Villemin had reached. 


It only remained now for Koch to demonstrate what was 
the active agent that conferred upon tuberculous matter its 
infectiveness. He made the first announcement of his dis- 
covery of the bacillus tuberculosis to the Physiological So- 
ciety of Berlin on March 24th, 1882, a date destined to be 
forever memorable in the history of medicine. 

I find some doctors, especially among the old and so-called 
"practical" ones, very skeptical as to the scientific value of 
bacteriological investigations. For the benefit of this class, 
I will here copy Koch's four famous postulates. The chain 
of evidence regarded by Koch as essential to prove that a 
given organism is pathogenic was composed as follows : 

1. The micro-organism must be found in the blood, lymph 
or diseased tissue of man or other animal suffering from or 
dead of the disease. 

2. The micro-organism must be isolated from the blood, 
lymph, or tissues, and cultivated in suitable media, I e., out- 
side the body. These pure cultivations must be carried on 
through successive generations of the organism. 

3. A pure cultivation thus obtained must, when intro- 
duced into the body of a healthy animal, produce the dis- 
ease in question. 

4 Lastly, in the inoculated animal the same micro-organ- 
ism must again be found. 

I cannot conceive how scientific rigor could go further. 
The only adverse criticism that I am able to endorse is that 
made by Prof. Vaughan, of the University of Michigan, in 
his work on "Ptomaines, Leucomaines and Bacterial Proteids ; 
or the Chemical Factors in the Causation of Disease," viz : 
that when all the conditions of the four postulates are ful- 
filled in reference to any particular germ, it is not even then 
proved that it is the sole cause of the particular disease, but 
only that it is a cause. According to him, micro-organisms 
cause disease, not by mechanical interference, as supposed 
by some, or by robbing the blood of its oxygen or destroy- 
ing the red blood cells, as supposed by others, but by means 
of chemical poisons developed in the course of the life- 


history of the organism— as a general rule each organism 
developing its own particular poison or poisons; just as each 
species of plant develops its own particular alkaloid or alka- 
loids. "Suppose," he says, "that a botanist in visiting Ara- 
bia should find the coffee tree producing a berry, which, 
when properly prepared and taken into the system, produces 
certain effects which are due to the alkaloid, caffein, and 
which invariably follow the drinking of a decoction of these 
berries ; would our supposed discoverer be justified in con- 
cluding that the coffee tree is the only plant in the world 
capable of producing these supposed characteristic effects? 
Should he reach such a conclusion, the fact that it is not 
warranted would be shown by a study of the tea plant of 
China and the guarana of South America." The case is 
similar with many bacteria. Thus the tetanus germ of 
Kitasato and that of Tizzoni are known to be different, yet 
each is capable of inducing tetanic convulsions. So there 
are about half a dozen germs capable of producing the sum- 
mer diarrhoea of infants. And many other instances might 
be given, but it is to be observed that in all such cases the 
disease has not a well marked, typical, clinical history, as 
tuberculosis has. 

I think, therefore, that we are justified in concluding not 
only that the tubercle bacillus is certainly a cause of tuber- 
culosis, but that in all probability it is the only cause. 

It is, then, certain beyond all doubt or cavil that tubercu- 
losis is a non-hereditary, infectious disease. How, then, can 
we properly speak of any such thing as a predisposition to 
tuberculosis any more than of a predisposition to any other 
infectious disease, as syphilis, smallpox or yellow fever? The 
word "predisposition" is only applicable to the autogenous 
diseases, as rheumatism and the like. There may be more or 
less susceptibility to or immunity from any or all the infec- 
tious diseases, but there can be no such thing as a predispo- 
sition or tendency to any one of them. The most suscepti- 
ble person in the world would never have tuberculosis unless 
he becomes infected with the bacillus. A man either has 


syphilis or he has it not ; in the same way he either has 
tuberculosis or he has it not In the one case, he has prob- 
ably received the syphilitic virus on an abrasion and has 
not washed it off ; in the other, he has probably inhaled the 
tubercle germ and has failed to cough it up. The seed must 
first be sown. 

Omitting the rare cases of accidental inoculation through 
wounds, Ac., the sources of infection in tuberculosis are 
principally two : First and chiefly the inhalation of the dried 
expectoration of tuberculous patients, and secondly the 
ingestion of tuberculous food, and under this head mainly 
of tuberculous milk. 

The number of tubercle bacilli in the expectoration of tu- 
berculous patients is simply astounding. Dr. Nuttall of the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, by methods which it is not neces- 
sary to detail here, but which seem to be as accurate as the 
circumstances permit, estimated the number of bacilli in 
the expectoration of a patient not far advanced in tubercu- 
losis during the twenty-four hours at from one and a half to 
four and one-third billions. What myriads upon myriads 
of these bacilli, then, must be expectorated by a patient in 
the last stages of consumption? Suppose, too, that these 
bacilli, as is so often the case, are spat up in a room into 
which there is no free access of sunlight and that there is 
no care taken to disinfect the expectoration, what must the 
inevitable consequences be ? 

As has been previously remarked, the cow is peculiarly 
susceptible to this disease. It is much more prevalent 
among dairy cattle than among beef cattle. The percentage 
of tuberculous cows among some dairy herds has been esti- 
mated as high as 50 and even 60 per cent. The most expert 
veterinarian cannot, by the ordinary means of examination, 
diagnose a case of tuberculosis in a cow in its early stages. 
It is only by testing them with tuberculin that the sound 
can be differentiated from the diseased animals. In every 
instance where the tuberculin test indicated the presence of 
tuberculosis and the animal was afterwards killed, the au- 


topsy confirmed the diagnosis. It is not necessary that the 
udders of a cow should be tuberculous in order that her 
milk should convey the infection. It is sufficient if she has 
a general tuberculosis or even a local tuberculosis of any 
important organ. When we consider how extensively cow's 
milk is used as an article of food, especially for infants, we 
can readily imagine what an Important role it plays in the 
dissemination of tuberculosis. It is believed that nearly all 
cases of scrofula (which is simply another name for tuber- 
culosis of the lymphatic glands) occurring in children can 
be traced to nursing a tuberculous mother or wet nurse, or 
to feeding with milk from a tuberculous cow. 

If all tuberculous sputa were thoroughly disinfected or 
better still, destroyed, and the use of tuberculous milk ex- 
cluded, the problem of the prevention of tuberculosis would 
be practically solved, for all the other sources of the infec- 
tion are comparatively unimportant 

But for the production of tuberculosis, it is not sufficient 
that the seed be simply sown. As in the parable of the 
sower "who went forth for to sow," the great majority of 
the seed happily fall by the wayside and perish. The next 
largest number fall upon stony ground and fail to take root, 
whilst a comparatively few only fall on good ground and 
bring forth an abundant harvest of disease and death. 

What is this "good ground" upon which it is necessary 
for the seed to fall in order that a crop of the disease may 
be produced? Stated generally, it is a condition of catar- 
rhal inflammation of the part where the infection is received. 
Where it is received by inhalation there must first be a 
laryngeal, tracheal, bronchial or alveolar catarrh. Where it 
is received through the ingestion of tuberculous food, there 
must first be a gastric or intestinal catarrh. The gates are 
in some way, as it were, opened by inflammatory processes 
for the entrance of the foreign invaders. It has been a fre- 
quent observation of clinicians that an ordinary, persistent 
bronchitis may terminate in phthisis pulmonalis. The laity 
commonly speak of "a bad cold going into consumption." 


It is not likely that this catholic consent, this general con- 
sensus of opinion, both of the profession and of the laity, in 
all times and in all countries, — semper, vbique, omnibus, — can 
be erroneous. This state of inflammation (generally catar- 
rhal), then, is the second factor necessary for the production 
of tuberculosis. 

But even after the gates have been left ajar by some in- 
flammatory process and the foreign invaders have entered 
the citadel, they have not yet gained the victory; it still re- 
mains for them to overpower the garrison. This garrison is 
composed of the phagocytes of the body. They must be 
functionally weak and inactive or few in number before they 
can be overcome. Anything that lowers the general vitality, 
as deficient food, whether of quality or quantity, insufficient 
clothing or housing, overwork, exhausting disease, Ac., 
greatly increases the vulnerability of a subject. If a white 
rat, for instance, which is ordinarily immune to anthrax, be 
put upon a treadmill and worked until exhausted, he be- 
comes quite susceptible to the disease. This increased vul- 
nerability, as some would express it, or lowered functional 
activity of the phagocytes, as others would prefer to state 
it, constitutes, then, the third factor necessary for the pro- 
* duction of tuberculosis. 

To state the whole theory of the etiology of tuberculosis 
in mathematical language, I would say : 

Tuberculosis =xyz, an equation wherein x represents 
the introduction into the system of the active agent of the 
infection, the bacillus, y stands for the state of catarrhal in- 
flammation which prepares the "good ground" for its recep- 
tion, and z represents the weakened functional activity of 
the phagocytes. 

I imagine that some of you are by this time asking your- 
selves the question, "what has all this to do with the ne- 
gro?" Simply this, that the etiology of tuberculosis in the 
negro is the same as the etiology of tuberculosis in any 
other animal. It is only necessary now to apply the prin- 
ciples here developed to the case of the negro. "The nigger 
is in the wood pile," and I will now proceed to uncover him. 


There are no statistics in existence, as far as I am aware, 
as to the prevalence of tuberculosis among the negroes 
whilst they were slaves, but it is the unanimous testimony 
of all those who are old enough to remember, both in and 
out of the profession, that he was considered at that time as 
almost entirely exempt from the disease. The only negroes 
here in the black belt who had consumption were those who 
were brought either from some of the border states or from 
the sea coast, and thus had had opportunities of receiving 
the infection. Those who were born and reared here never 
had it There can be no question as to the apparent immu- 
nity that he then enjoyed, but I believe that this immunity 
was only apparent. He was probably as susceptible then 
as he is now. The negro himself has not changed; he was 
the same negro in slavery times that he is now. But his 
whole environment and circumstances have totally changed. 
Whatever sins against or injustice to the negro may be al- 
leged by some, truthfully or otherwise, against the practice 
of negro slavery as it formerly prevailed here in the south, 
one thing is certain, viz., that it involved a system of sani- 
tary police that served to effectually protect him against the 
ravages of consumption. This undoubted fact should and 
does teach a great lesson in sanitary science. It proves un- 
questionably that tuberculosis, the greatest plague of the 
earth, is pre-eminently a preventable disease, — a fact of im- 
mense practical importance for the health and happiness of 
the people of all countries. 

But how sadly for the negro has all this changed, a change 
from almost complete exemption to extreme prevalency. 
Vital statistics wherever they have been gathered, whether 
in northern hospitals, or by health boards here in the south, 
or by the United States Census Bureau, show conclusively 
that the disease is now very prevalent and very fatal among 
the negroes. A circumstance to be specially noticed in this 
connection is, that this great change commenced immedi- 
ately upon his emancipation. It was frequently remarked 
upon by observant persons during the first few years after 
the war. Our experience here in the south, however, is not 


an isolated one of the kind. The English and German phy- 
sicians in Africa have long observed that, whilst consump- 
tion was scarcely known in the interior of that continent, 
yet that when the inhabitants of these regions were brought 
to the seacoast, and especially when they were carried to 
Europe, they quickly succumbed to the disease. The In- 
dians in their savage state were formerly supposed to be 
exempt from the disease, but now it is rapidly increasing 
among them, and their death rate from this cause is already 

Whilst the death rate from tuberculosis amongst the In- 
dians is three times as great in the reservation in New York 
as in Dakota, yet the tribes inhabiting the foothills of the 
Rocky Mountains, where consumption is extremely rare 
among whites, and where patients from the east do well, 
show a death rate from this cause that is described as "enor- 

The causes, which led up to this great prevalence of the 
disease in a race that was previously almost exempt, natur- 
ally arrange themselves into three classes, corresponding to 
the three factors which we saw entered into the etiology of 
tuberculosis — the x, y and z of our equation. Taking up 
the first, the x, let us inquire if the negro has more oppor- 
tunities now, than in slavery times of coming across the 
infection? In order to answer this question, we must com- 
pare his environment and his circumstances then and now. 
Then, he was surrounded by a veritable cordon sanitaire, as 
it were. He was confined in quarters ; he could not visit 
even a neighboring plantation or village without the 
written permission of his owner, except on pain of being 
taken up and punished by the "patrollers." Hence his old 
song, "Bun, nigger, run, or the patteroller catch you." He 
could not marry off Che plantation without the consent of 
his owner, who was generally an intelligent person, and 
would not allow him to marry a consumptive or sickly 
woman. Now, he travels wherever his own sweet will leads 
him and his means permit, and he marries or rather cohabits 
with any negress he fancies. Then, if he was guilty of any 


petty misdemeanor, lie simply received a lashing from the 
overseer, and was put to healthy exercise in the open air ; 
now, during the criminal week of our courts the court-houses 
are redolent with his perfume, and our jails and convict 
cells are crowded with them. Prisons have ever been con- 
sidered a prolific source for all infectious diseases. Then 
(in slavery times), the owner of nearly every large planta- 
tion employed a white preacher to hold orderly and decent 
religious services on Sundays in the open air; now the ne- 
gro has developed into a highly religious animal and re- 
joices in "big meetings" and "revivals," generally held in 
small, ill-ventilated and ill-lighted meeting houses. Then, 
he attended no political gatherings ; you all remember what 
large "pow-wows," conventions, &c, he held during and 
after the reconstruction period. Then, the negro children 
generally played, most frequently stark naked, in the open 
air and sunlight ; now they are crowded into small school 
houses where no attention is paid to hygienic arrangements. 
Then, if a negro became sickly his owner sold him off, just 
as a person would get rid of a sickly mule now. Then, on 
every large plantation, the sick were cared for in a special 
house provided for the purpose, a veritable hospital, by the 
mistress assisted by selected nurses. Now, the sick room 
is also the sleeping room for probably a half-dozen other 
persons. It is also the cook room. How can the contagion 
fail to spread under such circumstances? Then, attention 
was paid to the under-drainage of the cabins in the quarter, 
and they were regularly whitewashed and limed; now, the 
negro allows all manner of filth to accumulate under his 
cabin. From these and many other instances that might 
be mentioned, it is evident that the negro's opportunities 
for meeting up with the infection have been increased mani- 
fold. He must pay the penalty of becoming civilized. I 
think that this is the great cause of the change that we have 
noticed here in the south in his relations to tuberculosis. 

As regards the second factor in the causation of tubercu- 
losis, the state of catarrhal inflammation which furnishes 
the suitable soil for the infection, it is certain that the negro 


is cow more exposed to the causes of these inflammations 
than he was then. Whilst bronchitis and the other catarrhs 
are probably of microbic origin, yet the causes assigned are 
"taking cold" from exposure, insufficient clothing, bad hous- 
ing and the like. Similarly, gastric and intestinal catarrhs 
are usually believed to be due to improper food. In slavery 
times the negro was furnished by his owner with an abun- 
dance of plain but wholesome food, he was comfortably clad 
and housed; now he has to provide all these things for him- 
self. How poorly he does this, in many instances, you all 

Under the third class of causes that have wrought this 
great change in the negro, it may be noticed that not only 
tuberculosis but all other infectious diseases have greatly 
increased in the race since emancipation, for the same rea- 
sons that have already been assigned. This is especially 
true as regards syphilis. Whilst syphilis is not tuberculosis 
and does not beget tuberculosis or scrofula any more than 
a sheep begets a goat, yet it is undoubtedly true that an 
attack of syphilis frequently greatly lessens the powers of 
vital resistance to disease in its subject; he becomes more 

The circumstances that have brought about this change 
in the negro seem to me so numerous and various that it is 
impossible to think of and enumerate them alL I have en- 
deavored to indicate and classify a few of them as best I 
could. I think the causes I have assigned are adequate to 
account for the effect observed. 

This is probably the proper place to note the clinical va- 
riety of tuberculosis most frequently met with in the negro. 
This is the phthisis florida of the writers, the "galloping con- 
sumption" of ordinary parlance. The disease generally 
runs a much more acute course in the negro than in the 
white man. One form is especially acute and should be 
mentioned on account of its liability to be mistaken for 
pneumonia, viz : acute pulmonic phthisis. A stout, robust 
negro is taken with a sudden chill, followed by high fever 
and intense pain in the side with suffocative feelings. Soon 


there is mucoid expectoration which afterwards becomes 
rusty colored. The attending physician is apt to suppose 
that he has a typical case of croupous pneumonia, but the 
eighth and tenth days pass by and the expected crisis does 
not occur. The physician still flatters himself with the be- 
lief that it is a case of unresolved pneumonia and that 
everything will finally be all right, but the symptoms con- 
tinue to increase in severity, and at the end of the second 
or third week his man is probably dead. By reason of 
strength, though, he may last two or three months — hardly 
ever longer. The only means of early diagnosing such cases 
from pneumonia is by means of the microscope, finding the 
bacillus in the one and the pneumococcus in the other. It 
is probable that many deaths have been assigned to pneu- 
monia that were really due to acute pulmonic phthisis. 


This paper might here appropriately end, but it seems to 
me that it would be incomplete without adding a few words 
as to the prevention of tuberculosis. I have already said 
that it is pre-eminently a preventable disease. A knowledge 
of the etiology of any infectious disease always gives us the 
key to its prevention. I know of scarcely any other infec- 
tious disease whose etiology is better understood than that 
of tuberculosis, and, therefore, it ought certainly to be pre- 
ventable. Theoretically, it is possible to banish tubercu- 
losis from the face of the earth, but there are many practical 
difficulties in the way of the accomplishment of so desirable 
an end. 

This Association is by law the state board of health. We 
should at once resolve ourselves into a society for the pre- 
vention of tuberculosis, and each county medical society 
should be a subordinate society for the prevention of tuber- 
culosis. We are very apprehensive about the invasion of 
this country by cholera during the coming summer, and get 
appropriations from Congress to aid in preventing it, and 
hold conferences of health officers in regard to it and so on. 


But here is a greater plague all arouud us, constantly, un- 
ceasingly and unremittingly at work, causing an hundred 
fold more disease and death, yet we are not alarmed and 
absolutely do nothing to antagonize this enemy that is all 
around us and constantly menacing us. The very constancy 
of his menaces have probably rendered us familiar with and 
indifferent to him. Because it is never epidemic like cholera 
or yellow fever, we overlook the fact that it probably yearly 
kills more people than all other infectious diseases com- 
bined. Year after year we go on losing the ablest bodied 
in the land, white and black, those in middle life, from con- 
sumption, and never think of protecting ourselves against 
its ravages. The main function of a bqard of health is to 
protect the public against disease. What greater or more 
inviting field for its activity could a board of health have 
than is furnished in the case of tuberculosis? In what 
other direction can a board of health find such an oppor- 
tunity for usefulness? I know of no other. 

A patient dies in a room of small-pox; the room is at 
once fumigated, disinfected and ventilated before any other 
person dares to occupy it. I remember an instance occur- 
ring soon after the war, where a negro died of smallpox in 
a cabin, and the owner of the plantation immediately set fire 
to it and burnt up cabin, body and all. This was certainly 
a very effectual method of getting rid of the infection. Why 
should not the same precautions be taken where the death 
occurs from tuberculosis as where it occurs from smallpox? 
The one disease is as infectious as the other. It is true 
that a more intimate contact is necessary to convey the in- 
fection of tubercle and that the breath of tuberculous pa- 
tients is not infective, but their dried expectoration is highly 
so, and may retain its virulence in an unventilated and un- 
lighted room for months after death. Do you ask what 
measures I would propose for the prevention of tubercu- 
losis? I would answer, preliminarily, that any preventive 
measures applicable to the blacks must be equally appli- 
cable to the whites, for it is one and the same disease in both 
races. The etiology is the same, and consequently the 


methods of prevention must be the same. I would also an- 
swer that, as for myself, I have but little faith in the virtue 
of legislative enactments for the prevention of disease, and, 
as for that matter, for the prevention of anything else. I 
have still less faith in education, as education ordinarily 
goes. But I do have great faith in the efficacy of a true 
education, an education in things and not merely in words, 
which are only the symbols of things. To state it in other 
words, I do believe in the efficiency of an education in sci- 
ence. It is first necessary to impress upon the doctors of 
the state the infective nature of the disease and the sources 
of the infection. I fear that even some of our doctors have 
not as yet adequately grasped the idea of the infectiveness 
of tuberculosis. Many of us still regard the disease as 
hereditary and autogenous and consequently as not prevent- 
able. Many of us, I fear, have not kept abreast with the 
progress in the investigations on this subject. How can we 
reasonably expect the general public, especially ignorant 
negroes, to be instructed as to the infectiveness of tubercle, 
until the profession itself is thoroughly indoctrinated in the 
idea. The specific measure looking towards the prevention 
of tuberculosis that I would recommend would be the pre- 
paration, by the committee of public health, of a health cir- 
cular, giving instructions as to the infective nature of the 
disease and directions as to disinfecting and disposing of 
the tuberculous sputa. It should also insist on the precau- 
tion that no infant should be fed on cow's milk until it be 
first sterilized by thorough boiling. Goat's milk might not 
need this precaution. Such a circular should be distributed 
first to all the doctors in the state and then to the public 
generally, and especially to the negro preachers and school 
teachers. These are generally the most intelligent of their 
race, and thus I think a great work in sanitary education 
might be forwarded. By § 1282 of the Code of Alabama, it 
is the duty of county boards of health "to examine as far as 
practicable into all cases of malignant, pestilential, infectious, 
epidemic and endemic diseases occurring in the county, and 
the cause thereof, and to take such steps as may be neces- 


sary for their abatement and prevention." By § 1289, it is 
the duty of the county health officer "to keep a book to be 
styled * Register of Infectious Diseases/ in which he must 
register all cases of pestilential or infectious diseases occur- 
ring in the county reported to him, with such other details 
as he may be required to enter," and "to make diligent in- 
quiry into all cases of pestilential or infectious diseases oc- 
curring in the county, coming to his knowledge, or of which 
he is informed, reporting the facts thereof to the county 
board of health, and employing all such means as he has 
authority to employ to prevent the spread of such disease." 
By § 1282, it is the duty of every physician, attending or 
treating any case of pestilential or infectious disease, within 
such time as may be prescribed by the county board of 
health, to make a full report thereof to the county health 
officer, specifying the name of the patient, the locality within 
which such patient was, or may be found, the character of 
the disease, and such other details as are or may be pre- 
scribed by the county board of health. If a case of pesti- 
lential or infectious disease, not attended to or treated by a 
physician should occur, it is the duty of the head of the 
family in which it occurs, or of the person on whose prem- 
ises it occurs, to make a like report thereof to the county 
health officer." It will thus be seen that so far as legisla- 
tion goes we have already all the law that is needed for the 
prevention of tuberculosis. The county boards of health 
might make the additional requirement that the health 
officer, immediately on learning of a case of the disease, 
should confirm or disprove the diagnosis by means of a mi- 
croscopical examination, and should give instructions as to 
the disinfection of all tuberculous expectoration or dis- 
charges from tuberculous ulcers. The bacillus tuberculosis 
is not now a saprophyte, though it was probably originally 
one ; it is now a true parasite. That is to say, it cannot live 
indefinitely outside the body of its host This fact is of im- 
portance, as it should greatly encourage us in our efforts at 
disinfecting tuberculous matter of all kinds. Another fact 


that should encourage us is, that it is readily killed by sun- 
light It is probable that, tuberculous expectoration on the 
streets, or other places where sunlight has free access, loses 
its virulency before it becomes dried and floats in the air. 

Whilst on the subject of prevention, I may as well men- 
tion an idea that has occurred to me, an idea, however, which 
I advance with some diffidence. It is this: It has been 
demonstrated in the cases of some infectious diseases that 
if the blood serum of an animal, that is ordinarily immune 
from a particular disease, be injected into one that is sus- 
ceptible to it, the immunity is conferred on the susceptible 
animal What the exact chemical nature of the immu- 
nity conferring substance, existing in the blood serum of 
the one animal and not previously in that of the other, has 
not, as far as I am aware, been definitely determined, but it 
is probably in the nature of a ferment or enzyme. Unfor- 
tunately, there is no animal that is completely immune from 
tuberculosis. The dog, the goat and the horse, as before 
remarked, are the least susceptible ; that is, they possess a 
comparative immunity. Might it not be possible that this 
comparative immunity could be conferred on other animals, 
man included, by the injection of the filtered and sterilized 
serum of dog blood, goat blood or horse blood? I think 
the idea is worthy of investigation by some of our experi- 
menters. Certain French doctors have already used the 
serum of dog blood in the treatment of tuberculosis and 
have reported good results therefrom. 

Unless some preventive measures are adopted, the pros- 
pect is that as our cities become larger and more densely 
populated and the facilities for travel multiply, tuberculosis 
will spread more and more rapidly, not only among the 
blacks but also among the whites, just as it is now spreading 
with increasing rapidity among the Indians. I have already 
said that it is probable that the majority of the cases of tu- 
berculosis undergo spontaneous recovery. The question 
naturally suggests itself, are these persons who have obso- 
lete tubercle liable to reinfection ? I have been unable to 


find any literature bearing on this point We know that the 
syphilitic person is not liable to reinfection; the virus of 
chancre is not auto-inoculable. We also know that this 
protection is transmitted in some degree to the children of 
syphilitic parents. The whole civilized world has now be- 
come syphilized, and hence we have no such terrible epi- 
demics of syphilis as occurred in Europe in the sixteenth 
century, attacking the Pope and the royal families, as well 
as the "common masses of the common people." Syphilis 
has now become a comparatively mild disease, when occur- 
ring among civilized races. But when it occurs among the 
retarded races — retarded that is in their evolution — it ex- 
hibits the same virulence that it did in Europe in the six- 
teenth century. 

May not this same process of evolution explain the greater 
immunity from tuberculosis possessed by the whites over 
the negroes and Indians? The two diseases have so many 
analogies that it seems to me that this is not an improbable 

Dr. Edward Henby Sholl. 

In a paper on "The Negro and his Death Bate," read be- 
fore the Jefferson County Medical Society — afterward pub- 
lished in the medical, sanitary, insurance and other journals 
of this country — I gave the following statistics, based on 
the vital statistic reports of the corporate limits of the city 
of Birmingham, from January 1st, 1890, to May 1st, 1891, — 
population, 27,000: 

Deaths from pneumonia — whites, 57 ; negroes, 65. 

Population — whites, 17,550 ; negroes, 9,450. 

Bate per thousand — whites, 3.24; negroes, 6.88. 

Deaths from consumption — whites, 21 ; negroes, 63. 

Bate per thousand — whites, 1.19; negroes, 6.88. 

Equalizing figures of population, death rate of whites 

from pulmonary diseases to total death rate of whites, is 

19.20; of negroes, 41.28. 


A study of the vital statistics of Birmingham for the year 
1892, furnished me by Dr. H. N. Bosser, health officer, gives 
the following : 

Deaths from consumption — whites, 26; negroes, 37. 

Bate per thousand population — whites, 1.48; negroes, 3.91. 

Deaths from pneumonia — whites, 20; negroes, 26. 

Bate per thousand — whites, 1.14; negroes, 2.75. 

Total death rate per thousand, pulmonary diseases as 
above — whites, 2.62; negroes, 6.66. 

Total death rate of pulmonary diseases in proportion to 
total death rate — whites, 18.40; negroes, 41.13. 

Bate to total death rate by consumption — whites, 10.40 ; 
pneumonia, 8. 

Bate to total death rate by consumption — negroes, 2410 ; 
pneumonia, 17.03. 

County of Jefferson, excluding Birmingham — population, 
62,032; 65-100 whites; 35-100 negroes. 

Consumption — deaths per 1,000 population — whites, 64- 
100 ; negroes, 2 5-10. 

Consumption ratio to total of deaths — whites, 8.77; ne- 
groes, 39.90. 

Pneumonia deaths per 1000 population — whites, 54-100; 
negroes, 1.7. 

Ratio to total of deaths — whites, 5.48 ; negroes, 17.08. 

Total ratio of deaths by consumption and pneumonia — 
whites, 14.25 ; negroes, 56.98. 

isaac Lafayette watkins. 371 


By Ibaao LaFayette Watkins, M. D., Montgombby, 
Counsellor-elect of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 


Shelby Chadwiok Carson, M. D., Bessemer. 

Russell McWhobter Cunningham, M. D., Birmingham. 

To make a report on a distinctive Gynecology in Ala- 
bama is a duty I assume with great trepidation — in fact, 
there is no such thing. The great ease and rapidity with 
which knowledge is disseminated at the present time, has 
obliterated inter-state characteristics. With the exception 
of some minor differences in technique and in manipulations 
in different countries, gynecology is the same the world over. 

The few remarks to which I shall briefly ask your atten- 
tion, will demand on your part a charitable consideration if 
they assume too much of a personal experience or observa- 
tion. The topics will be discussed in the most superficial 
manner, without the effort of being novel 


It is no longer necessary to urge upon this intelligent 
body the fact that this is one of the most important special- 
ties pertaining to medicine. Its functions are to deal with 
all pathological conditions peculiar to women, including ob- 
stetrics. The sexual organs of the female are of a very deli- 
cate structure and intensely sensative function. These facts 
have not been recognized by the cruel hand of fashion and 
custom in modern civilization. 


A thorough knowledge of their anatomy and physiology, 
with some degree of familiarity with collateral branches of 
medicine and surgery, is necessary to accomplish the ends 
and aims of one who devotes his time to this branch of 

The family physician as surgeon, accoucher and medical 
factotum is now, in the larger cities at least, a thing of the 
past From a sentimental view the idea is not an agreeable 
one. The surrendering of the pleasant and confidential re- 
lations of family and physician, and giving place to half a 
dozen attendants upon the different ills of the family — much 
after the plan of the business man's, can but result in great 
good to any community. The inability of one mind to ac- 
quire all the possibilities of the medical science is too clear 
to admit of discussion in this connection. The man who 
attempts to attend a woman in confinement, or to treat a 
pathological condition of her organs of generation, is dealing 
with that function which peoples the world It is in his 
power to make two blades of grass grow where none had 
grown before, or he may through ignorance, or neglect, de- 
stroy her only chance for that most noble function of women 
— namely, "to replenish the earth." I would again urge 
that you no longer trust to the fashionable coverings of pet- 
ticoats and skirts as a shield to protect you from imperfect 
work, but consider the great importance of what you are 
doing, and prepare yourselves before you assume charge of 
these cases. 

The gynecologist has no royal road to fortune. In the 
whole domain of medicine there is no more fertile field for 
criminal negligence than in gynecology. Many women re- 
fuse examination, — trusting, rather, to some one of the so- 
called female regulators. It most frequently depends on 
the indisposition of the doctor. He either has not the time, 
or the arrangement convenient, to make a vaginal examina- 
tion. Remedies which have been followed by relief on 
former occasions (although an entirely different pathological 
condition may exist) are prescribed. No amount of charity 
can excuse such wort Many cancers uteri have passed be- 

isaao Lafayette watkinb. 878 

yond the hope of relief for failure of recognition. But a 
few stomachs have been converted into a medicine reposi- 
tory for the relief of symptoms, when relief would soon have 
followed had proper treatment been resorted to. As gynae- 
cologists let our efforts be directed in a way that this de- 
partment may compare favorably with other branches of 

You, gentlemen, who go in and out as general practi- 
tioners, cannot escape a very grave responsibility. It is to 
you that mothers apply first for advice when difficulty at- 
tends the period of puberty. Let your advice be wise, and 
with a judicious hygiene at this important time you will 
render female patients less susceptible to disease when they 
reach maturity, and better able to perform their marital du- 
ties and capable of bringing forth that much desired progeny. 
In this age of progressive medicine it would be profitable if 
we could devise some way to keep our young women from 
becoming so early in life gynaecological patients. 

It would be a more agreeable task for me to pass on to 
the consideration of some one of the capital operations in 
surgical gynecology, but these will receive due considera- 
tion by special papers. I shall, therefore, discuss only 
minor operations and practices in gynaecology. 

The question of diagnosis in this branch of medicine is 
one beset with many difficulties. It has been the custom 
heretofore to divide gynaecological patients into two classes, 
namely, married and unmarried. With unmarried women 
you are not to propose examination without first seeking 
relief by the use of special medicines. This is a pernicious 
doctrine, and should not be regarded with favorable consid- 
eration. You have no more right to let an unmarried 
woman suffer for want of proper treatment than one who is 

Not a few girls are subjects of vaginitis, endometritis and 
displacement, which if properly treated would save them 
from the more serious forms of disease of the fallopian 
tubes and ovaries. 

The symptoms which you may elicit in the rational his- 


tory of a gynaecological patient are too numerous for me to 
mention; at the same time there are but few symptoms 
which can be regarded as peculiar to the female organs of 
generation. The desire for sympathy, the natural tendency 
to hysteria or the effort to deceive you are all to be consid- 
ered, and it is at last left with you to determine the validity 
of symptoms. As a rule it is pain which drives a woman to 
consult a gynaecologist This pain may be located in differ- 
ent parts of the body. Aside from the pelvis it may be 
located in legs, head, heart or stomach. It is this feature 
that has given rise to that very familiar expression "hyste- 
roneurosis." Pain in the lumbar region may be the result 
of one of several conditions. It is not true as taught by 
most text books that backward displacement pressing on 
the sacral nerves causes it In the majority of instances 
it is due to diseased ovaries and tubes low down in Douglas' 
space. This condition is always accompanied by endome- 
tritis and the combined influence may give rise to very an- 
noying pain in the back. Pain in the leg is produced by in- 
flammatory deposit in the broad ligiment with inflamed and 
adherent fallopian tubes and ovaries. It is these pathologi- 
cal conditions which give rise to that common symptom so 
frequently referred to as prolapsus or "falling of the womb" 
with a sensation as though everything was coming out 
These are very expressive terms with the laity and not in- 
frequently heard from physicians. An examination will re- 
veal a thick and broad ligament with inflamed and adherent 
fallopian tubes and ovaries — either in Douglas* culdesac or 
attached anteriorly; sharp cutting or stinging pain in the 
ovarian region so frequently met with, and once thought to 
be the result of gonorrheal salpingitis, is symptomatic of 
ovaritis simply. That atrocious pain in the bladder so often 
encountered is now known, in the majority of cases, to be 
the result of some inflammation elsewhere in the pelvis. 
In operations on the cervix I have witnessed the symptom 
to a very annoying degree. These symptoms are no longer 
explained by an exaggerated antiflexion. The organ pos- 
sesses the happy faculty of adjusting itself to changed rela- 

isaao Lafayette watkins. 375 

tion to a marked degree, as is shown in the presence of 
fibroid tumors, Alexander's operation or hysteroraphy. 

Pain best calculated to excite the solicitude of the doctor 
as well as the patient is that commonly known as dysmen- 
orrhea. Until recently it was the custom of authors to give 
some fanciful classification of this symptom. The effect was 
misleading, both in diagnosis and in the application of reme- 
dies. Pain preceding the flow is generally the result of 
tubal abnormality, and that accompanying the flow caused 
by endometritis— generally just within the internal os. The 
relief of the endometritis, with free drainage established, 
will effect a cure in a very large majority of the cases of 

Rational symptoms in gynaecology are worth less than in 
any other branch of medicine. As a rule, time spent in ob- 
taining them is wasted. The physical signs, after all, con- 
stitute our only guide. 

Mbny things have been written on the subject of posture 
in gynaecology . Recently William Warren Potter published 
a series of articles on the subject, which do more credit to 
his scholarly attainments than to his practical observation 
as a specialist His cut showing Sims' position is imperfect 
in that the right leg is above and in front of the left, per- 
mitting the abdomen to come in contact with the table and 
the pelvic organs to advance in the same direction to the 
great disadvantage of the operator. This position properly 
is on the left side with the left arm behind, both legs drawn 
up to nearly a right angle with the body, with the right leg 
directly over the left In this position, with the perineum 
retracted, the greatest capacity of the vagina is obtained 

With a knowledge of your purpose, it is not a difficult 
matter to get the most favorable position. My individual 
choice is, for examination : The back, with the head on a 
very thin pillow, the legs drawn up, with instructions for 
the patient to breathe through her mouth. For all treat- 
ment, where an assistant can be obtained, I prefer the Sims 9 

On inspection of the vagina, we get symptoms I desire to 


discuss more fully. After parturition few vaginas return to 
their original shape, due to lacerating or separating some or 
all of the muscular fibres of the sphincter vaginae and trans- 
verse perineal muscles with their fascia. We now know 
that the pelvic floor is composed of more than a mere mass 
of cellular tissue covered with integument from an inch to an 
inch and a half long. The majority of injuries received 
during parturition involve in some manner these tissues. 
Within the last decade, these injuries and their treatment 
have, through the efforts of some honest workers, been very 
much better understood Gynecology is greatly indebted 
to Dr. Emmett for his untiring efforts in this direction. 

In order that I may give a more definite idea of what I 
wish to say, it will be necessary for me to recall to your 
minds the anatomy of the vaginal outlet The perineum is 
an elastic body composed of muscular fibre, fascia and adi- 
pose tissue so arranged as to best protect the three outlets, 
the anus, vagina and urethra. The levator ani muscle has 
its origin in the pubes, passes down in front of the vagina 
to the rectovaginal septum, where portions of its fibre spread 
out and form a broad aponeurosis extending some distance 
up the rectum, while other fibres pass around the anus to be 
inserted in the coccyx. The transversus perinei muscles 
arise from the ischia and pass in front of the levator ani 
muscle, where they are inserted in the perineal body. This 
muscle assists in the formation of the ischio-perineal fascia, 
which is a broad ligamentous band arising from the ischia 
and enters into the formation of the perineum also. The 
function of this structure is to turn the vaginal tissue in- 
wards, draw the anus forwards, and to support the recto- 
vaginal septum. A destruction of these perineal attach- 
ments frequently occurs either by the passage of the head 
or the shoulders during paturition. This may occur without 
any perceptible rent in the mucous membrane of the vagina. 
The transverse muscle contracts and separates the vaginal 
walls, the levator ani loses its power to constrict the vagina 
and we have a rolling out of the anterior and posterior 
vaginal walls or cystocele and rectocele. This fre- 

ISAAC Lafayette watkins. 877 

quently occurs without disturbing the skin portion of 
the perineum to any perceptible degree. This is the 
condition in which that form of relaxation of the 
perineum has occurred, as described by some authors. 
It results in a general prolapsus of all the pelvic organs, rec- 
tocle and cystocle. This is partly due to an effort of other 
tissue to close the vagina and the accumulation of feces in 
the rectum. I have seen destruction of the superficial struc- 
ture without any of the pathological conditions mentioned 
above. The internal or submucous injuries are rarely recog- 
nized by the casual observer; symptoms are attributed 
to others, and frequently imaginary troubles are looked for 
and a treatment only temporary at best in its effects is ap- 
plied To detect a submucous laceration it is only necessary 
to bear the perineum down and instruct the woman to cough, 
when the difficulty is perfectly clear. The patient will com- 
plain of an excessive coolness in the vagina on turning in 
bed, or an audible flatulence in walking or any exertion, as 
coughing or laughing. This is very disgusting to a refined 
woman, and frequently keeps them out of society. With 
these special symptoms we have failure of general health, 
imperfection, with depressed spirits and loss of co^ 
fidence in her ability to bear children, or that she was bear- 
ing children too fast These symptoms are certainly famil- 
iar to you alL A description of the operation devised by 
different surgeons for the relief of this condition would con- 
sume too much time for me to attempt it here. The most 
satisfactory operation in my hands is Bennett's V operation. 
It is more difficult to perform than some others, but leaves 
the vagina in a more natural condition, and when properly 
done will relieve the symptoms. 

The text books on obstetrics contain a great deal about 
protecting the perineum from injury during delivery. Few 
of them, however, say anything about the anterior vaginal 
walL Serious damage to the anterior wall resulting in dis- 
placement of the bladder is too common to be so neglected 
The most frequent abnormality is cystocele or prolopsus. 


The usual symptoms of imperfectly emptying the bladder, 
frequent desire to urinate, with headache, are the result 

These patients may be rendered comfortable by the use 
of some one of the numerous pessaries devised for anterior 
displacement, but they do not relieve the condition. The 
operations in general use are unsatisfactory, since the effects 
are not lasting. The elliptical operation by Dr. Watkins of 
Chicago is the best so far devised Owing to the relaxa- 
tion, it requires patience and some skill to perform it 

Lacerations of the cervix are not given the same attention 
now as a few years ago. It is no longer regarded necessary 
to operate on every cervix which has a slight rent The 
lacerations deserving attention are divided into lateral, bi- 
lateral and circular. These injuries have different effects 
on different women. I have seen very slight rents produce 
symptoms, when much larger ones had no unpleasant effects. 

In this country, at least, the propriety of operating on a 
lacerated cervix is no longer questioned The symtoms 
requiring the operations are both local and remote. The 
reflex symptoms of disease of the cervix are yet a subject of 
different theories. One, and the most plausible theory is, 
that they have their origin through the influence of the sym- 
pathetic nervous system. The cervix is covered with erec- 
tile tissue, richly supplied with sympathetic nerves. Head- 
ache occurring every six or eight days, disturbed vision, 
palpitation of the heart and gastric disturbances are fre- 
quently produced by these cervical lesions. Although Dr. 
Emmett does not operate more than once in ten times where 
he did formerly, he is yet a strong advocate of trachelorra- 
phy for the relief of these symptoms. The operation is 
simple, and any physician should be able to perform it It 
should be done under strict antisepsis and thereby prevent 
appendigeal complications following the operation. The 
application of nitrate of silver and other caustics for the 
purpose of curing "ulceration" so-called, and smoothing 
over the cervix, is a very unwise practice. They destroy 
the glandular functions of the organ and cause cervical hy- 

isaao Lafayette watkins. 379 

The endometrium has not been neglected by medical writ- 
ers of the present. It is the lining membrane of the uterus 
and fallopian tubes. It is of glandular formation and is 
thrown off with each menstrual period. It has no parallel 
organ in the body and is the most easily infected of all other 
tissues. Its most formidable enemy is abortion. Next to 
this is the filthy instruments of doctors. Diseases of the 
endometrium formerly were divided into different classes 
according to the location of the inflammation. This is un- 
necessary, since it extends very rapidly through the entire 
uterine tissue when once established. 

The treatment of endometritis has undergone some change 
in the last few years. Dr. Polk of New York has inaugu- 
rated what he calls drainage treatment, that has now be- 
come generally accepted as the most valuable remedy at our 
command. As it has not yet found its way into all the text 
books, it may not be unprofitable for me to give a brief de- 
scription of the operation here. 

The instruments necessary for the operation are Sims' 
speculum, volselum forceps, uterine dilator, cervical tube 
one half to three eighths of an inch in diameter, with handle 
attached ; Bozeman's intrauterine irrigator, and very slen- 
der dressing forceps. Though a very short time is required 
to do the operation, it is too painful to attempt without an 
anesthetic, except where the os is patulous. The patient 
anesthetised, and on her left side, the genitalia should be 
thoroughly washed with soap and warm water, vagina irri- 
gated with bichloride solution one to two thousand ; with 
Sims' speculum the perineum is retracted; the anterior lip 
of the cervix caught up by the forceps, the dilator is intro- 
duced through the internal os and the blades dilated to 
three quarters of an inch. With a sharp curette the entire 
endometrial suf ace is passed over, the force depending upon 
the firmness of the uterine wall, noting closely its condition 
as you pass over it The cavity is then irrigated with bi- 
chloride solution, one to five hundred [thousand?], until all 
hemorrhage is stopped. If this give trouble, mop the cavity 
out with Churchill's Tincture! which generally controls it 


To prevent poisoning, the cavity should hare one quart of 
warm sterilized water passed through it Iodoform gauze 
in strips three fourths of an inch wide is inserted through the 
tube with the slender forceps. Two to five yards may be 
introduced. It should remain four to six days, then it 
should be removed and renewed in bad cases. Patient 
should be kept in bed ten days. The strictest antiseptic 
precautions should be observed in every step of the opera- 
tion. The symptoms following the operation are variable. 
I have seen some violent cases of uterine colic produced by 
the packing. In these cases it is a wise course to remove 
the gauze and insert a grooved rubber tube, and if tolerated, 
it should be be left for two or three months. I have resorted 
with perfect satisfaction to this treatment in recent cases 
of catarrhal salpingitis and ovaritis. Though not success- 
ful in every instance, it should be given a trial in young 
women with these troubles. 

A report on gynaecology would not be complete without 
some reference to abdominal surgery. While I am not un- 
mindful of the fact that the task of the critic is no easy 
one, and'that his efforts are more than likely to make him 
enemies, I cannot refrain from saying something of that 
class of physicians who appear so frequently in medical 
literature in the most emphatic denunciatory terms of that 
class of surgeons. Antisepsis is veritably a weapon of de- 
fense for the surgeon, and doubtless it has encouraged him 
to venture where his operative skill was unnecessary. Yet 
if he who so vehemently attacks him would grant him aver- 
age honesty, such opposition would be less noticeable. 
These mourners over the so-called mutilations are men 
either wanting in skill or energy to undertake such work, or 
those who have done so and failed The doctor who works 
for other than the interest of his patient should not be 
allowed to practice medicine. When indicated, there is no 
branch of medicine that affords such happy results as the 
removal of diseased ovaries and tubes. 

Hysterectomy for malignant disease of the uterus is gen- 
erally conceded as a jutifiable operation. With its perfected 

isaao Lafayette watkins. 881 

technique, the mortality has been reduced to the minimum. 
The results from the operation are not what it is desirable 
to have them. This is largely due to operating too late. 
When physicians appreciate the necessity of vaginal exam- 
ination, and cease to prescribe without some knowledge of 
the cause of symptoms, these oases will reach the surgeon 
sooner and his work will be more effectual The custom of 
consigning these unfortunate women to the grave after they 
have advanced beyond a certain stage, without medical aid, 
is wrong. With the proper use of some of the disinfectants 
and germicides her life may be prolonged and at the same 
time made much more comfortable. I have by the bi-weekly 
application of mixture of tannic acid and iodoform rendered 
them very comfortable and kept down the offensive odor. 


Authorities on mental aberration recognize the somatic 
influence over the function of the brain. In the heated dis- 
cussions between alienist and gynaecologist, the only practi- 
cal question has been lost sight of, namely, are insane women 
capable of suffering from pelvic disease, and can surgery do 
nothing for their relief? It is not my purpose to discuss 
this subject; rather to give some conclusions reached by 
careful observation by W. P. Manton of Detroit and Dr. 
Rho£ of Chicago. 

Barnes has said: "An insane woman has as much right to 
treatment for pelvic disease as her sane sister. Out of 
eighteen patients operated on by Dr. Bhoe, whose insanity 
had taken the form of melancholic mania, periodic mania, 
hysterical mania, puerperal insanity, epileptic insanity and 
hysteric epilepsy, in twelve relief or benefit followed the 
operation. Dr. Manton states, as gynaecologist to two insane 
hospitals, he is of the opinion that a large percentage of 
the female patients of the asylums would be relieved or 
benefitted by treatment by a competent gynaecologist 


Dr. Shelby Chadwiok Carson. 

The few remarks which I wish to make will be for the 
purpose of ridiculing the abuse of what is, under proper 
circumstances, quite a remedial measure. I refer to the 
wholesale mutilation of women. The well known radical 
views — as enunciated at Huntsville two years ago — of the 
gentleman just preceding me led me to suppose they would 
be in order on this occasion. His assertion in regard to the 
examination and treatment of virgins gives rise to the 
thought of what a dearth of sentiment is there — what a se- 
verely practical age is this upon which we have fallen! We 
were wont to think that the lovely Yenus merely employed 
a figure of speech when she referred to that portion of her 
anatomy "where pleasant fountains lie ;" but, in these latter 
days, it has proven a veritable fountain of perennial joy to 
that species of the genus homo the carving (if not carnivo- 
rous) gynaecologist He seems to regard it as a "park" to 
be explored, a region worthy of his steeL Nay, were the 
Goddess of Beauty herself, arrayed in all the magic witchery 
of her charms, followed by all the nymphs, naiades and 
graces of mythology, to come trooping on dress parade be- 
fore one of these, he would merely transfix her with a gaze 
that would pierce the integumentary system and lay bare 
the reproductive organs. Woe be to her where there is the 
least departure from the norm! He ignores one of the 
"golden gems" of Goodell : "Women have some organs outside 
of the pelvis." Now, I belong to a limited degree and in 
some mild manner to this order of men, and while I have 
never — as Treves of London says others are inclined to do — 
"performed radical cures" upon all of my hernia cases, re- 
moved the ovaries from the majority of my nervous female 
patients, and tapped the ventricles of all hydrocephalics ;" 
yet I have by constant care and persevering use of mild 
measures relieved and cured many cases of ovaritis, ovarian 
neuralgia, sub-involution, endometritis — and I think I can 
safely add pyosalpinx. I have had a purulen tendometritis 
with a profuse discharge, where the inflammatory process had 

isaac Lafayette watkins. 383 

travelled along the tube and made exquisitely sensitive the 
sympathetic ovary, to yield like magic to Polk's method of 
rapid dilatation, curetting and packing. In many cases of 
pelvic disturbances have I seen the pinched features, the 
wan cheek, and the emaciated figure give place to robust 
health without the intervention of the knife. 

It would be unbecoming in one so humble as myself to 
criticize those brilliant masters in this department who have 
written their names high up on the honor roll, to whom the 
voices of thousands go up in applause ; but I must say, Mr. 
President, that I love them for the mistakes they have made, 
for the finger points — as danger signals — they have set up 
in the shape of unsexed women with uncured neuralgias, 
unrelieved abscesses and still existing adhesions, and un- 
sightly ventral hernias. 

I regard them as brilliant surgeons whose skill, coupled 
with the application of thoir knowledge of asepsis, enables 
them, with impunity, seemingly to tamper with the brittle 
thread of life — not as the eradicators of disease. 

As opposing the too ready resort to radical measures in 
this department, I have carefully compiled the following 
opinions from men of standing, both in Europe and Amer- 
ica, and classified them under several separate headings. 

what can justify a removal of appendages? 

Champneys, of London : 

You may take it as a maxim, that the necessity for these 
operations arises occasionally ; but I think you may also 
take it as a corollary, that any long list of these operations 
consists, in the main, of unjustifiable interferences. It is 
not the question of "another life saved," but of another life 
unjustifiably exposed to risk. To cure a patient by this 
method, whether she be a subject of perimetritis, or neuro- 
sis, or dispareunia, or what not, when she could have been 
cured without it, is just as bad surgery as to amputate a leg 
for a curable ulcer or for a curable disease of the joint 
Thus, in examining lists of operations do not look at the 


column filled with big D's and big It's. There wont be many 
big D's in any list of operations published. When there 
are many big D's the operations will not be published. But 
look for facts that will give you an indication of the justifi- 
ability of the operation — the duration of the illness, the 
details of the treatment, and the previous medical treat- 
ment — and these I am sorry to say you will often fail to find. 
Every recovery where the operation is unjustifiable, is very 
little less than an escape from punishment for a crime. That 
some who have largely practiced removal of the appendages 
disown the justifiability of a large amount of the work done, 
more or less in their name, will appear from this quotation 
from the Lancet: "The new principle introduced and cer- 
tainly alluded to on the other side of the Atlantic as 'Tait's 
law,' was first of all subject to a geat deal of misrepresenta- 
tion; and even within the last few years I have heard the 
President of a distinguished London society say that 'Tait's 
law' was, that when you were in doubt you must open the 
abdomen. I have constantly had to repudiate any such 
statement, because I hold that in every case in which the 
operation is performed the serious risk to the patient's life 
is to be justified by the incidence of suffering which she is 
undergoing, or the degree of risk of life to which she is be- 
ing constantly subjected by the disease. There can be no 
doubt whatever that within a short time there has been a 
large amount of grave malpractice on this point, and a large 
number of patients have been operated upon who ought 
never to have been touched." 



"Recovery after operations was by no means synonymous 
with restoration to health ; and in some instances sequel© 
were left which were more intolerable than the original con- 


"Allusion, at least, ought to be made to certain occasional 
sequel© which in cases are unavoidable. I refer to hernice 

isaag Lafayette watkinb. 38fr 

forming in the cicatrix of the wound in the abdominal wall, 
the fistul® from ligatures, to fecal and urinary fistula which 
in rare cases result from persistent attempts to separate 
adhesions. Again — mental disturbances are undoubtedly 
among the possible sequelae of the removal of the uterine 


"Through the removal of the uterus I have known a woman 
to become perfectly mad, and remain mad. Many such cases 
are on record." 



"Ablation of the appendages in chronic inflammatory 
affections does not bring about immediate relief from pain, 
and often causes much disappointment to the patient and a 
lot of trouble to the surgeon. 

PUcher : 

"Within the past two years I have been compelled to 
remove the appendages for the relief of chronic inflamma- 
tory conditions in four instances. All recovered excellently 
from the operations, but all continue to assert that their old 
pain is not relieved." 

Champney8 : 

"Now, another question arises. Here is the woman ; she 
has been operated upon ; when is she cured? You may say, 
'Of course, as soon as she gets up.' Oh no, not a bit of it 
Operators warn us that it is months and even years before 
patients are cured or the beneficial effects are seen. A 
woman comes to you with diseased appendages. You ope- 
rate ; she is not a bit better. You say, 'You won't be better 
yet; it may be months.' . . . My advice is, give her the 
months or years before the operation, rather than ask her 

to give them to you afterwards. Be patient with the oases 


before an operation and you will have less cause to ask them 
to be patient with you afterwards." 



"Supposing it has been decided to operate, how early 
should it be done? Lawson Tait says (vol. 1, p. 376) — 'As a 
rule the acute stage does not involve a heavy mortality. In 
fact the great majority of cases of chronic inflammation of 
the uterine appendages only have the illness which repre- 
sented the acute stage called to mind by questioning.' . . . 
The first claim for the operation was for cases which had 
defied long patient treatment, or which were threatening life ; 
but early operation has been more and more advised, and 
has been largely practiced on the ground that prevention is 
better than cure, and that diseased appendages, especially 
pyosalpinx, are a perpetual menace to life. Now, the mor- 
tality from diseased appendages is very small, and that of 
the operation very high. 

"Perimetritis is probably the very commonest of all the seri- 
ous diseases of women. What happens to these cases? 
They do not die. A large majority of them get quite well. 
How long should you wait? The time has been reduced 
and reduced until there is none of it left Well, now I tell 
you plainly that this is to operate unnecessarily on a large 
number of women who would get quite well without the 
operation. Tait says (p. 419) — 'Whilst I cannot say that I 
am free from a suspicion that hydrosalpinx is occasionally 
fatal, I cannot be very well brought to believe that its risks 
are great, and I do not think that we could imagine chronic 
ovaritis, with adhesions, having a fatal result.' What would 
be an example of justifiable operation? Ans. When a pa- 
tient has been ill since marriage or since her confinement — 
some years— with constant pains, emaciation, and recurrent 
attacks of inflammation, and has undergone prolonged med- 
ical treatment during a couple of years. If we are to act 
on the principle 'that prevention is better than cure/ we 

Isaac Lafayette watkins. 887 

would simply say that all women should be mutilated, lest 
by chance they should at some time become affected by 
gonorrhoea or by puerperal diseases. 

"It is an omen of promise for the future," as some one 
has wisely said, "that to-day on every hand surgeons are 
bringing together their ripened experiences so that out of 
their aggregation more satisfactory conclusions may be 
reached as to the real benefits which the surgery of these 
days has to promise to those suffering from pelvic dis- 

Da Bussel MoWhobteb Cunkinghajl 

The doctor has given us a most excellent paper. There 
is no department of the medical profession in a more flour- 
ishing condition than that of gynaecology. No specialist 
deserves more credit He has a work distinctively his own. 
In no department of the profession do skilled work and 
favorable environment as to hospital, nurses, etc, etc., play 
a greater part in getting good results. Therefore, the gynic 
specialist has a field clearly his own. Still, the general 
practitioner has an important relation to the diseases of 
women. In the first place a specialist is not always avail- 
able ; when not the educated general practitioner should not 
hesitate to do the gravest operations to save life. No brave 
man would allow a woman to bleed to death from the rup- 
tured sac of an ectopic gestation ; or from a septic perito- 
nitis, or an ovarian tumor, or gradually bleed to death from 
fibroids without opening the abdomen and meeting the indi- 
cations as best he can. 

The one thing to which I desire to specially call attention 
is the use of the sharp currette, by the general practitioner, 
in the manner spoken of in the paper or as it is commonly 
called Polk's operation. The use of this instrument is con- 
demned altogether by some ; in the hands of the general 
practitioners by all specialists, particularly Thomas and 


Emmet, the most widely read authors in this country. The 
many indications for the use of this instrument; the prompt 
and effectual relief it often gives, and its comparative safety 
in the hands of a man who has the practical knowledge to 
do aseptic surgery and ordinary skill in the use of instru- 
ments, should, in my judgment, authorize its use by the 
general practitioners. Late pathology of female diseases 
has in the main revolutionized our ideas of treatment Now 
it is the periuterine structures and not the uterus and its mu- 
cosa that oftenest cause symptoms referable to the genital 
systems. Notwithstanding, however, the uterine mucosa, in 
the vast majority of cases, is the fans et origo mcli of these 
periuterine conditions — as the primary field of microbic in- 
vasion or as the starting point of inflammation. It is hard 
to conceive of a healthful state of the uterus and its mucosa 
and diseased appendages in the same patient — at least in 
most cases — hence the necessity, in most cases, of treatment 
referable to the uterus and the uterine cavity. The currette 
meets most of these indications; it removes structures 
foreign to the cavity — whether the remains of physiological 
structures that have become pathological, or structures the 
result of pathological processes; it removes the diseased 
tissue ; it depletes the vessels. Add to it gauze packings 
and drainage and the uterus is stimulated into activity — 
inflammatory products are absorbed, a healthful circulation 
is established — periuterine inflammation prevented, and, 
when present, almost always symptomatically relieved and 
sometimes even cured. 

For beginners, I recommend the Honk's currette — Sims 9 
is a dangerous instrument 

The next Annual Meeting of the Medical Association of 
the State of Alabama, will be held in the city of Birmingham 
on the third Tuesday in April, 1894, at 12 o'clock noon, con- 
tinuing four days. 

Each county is entitled to send two delegates. The as- 
sessment upon the County Societies is one dollar for each 
member, exclusive of Counsellors and Delegates, the former 
of whom pay a fee of ten dollabs and the latter five dol- 
labs. Further particulars will be found in the Annual Cir- 
cular Letter of the Secretary, to be issued March 1st, 1894. 





Grand Senior Life Counsellors 7 

Grand Senior Counsellors 7 

Senior Counsellors ; Junior Counsellors 8 

Delegates 8 

Health Officers ; visitors 10 

Address of Welcome on behalf of the Mayor and citizens 

—Hon. H. H. Stewart 11 

Address of Welcome on behalf of the Medical and Surgi- 
cal Society of Dallas County— Dr. Samuel G. Gay. . . 14 
The Annual Message of the President — Dr. J. T. Searcy. . 16-85 

Fundamental Laws of Human Progress, etc 16 

Importance of the Association 17 

Importance of Ethics 21 

Some of the Duties of Counsellors. 23 

Influence of the Association upon County Societies. . 24 

Duties of the Association to the State 24 

Consequent Necessity for an Elevated Standard of 

Medical Education 25 

Quarantine 28 

The Internal Management of the Association — The 

Vice-Presidents and Senior Censor 20 

Appointments Made During the Year 80 

Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer 80 

In Memoriam — Smith 81 

In Memoriam — Bryce 81 

Report of the Senior Vice-President— Huggins 86-61 

Junior Vice-President— Toole 52-67 

Report of the Secretary 68 

Publishing Committee 71 

Treasurer 74 

Evening Session 81 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND DAY ; Regular Reports ... 82 

Evening Session 88 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD DAY ; Omnibus Discussion . . 84 

Evening Session 85 

392 INDEX 


ness ; Vote of Thanks 86 

Twentieth Annual Report of the Board of Cenbobs. . .88-161 

Past I— Work of the Association 88 

President's Message 89 

First Recommendation 90 

Second " 90 

Third " 91 

Fourth " 92 

Fifth " 98 

Reports of the Vice-Presidents 98 

Report of the Secretary and Book of the Rolls 94 

Schedule 94 

Report of Publishing Committee 95 

Report of the Treasurer and Book of Accounts 95 

Roll of Correspondents 95 

Revision of Minutes of 1892 96 

Amendments to Constitution 96 

Delinquent County Societies 96 

Recent Medical Legislation 99 

The Historian 100 

The Case of Dr. W. C. Wheeler 101 

Banquets and Receptions 102 

Work of the County Societies 102 

Book of Rules Account 108 

Past II— Report of the State Board of Medical Examiners; 

Work of the State Board 103 

Dollar Dues for Examination Papers 104 

Important Suggestions for Medical Examini ng Boards 104 

New Rules for the Examining Boards 106 

Illegal Practitioners 107 

Beneficiary Scholarships 108 

Remarks by Members of State Board Ill 

Work of County Boards 112-125 

Pabt III— Report of the State Board of Health ; Work of the 

State Board 126 

Financial Statement 127 

Inspection of Jails and Poor Houses 129 

Conference of State Boards of Health 180 

Work of County Boards of Health 180-186 

Part IV— Supplementary Papers ; The Cholera Conference 187 

Invasion of Cholera 150 

State and National Health Jurisdiction 151 

The New Quarantine Law 152 

Action of the Association on Report of the Board of 

Censors 169 

INDEX. 393 

Revision of the Book of the Rolls ; Societies not de- 
linquent ; Societies partially delinquent 162 

Delinquent Societies ; Revision of the Roll of College 

of Counsellors ; Counsellors clear of the Books ... 183 
Counsellors Delinquent ; Miscellaneous Counsellors ; 

Grand Senior Counsellors of ten years standing. . 165 
Senior Counsellors of five years standing; Junior 
Counsellors of five years standing ; Counsellors- 
elect 166 

Election of Counsellors; Revision of Roll of Corre- 
spondents 167 

Revision of Roll of Officers 168 

President's Acceptance of Office 169 

Roll of the County Medical Societies 173-248 

College of Counsellors 249 

College of Counsellors by Congressional 

Districts 252 

Correspondents; Roll of Officers; Board 

of Censors 256 

Schedule of the Regular Reporters 257 

Annual Sessions 258 

Annual Orators 259 

Obituary Record 260 


Annual Oration — Andrews 265-278 

Monitor's Address— Sanders 279-289 

Progress in Medicine— Ayers 290-302 

Bodily Disease as a Cause of Insanity — Bondurant. .303-314 

The Negro as a Convict — Cunningham 315-326 

Progress in Surgery— Hill 327-339 

Discussion — Cunningham 340 

Discussion Closed— Hill 341 

Continued Fevers in Birmingham— Parke 342-349 

Discussion— Cunningham 349 

Abernethy 351 

Tuberculosis in the Negro— Pritchett 352 

Discussion- Sholl 369 

Gyneecology in Alabama — Watkins 871-887 

Discussion — Carson 882 

Cunningham 387 



T r